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Antiepileptic drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161629/the-effects-of-felbamate-on-appetitive-and-aversive-instrumental-learning-in-adult-rats
#1
John J Orczyk, Preston E Garraghty
Antiepileptic medications are the frontline treatment for seizure conditions but are not without cognitive side effects. Previously, our laboratory reported learning deficits in phenytoin-, carbamazepine-, and valproate-treated rats. In the present experiment, the effects of felbamate (FBM) have been compared to water-treated controls (controls) using the same instrumental training tasks employed here. Rats treated with FBM displayed a deficit in acquiring a tone-signaled avoidance response, relative to controls, but this was true only if they had no prior appetitive experience...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160945/lacosamide-pharmacokinetics-in-a-critically-ill-patient-receiving-continuous-venovenous-hemofiltration
#2
Miguel J Franquiz, Shamir N Kalaria, Michael J Armahizer, Mathangi Gopalakrishnan, Paul J McCarthy, Neeraj Badjatia
OBJECTIVE: Lacosamide is a new generation antiepileptic drug (AED) that is eliminated by both hepatic and renal mechanisms. Lacosamide elimination by Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) has never been studied. The objective of this case report was to describe lacosamide pharmacokinetics in the setting of CRRT. METHODS: Case report of a single patient admitted to the study center with status epilepticus and multi-organ failure. The patient required both continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and several AEDs...
November 21, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160210/exceptional-response-to-brivaracetam-in-a-patient-with-refractory-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-and-absence-seizures
#3
Alberto Grande-Martín, David Sopelana-Garay, José Manuel Pardal-Fernández, Rosa María Sánchez-Honrubia, Álvaro Abelardo Sánchez-Larsen
Brivaracetam is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for patients with focal-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. However, it has been suggested that it could provide broad-spectrum efficacy given its similarity to levetiracetam and based on the results from preclinical studies and others of patients with generalized epilepsy. We present the case of a woman with refractory idiopathic generalized epilepsy and absence seizures with dramatic response to brivaracetam. Our report supports a consideration of treatment with this new antiepileptic drug on a case-by-case basis in patients with refractory generalized epilepsy, while we await further studies on this topic...
November 21, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159426/an-initial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-imri-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#4
Matthew F Sacino, Sean S Huang, Robert F Keating, William D Gaillard, Chima O Oluigbo
PURPOSE: Previous studies have illustrated the clinical utility of the addition of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) to conventional microsurgical resection. While iMRI requires initial capital cost investment, long-term reduction in costly follow-up management and reoperation costs may prove economically efficacious. The objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the addition of iMRI utilization versus conventional microsurgical techniques in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) resection in pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy...
November 20, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153631/human-abuse-potential-of-brivaracetam-in-healthy-recreational-central-nervous-system-depressant-users
#5
Kerri A Schoedel, Armel Stockis, Edward M Sellers
BACKGROUND: Brivaracetam is a new antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive treatment of focal seizures in adults at a dose of 50-200mg/day taken in two equal doses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse potential of brivaracetam compared with alprazolam (positive control), placebo, and levetiracetam. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, crossover study in healthy male and female recreational central nervous system (CNS) depressant users aged 18-55years, who could distinguish between the subjective effects of alprazolam 2mg and placebo...
November 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#6
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149735/carbamazepine-lamotrigine-levetiracetam-and-valproic-acid-in-dried-blood-spots-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-development-and-validation
#7
Camilla Linder, Anna Hansson, Sara Sadek, Lars L Gustafsson, Anton Pohanka
Monitoring of antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy require multiple visits at a clinic for blood collection. Dried blood spot sampling is an alternative way of collection, performed at home by self-collection and can save time and costs for patients and family members. The aim was to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS dried blood spot method for carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam and valproic acid with the requirements of using standard equipment and material in a routine laboratory setting. Whatman-903 filter paper was utilized, and discs were punched into a 96 well plate with an automated puncher and barcode reading...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149144/the-efficacy-of-preoperative-gabapentin-in-spinal-surgery-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Chao Han, Ming-Jie Kuang, Jian-Xiong Ma, Xin-Long Ma
BACKGROUND: Pain management after spinal surgery has been studied for years. Gabapentin is a third-generation antiepileptic drug that selectively affects the nociceptive process and has been used for pain relief after surgery. However, the relationship between gabapentin and postoperative pain in spinal surgery is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the pre-emptive use of gabapentin in spinal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144993/evaluate-the-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-reproductive-endocrine-system-in-newly-diagnosed-female-epileptic-patients-receiving-either-valproate-or-lamotrigine-monotherapy-a-prospective-study
#9
Harpreet Singh Sidhu, R Srinivasa, Akshay Sadhotra
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the development of reproductive endocrine changes in Indian women with epilepsy initiating on either Valproate (VPA) or Lamotrigine (LTG) monotherapy. METHODS: Reproductive hormonal profiles, hirsutism, ovarian morphology by ultrasonography and menstrual cycle data in newly diagnosed women with epilepsy taking VPA (n=34) or LTG (n=32) monotherapy were compared. None of the women were receiving hormonal contraception. Patients gave details of seizure type and frequency, medical and drug history...
October 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143960/predicting-frequent-emergency-department-use-among-children-with-epilepsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-data-from-2-centers
#10
Zachary M Grinspan, Anup D Patel, Baria Hafeez, Erika L Abramson, Lisa M Kern
OBJECTIVE: Among children with epilepsy, to develop and evaluate a model to predict emergency department (ED) use, an indicator of poor disease control and/or poor access to care. METHODS: We used electronic health record data from 2013 to predict ED use in 2014 at 2 centers, benchmarking predictive performance against machine learning algorithms. We evaluated algorithms by calculating the expected yearly ED visits among the 5% highest risk individuals. We estimated the breakeven cost per patient per year for an intervention that reduced ED visits by 10%...
November 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142562/drug-poisoning-and-associated-factors-in-western-saudi-arabia-a-five-year-retrospective-chart-review-2011-2016
#11
Sami H Alzahrani, Ali H Alqahtani, Fayssal Mostafa Farahat, Mohammed Abdel Galil Elnour, Jamil Bashawri
Objective: Drug poisoning is a globally common cause of emergency-room admissions. This study explores drug-poisoning prevalence patterns, associated risk factors (gender, age and exposure circumstances), and outcomes in western Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of Clinical drug poisoning cases (2011-2016). The data were retrieved from the Saudi Ministry of Health's record and Patients' medical charts were analyzed. Results: The Ministry of Health received 1,474 reports of drug poisoning during 2011-2016...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#12
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141532/seizures-and-antiepileptic-drugs-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#13
Nihan CarCaka, Cigdem Ozkara
Recurrent, spontaneous seizure activity caused by abnormal neuronal firing in the brain is a hallmark of epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder. Recent research that has expanded the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that modulate neuronal excitability and network activity in the brain provides the development and discovery of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AED therapy starts with the selection of the most appropriate drug for individual patient on the basis of strategic decision of the risk-benefit ratio...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141310/-analysis-of-gene-mutation-of-early-onset-epileptic-spasm-with-unknown-reason
#14
X Yang, G Pan, W H Li, L M Zhang, B B Wu, H J Wang, P Zhang, S Z Zhou
Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140112/a-2017-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-focal-epilepsy-where-are-we-now-and-how-will-treatment-develop
#15
Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
Focal epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy with approximately 30 million patients affected worldwide. There is a major challenge to develop new antiepileptic treatments as currently approximately one third of patients remain uncontrolled under our best standards of care. Areas covered: An overview is given on first- and second generation antiepileptic drugs and their mechanisms of action, and on recent new strategies for antiepileptic targets, including drugs aiming at disease modification. Expert opinion: Newer antiepileptic drugs have enabled a better tolerated and individualized treatment for many patients...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138590/the-prevalence-of-probable-neuropathic-pain-in-the-us-results-from-a-multimodal-general-population-health-survey
#16
Marco D DiBonaventura, Alesia Sadosky, Kristen Concialdi, Markay Hopps, Ian Kudel, Bruce Parsons, Joseph C Cappelleri, Patrick Hlavacek, Andrea H Alexander, Brett R Stacey, John D Markman, John T Farrar
Background: The prevalence of neuropathic pain (NeP) has been estimated within specific health conditions; however, there are no published data on its broad prevalence in the US. The current exploratory study addresses this gap using the validated PainDetect questionnaire as a screener for probable NeP in a general-population health survey conducted with a multimodal recruitment strategy to maximize demographic representativeness. Materials and methods: Adult respondents were recruited from a combination of Internet panels, telephone lists, address lists, mall-based interviews, and store-receipt invitations using a random stratified-sampling framework, with strata defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137682/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#17
Lauren E Payne, David J Gagnon, Richard R Riker, David B Seder, Elizabeth K Glisic, Jane G Morris, Gilles L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cefepime is a widely used antibiotic with neurotoxicity attributed to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and exhibit concentration-dependent ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism. Neurotoxic symptoms include depressed consciousness, encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, seizures, and coma. Data suggest that up to 15% of ICU patients treated with cefepime may experience these adverse effects. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, excessive dosing, preexisting brain injury, and elevated serum cefepime concentrations...
November 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135908/evaluation-of-a-novel-immunoassay-for-lacosamide-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-comparison-with-a-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-assay
#18
Annachiara DʼUrso, Tiziano Ricotta, Ugo de Grazia
BACKGROUND: Monitoring serum levels of lacosamide, other than to establish individualized reference ranges may be helpful in several settings, including patients with liver and/or kidney failure or settings that may result in altered pharmacokinetic characteristics and to assess patients' compliance with therapy. In this study, the EurekaOne liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method (in use method) and the ARK immunoassay method (new method) for lacosamide monitoring were compared...
December 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130688/from-classification-to-regression-multitasking-qsar-modeling-using-a-novel-modular-neural-network-simultaneous-prediction-of-anticonvulsant-activity-and-neurotoxicity-of-succinimides
#19
Davor Antanasijević, Jelena Antanasijević, Nemanja Trišović, Gordana Ušćumlić, Viktor Pocajt
Succinimides, which contain a pharmacophore responsible for anticonvulsant activity, are frequently used antiepileptic drugs and the synthesis of their new derivatives with improved efficacy and tolerability presents an important task. Nowadays, multitarget/tasking methodologies focused on quantitative-structure activity relationships (mt-QSAR/mtk-QSAR) have an important role in the rational design of drugs since they enable simultaneous prediction of several standard measures of biological activities at diverse experimental conditions and against different biological targets...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128797/sotalol-enhances-the-anticonvulsant-action-of-valproate-and-diphenylhydantoin-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#20
Monika Banach, Monika Popławska, Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt
BACKGROUND: Sotalol as a drug blocking β-receptors and potassium KCNH2 channels may interact with different substances that affect seizures. Herein, we present interactions between sotalol and four conventional antiepileptic drugs: carbamazepine, valproate, phenytoin and phenobarbital. METHODS: Effects of sotalol and antiepileptics alone on seizures were determined in the electroconvulsive threshold test, while interactions between sotalol and antiepileptic drugs were estimated in the maximal electroshock test in mice...
May 11, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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