Read by QxMD icon Read

Antiepileptic drugs

Marília Silveira de Almeida Campos, Lorena Rocha Ayres, Manuela Roque Siane Morelo, Fabiana Angelo Marques, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Several newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been introduced into clinical practice, offering choices for individualizing the treatment of epilepsy since AEDs have different efficacy and tolerability profiles. In particular, questions exist regarding which AEDs are the best options for the monotherapy of focal epilepsy. Is carbamazepine (CBZ), which is considered the standard treatment for focal epilepsy, still the best option for monotherapy of focal epilepsy, despite the emergence of new AEDs? In this systematic review, we compared the relative tolerability of all available AEDs for monotherapy of all types of epilepsy as well as their efficacy in the monotherapy of focal epilepsy...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Qingping Zhang, Jiarui Li, Ying Zhao, Xinhua Bao, Liping Wei, Jiaping Wang
To investigate the genetic characteristics and clinical features of a cohort of Chinese patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs). Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS), focusing on 17 genes, was performed on 175 Chinese patients with EOEEs to screen gene mutations. The mutation rate was 32% (56/175). All mutations were de novo and heterozygous, including 41 novel and 15 reported mutations. Patients with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene mutation accounted for the largest proportion-13...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Thomas G Burns, Natasha N Ludwig, Tiffany N Tajiri, Nick DeFilippis
The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance and behavioral symptoms in a sample of children diagnosed with partial epilepsy who were seizure controlled on AED monotherapy for one year. Ninety-eight seizure-controlled children on AED monotherapy were included in this study. Specific AEDs examined included topiramate, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. Groups did not differ on age, region of focal epilepsy, or Full-Scale IQ. Direct measures included the WISC-IV and selected tests from the DKEFS (Verbal Fluency and Trail Making Test)...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
P Roldan-Ramos, L A Reyes-Figueroa, J Rumia, E Martinez-Lizana, A Donaire, M Carreno-Martinez
AIM: To describe clinical results and complications derived from vagal nerve stimulation therapy in drug resistant epileptic patients unsuitable for other surgical treatments, since the first implant in an epilepsy national referral centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the patients implanted in our centre was held. Data related to baseline characteristics of their epilepsy and therapy complications was collected. RESULTS: 32 new implants in 31 patients are included, mean age of 34 years, 29...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Massimo Cossu, Veronica Pelliccia, Francesca Gozzo, Giuseppe Casaceli, Stefano Francione, Lino Nobili, Roberto Mai, Laura Castana, Ivana Sartori, Francesco Cardinale, Giorgio Lo Russo, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: The role of resective surgery in the treatment of polymicrogyria (PMG)-related focal epilepsy is uncertain. Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the seizure outcome in a consecutive series of patients with PMG-related epilepsy who received, or did not receive, surgical treatment, and to outline the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent surgery. METHODS: We evaluated 64 patients with epilepsy associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented PMG...
October 25, 2016: Epilepsia
Lia de Leon Ernst, Cynthia L Harden, Page B Pennell, Nichelle Llewellyn, Connie Lau, Sarah Barnard, Eyal Bartfeld, Jacqueline A French
OBJECTIVE: This study examines medication adherence among women with epilepsy via use of an electronic diary, as part of a prospective multicenter observational study designed to evaluate fertility in women with epilepsy (WWE) versus age-matched controls. METHODS: WWE and healthy age-matched controls, seeking pregnancy, were given an iPod Touch using a customized mobile application (the WEPOD App) for daily data tracking. Eighty-six WWE tracked seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
October 25, 2016: Epilepsia
Piotr Tutka, Maria W Kondrat-Wróbel, Katarzyna Zaluska, Dorota Żółkowska, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
BACKGROUND: Cytisine (CYT) is a partial agonist of brain α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors widely used in Central/Eastern Europe for smoking cessation. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of CYT on the ability of classical and novel antiepileptic drugs to prevent seizures evoked by the 6-Hz test, a model of psychomotor seizures in mice thought as a model of drug-resistant seizures. RESULTS: CYT administered intraperitoneally (i...
October 25, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jeremy Jost, Adeline Raharivelo, Voa Ratsimbazafy, Mandy Nizard, Emilie Auditeau, Charles R Newton, Pierre-Marie Preux
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy is high in Madagascar (23.5/1000), as is the treatment gap (estimated at 92 %). The health system of the country is underfunded; some AEDs are used, and the national drug policy does not encourage price regulation or the administration of generic agents. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the availability and cost of solid oral AED formulations in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. Data were gathered from all officially registered pharmacies (according to the drug agency list, updated in 2015) by means of telephone interviews lasting no more than 10 min and conducted by a native Malagasy speaker...
2016: SpringerPlus
David G Vossler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Neurology
Dennis T Lockney, Sasha Vaziri, Frank Walch, Paul Kubilis, Dan Neal, Gregory J A Murad, Maryam Rahman
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients undergoing brain tumor surgery is common practice despite lack of clear evidence. We hypothesized that prophylactic AED (pAED) use did not affect seizure rates in brain tumor patients who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 606 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumors from 2006-2013 at the University of Florida, excluding patients with pre-existing seizure condition prior to tumor diagnosis...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Marco Skardelly, Christian Rother, Susan Noell, Felix Behling, Thomas V Wuttke, Jens Schittenhelm, Sotirios Bisdas, Christoph Meisner, Sabine Rona, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Florian Roser, Marcos Soares Tatagiba
OBJECTIVE: Well-defined risk factors for the identification of meningioma patients who might benefit from preoperative or early postoperative seizure prophylaxis are unknown. We investigated and quantified risk factors to determine individual risks of seizure occurrence in meningioma patients. METHODS: A total of 634 adult meningioma patients were included in this retrospective cohort study. Patient gender and age, tumor location, grade and volume, usage of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and extent of resection were determined...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
S K Bedada, R Appani, P K Boga
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a widely used antiepileptic drug with narrow therapeutic window and it may be prone to drug interactions. The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of PIP on metabolism and pharmacokinetics of CBZ in healthy volunteers. An open-label, 2 period, sequential study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers. PIP 20 mg was administered once daily for 10 days during treatment phase. A single dose of CBZ 200 mg was administered during control and after treatment phases under fasting conditions...
October 24, 2016: Drug Research
Violina Angelova, Valentin Karabeliov, Pavlina A Andreeva-Gateva, Jana Tchekalarova
Preclinical Research Epilepsy is a chronic devastating neurological disorder characterized by synchronous interictal discharges. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can alleviate spontaneous seizure activity without preventing the progression and development of epileptogenesis. Current design and development of new AEDs and strategies for the prevention of epilepsy is focused mainly on attenuating uncontrolled seizures, severe side effects and toxicity in chronic drug therapy. It has thus become necessary to discover new chemical pharmacophores with a broad spectrum of activity and less neurotoxicity...
October 24, 2016: Drug Development Research
Jun Takei, Ran Takei, Satoshi Nozuma, Keiichi Nakahara, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroshi Takashima
A 40-year-old man presented with a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after febrile illness. He developed status epilepticus and required mechanical ventilation with anesthetics. Steroid pulse, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunoadsorption therapy were administrated, and the status epilepticus improved; however, drug-resistant seizures remained. Despite the use of several antiepileptic drugs, seizures frequently occurred. Additional administration of potassium bromide resulted in significant suppression of seizures...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Stephanie Fehr, Kingsley Wong, Richard Chin, Simon Williams, Nick de Klerk, David Forbes, Rahul Krishnaraj, John Christodoulou, Jenny Downs, Helen Leonard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate seizure outcomes and their relationships to genotype and functional abilities in individuals with the cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5 (CDKL5) disorder. METHODS: Using the International CDKL5 Disorder Database, we identified 172 cases with a pathogenic CDKL5 mutation. We categorized individual mutations into 4 groups based on predicted structural and functional consequences. Negative binomial regression was used to model the linear association between current seizure rate and mutation group, current level of assistance required to walk 10 steps, and the highest level of expressive communication used to convey refusal or request...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Dominik Madžar, Anna Geyer, Ruben U Knappe, Stephanie Gollwitzer, Joji B Kuramatsu, Stefan T Gerner, Hajo M Hamer, Hagen B Huttner
BACKGROUND: Clobazam (CLB) is a well characterized antiepileptic drug (AED) that differs from other benzodiazepines by its basic chemical structure and pharmacodynamic properties. Only one previous study examined the efficacy of CLB as add-on therapy in refractory status epilepticus (RSE). METHODS: We analyzed RSE episodes treated in our institution between 2001 and 2012. Successful treatment with CLB was scored if CLB was the last AED added to therapy before RSE termination...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI) studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mariana Matias, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a traditional Chinese herb used for centuries in folk medicine. Due to the claimed anticonvulsant properties of G. elata, it is expected that this herb continues to be a target of research, aiming to deepen the available knowledge on its biological activity and safety. PURPOSE: The current review aims to discuss the most recent advances on the elucidation of the phytochemical composition and anticonvulsant potential of G...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"