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Antiepileptic drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101765/tolerability-and-safety-of-commonly-used-antiepileptic-drugs-in-adolescents-and-adults-a-clinician-s-overview
#1
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie
This paper discusses the issues surrounding the tolerability and safety of the commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adolescents and adults. The content includes dose-related adverse effects, idiosyncratic reactions, behavioural and psychiatric comorbidities, chronic problems, enzyme induction and teratogenesis. Twenty-one AEDs are discussed in chronological order of their introduction into the UK, starting with phenobarbital and ending with brivaracetam. Wherever possible, advice is given on anticipating, recognising and managing these issues and thereby improving the lives of people with epilepsy, most of whom will need to take one or more of these agents for life...
January 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101651/eslicarbazepine-acetate-its-effectiveness-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-clinical-trials-and-open-studies
#2
REVIEW
S D Shorvon, E Trinka, B J Steinhoff, M Holtkamp, V Villanueva, J Peltola, E Ben-Menachem
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily antiepileptic drug that is approved as adjunctive therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. Following oral administration, ESL is rapidly metabolized to its active metabolite, eslicarbazepine, which acts primarily by enhancing slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. The efficacy and safety/tolerability of ESL in the adjunctive setting were established in a comprehensive Phase III program (n = 1702 randomized patients) and this evidence has been supported by several open studies (n = 864)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101480/spectrum-of-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-to-levetiracetam-and-human-leukocyte-antigen-typing-in-north-indian-patients
#3
Bhargavi Ramanujam, Kavish Ihtisham, Gurvinder Kaur, Shivani Srivastava, Narinder Kumar Mehra, Neena Khanna, Mahip Singh, Manjari Tripathi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aromatic antiepileptic drugs are frequently implicated for cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs); there are case-reports of even severe reactions like drug reaction eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS)-toxic epidermal necrolysis with Levetiracetam (LEV). Certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-alleles have strong association with cADRs due to specific drugs - HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 in Carbamazepine (CBZ)-related SJS in Han-Chinese and European populations, respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101479/excessive-daytime-sleepiness-and-sleep-disorders-in-a-population-of-patients-with-epilepsy-a-case-control-study
#4
Matilde Gammino, Leila Zummo, Anna Lo Bue, Lidia Urso, Valeria Terruso, Oreste Marrone, Brigida Fierro, Ornella Daniele
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are several primary causes for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy. Up to now, studies in the literature report conflicting data in terms of both prevalence and aetiology. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of EDS and some sleep disorders in a population of patients with epilepsy treated with no more than two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We also investigated the role of the depression of mood as a variable that can negatively affect EDS...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100327/-intermittent-convulsions-for-1-5-years-and-psychomotor-retardation-in-a-girl
#5
Li Yang, Yu-Fen Li, Li-Yun Xu, Na Xu, Yu-Zeng Han, Jun-Lin Wang, Ji-Guo Song, Ying Hua, Li-Ping Zhu
The study reports a girl with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. The girl was admitted at the age of 2 years because of intermittent convulsions for 1.5 years and psychomotor retardation. She had a history of "hypoxia" in the neonatal period. At the age of 5 months recurrent epileptic seizures occurred. The child was resistant to antiepileptic drugs, and had many more seizures when she got cold or fever. She also had a lot of convulsive status epilepticus. No discharges were found during several video-EEG monitorings...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098941/posterior-cortex-epilepsy-surgery-in-childhood-and-adolescence-predictors-of-long-term-seizure-outcome
#6
Georgia Ramantani, Angeliki Stathi, Armin Brandt, Karl Strobl, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Gert Wiegand, Rudolf Korinthenberg, Vera van Velthoven, Josef Zentner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Thomas Bast
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the long-term seizure outcome of children and adolescents who were undergoing epilepsy surgery in the parietooccipital cortex and determine their predictive factors. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 50 consecutive patients aged 11.1 (mean) ± 5.1 (standard deviation) years at surgery. All patients but one had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible lesion. Resections were parietal in 40%, occipital in 32%, and parietooccipital in 28% cases; 24% patients additionally underwent a resection of the posterior border of the temporal lobe...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098939/a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-treatments-for-patients-with-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Ben F M Wijnen, Ghislaine A P G van Mastrigt, Silvia M A A Evers, Olga Gershuni, Danielle A J E Lambrechts, Marian H J M Majoie, Debby Postulart, Bert A P Aldenkamp, Reina J A de Kinderen
The increasing number of treatment options and the high costs associated with epilepsy have fostered the development of economic evaluations in epilepsy. It is important to examine the availability and quality of these economic evaluations and to identify potential research gaps. As well as looking at both pharmacologic (antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) and nonpharmacologic (e.g., epilepsy surgery, ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation) therapies, this review examines the methodologic quality of the full economic evaluations included...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097810/physicochemical-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-cinnamamide-derivative-r-s-2e-1-3-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one-km-608-for-nervous-system-disorders
#8
Agnieszka Gunia-Krzyżak, Ewa Żesławska, Florence Bareyre, Wojciech Nitek, Anna M Waszkielewicz, Henryk Marona
A cinnamamide scaffold has been successfully incorporated in several compounds possessing desirable pharmacological activities in central and peripheral nervous system such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, and sedative/hypnotic properties. R,S-(2E)-1-(3-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (KM-608), a cinnamamide derivative, was synthesized, its chemical structure was confirmed by means of spectroscopy and crystallography, additionally thermal analysis showed that it exists in one crystalline form...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095713/disseminated-eruptive-granuloma-annulare-induced-by-levetiracetam
#9
Betul Sereflican, Tekden Karapinar, Selma Erdogan Duzcu, Şule Aydin Turkoglu
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, granulomatous cutaneous disease without clear etiology. Disseminated and drug induced granuloma annulare is a rare presentation. We present a 47-year-old woman with diffuse circular erythematous eruptions following treatment with levetiracetam. Her clinical and histopathological findings were compatible with the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of this skin disease as a result of levetiracetam use. We report this case to highlight this antiepileptic drug as a possible etiologic agent in disseminated granuloma annulare...
January 17, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092838/development-and-validation-of-the-stigma-scale-for-epilepsy-in-turkey
#10
Sevim Baybaş, Zerrin Yıldırım, Harika Ertem Özhan, Ayten Dirican, Ahmet Dirican
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a chronic disease with an increased risk of stigma. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a scale developed by the authors to determine the level of stigma in Turkish patients with epilepsy and their relatives. METHODS: In this pilot study, two scales were developed, one consisting of 32 questions for the patients and one of 20 questions for the patients' relatives. Initially, a total of 30 patients with epilepsy and 30 relatives of the patients were included...
January 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092111/design-and-synthesis-of-5-substituted-benzo-d-1-3-dioxole-derivatives-as-potent-anticonvulsant-agents
#11
Shiyang Dong, Tiantian Wang, Chundi Hu, Xiaodong Chen, Yi Jin, Zengtao Wang
A series of 5-substituted benzo[d][1,3]dioxole derivatives was designed, synthesized, and tested for anticonvulsant activity using the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) screens. Neurotoxicity was determined by rotarod test. In the preliminary screening, six compounds, 3a, 3c, 3d, and 4d-f, showed promising anticonvulsant activities in the MES model, and compounds 4c and 4d exhibited full protection against seizures at doses of 300 mg/kg in the scPTZ model. Among the synthesized compounds, 3c as the most active compound showed high protection against the MES-induced seizures with an ED50 value of 9...
January 16, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088682/female-sexual-function-mediates-the-effects-of-medication-adherence-on-quality-of-life-in-people-with-epilepsy
#12
Chung-Ying Lin, Andrea Burri, Bengt Fridlund, Amir H Pakpour
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand the mediating effects of female sexual functioning in the association between medication adherence and quality of life (QoL) in Iranian women with epilepsy (WWE). METHODS: Women's sexual functioning was measured using Female Sexual Function Index; QoL using Quality of Life in Epilepsy; epilepsy severity using Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale; subjective medication adherence using Medication Adherence Report Scale; and objective medication adherence using serum level for antiepileptic drugs in 567 WWE...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088050/pharmacists-knowledge-of-issues-in-pharmacotherapy-of-epilepsy-using-antiepileptic-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study-in-palestinian-pharmacy-practice
#13
Ramzi Shawahna, Ahlam Atrash, Aman Jebril, Areen Khalaf, Eman Shaheen, Hala Tahboosh
OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainstay in controlling epileptic seizures. As experts in medications, pharmacists should be able to ensure accuracy of dosing regimens, explain adverse effects, and screen for and alert people with epilepsy (PWE) and their physicians to possible drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of issues in pharmacotherapy of epilepsy using AEDs. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Palestinian pharmacy practice...
January 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087260/seizure-recurrence-in-children-after-stopping-antiepileptic-medication-5-year-follow-up
#14
Inn-Chi Lee, Shuan-Yow Li, Yung-Jung Chen
BACKGROUND: We wanted to identify in children with epilepsy the factors associated with seizure control and recurrence after a 2-year remission. METHODS: We did a 5-year follow-up of epileptic children whose antiepileptic medication had been stopped. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare features of electroencephalograms (EEGs) and clinical findings. In this study, 43 patients with and 64 without a seizure recurrence (SR) were enrolled. RESULTS: Clinical features strongly associated with SR in the univariate analysis included a symptomatic etiology for seizures, a history of status epilepticus, treatment duration before stopping antiepileptic drugs, and abnormal EEG findings at the time of stopping antiepileptic drugs...
December 18, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078241/the-effect-of-zataria-multiflora-boiss-hydroalcoholic-extract-and-fractions-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-kindling-in-mice
#15
Ali Shamsizadeh, Farangis Fatehi, Fatemeh Arab Baniasad, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Ali Roohbakhsh
OBJECTIVE: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora) with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced chemical kindling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073923/what-to-do-when-patients-with-epilepsy-cannot-take-their-usual-oral-medications
#16
Anna M Bank, Jong Woo Lee, Patricia Krause, Aaron L Berkowitz
When people with epilepsy are hospitalised for medical or surgical conditions, they may be unable to take their home antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Such 'nil by mouth' people with epilepsy require alternative AED regimens to prevent breakthrough seizures. Here, we describe several strategies for maintaining seizure control in patients with epilepsy who have medical or surgical contraindications to their home oral regimens. These strategies include using non-pill oral formulations, using an intravenous formulation of the patient's home AED(s), using a benzodiazepine bridge and/or using alternative intravenous AED(s) when there are no intravenous formulations...
January 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073790/clemizole-and-modulators-of-serotonin-signalling-suppress-seizures-in-dravet-syndrome
#17
Aliesha Griffin, Kyla R Hamling, Kelly Knupp, SoonGweon Hong, Luke P Lee, Scott C Baraban
Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic childhood epilepsy with early-onset seizures, delayed language and motor development, sleep disturbances, anxiety-like behaviour, severe cognitive deficit and an increased risk of fatality. It is primarily caused by de novo mutations of the SCN1A gene encoding a neuronal voltage-activated sodium channel. Zebrafish with a mutation in the SCN1A homologue recapitulate spontaneous seizure activity and mimic the convulsive behavioural movements observed in Dravet syndrome. Here, we show that phenotypic screening of drug libraries in zebrafish scn1 mutants rapidly and successfully identifies new therapeutics...
January 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073027/epileptic-features-and-survival-in-glioblastomas-presenting-with-seizures
#18
Manuel Toledo, Silvana Sarria-Estrada, Manuel Quintana, Xavier Maldonado, Francisco Martinez-Ricarte, Jordi Rodon, Cristina Auger, Miren Aizpurua, Javier Salas-Puig, Estevo Santamarina, Elena Martinez-Saez
INTRODUCTION: The prognostic value of seizures in patients with glioblastoma is currently under discussion. The objective of this research was to study the risk factors associated with seizures occurring at the diagnosis of glioblastoma and the role of seizures as a predictive factor for survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the clinical data over the course of the disease, baseline MR imaging, and histological characteristics (p53 overexpression, the Ki67 proliferation index, and presence of the IDH1 R132H mutation), in glioblastomas treated in a single hospital from November 2012 to July 2014...
December 26, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070260/relationship-between-bone-density-and-biochemical-markers-of-bone-among-two-groups-taking-carbamazepine-and-sodium-valproate-for-epilepsy-in-comparison-with-healthy-individuals-in-yazd
#19
Abolghasem Rahimdel, Ali Dehghan, Mahboubeh Abolhassani Moghadam, Ali Mellat Ardekani
INTRODUCTION: Chronic antiepileptic therapy has been associated with metabolic bone diseases including osteomalacia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of changes in biochemical and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults receiving valproaic acid (VPA) & carbamazepine (CBZ). METHODS: In a cross sectional study evaluating adults (age 20-50 y) epileptic patients receiving valproic acid or carbamazepine for at least 2 years. This study was conducted from May 2014 to May 2015 in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital of Yazd University of Medical Science, Yazd, Iran...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069620/prenatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs-and-use-of-primary-healthcare-during-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-denmark
#20
Anne Mette Würtz, Dorte Rytter, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Jakob Christensen, Mogens Vestergaard, Bodil Hammer Bech
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring such as congenital malformations and neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to AEDs is also associated with more frequent use of primary healthcare during childhood. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide national registers in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997-2012 identified in the Danish National Patient Register and followed until 31 December 2013 (n=963 010)...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
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