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Drug and alcohol dependence

Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Xi Wu, Xue Xue, Lihui Wang, Wenjing Wang, Jian Han, Xiaoxue Sun, Haotian Zhang, Yueyang Liu, Xiaohang Che, Jingyu Yang, Chunfu Wu
Autophagy, a cellular survival mechanism, is thought to allow the recycling of cellular breakdown products when cancer cells are subjected to chemotherapy, thus decreasing drug-induced apoptosis. Disulfiram (DSF), a drug widely used to control alcoholism, possesses anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. Our previous studies proved that DSF/Cu exerts increased anti-tumor effects on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft models, and inhibits NSCLC recurrence driven by ALDH-positive cancer stem cells...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Igam Bagra, Vijay Krishnan, Ravindra Rao, Alok Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Use of various psychoactive substances can influence outcomes of patients on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). While use of alcohol and cocaine has shown to adversely affect OAT results, associated cannabis use shows mixed results. This study aimed to assess the pattern of cannabis use among opioid-dependent patients maintained on buprenorphine. Additionally, the study compared the dose of buprenorphine, opioid-related craving and withdrawals, productivity, and also quality of life between those with and without recent (past 90-day) cannabis use...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Lone Baandrup, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Jesper Ø Rasmussen, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Birte Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological interventions can facilitate benzodiazepine tapering. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions to facilitate discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore
Persons with HIV who have entered care but have viral load > 1500 copies/mL may be the source of the majority of new HIV infections in the United States. We followed patients engaged in continuity care in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between January 2010 and August 2015. We estimated person-time spent with viral load > 1500 copies/mL while in care after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, while in care, and while alive. Person-time was classified according to the most recent viral load measurement...
March 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Wesley K Thompson, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
George Fein, Mathew Price, Valerie A Cardenas
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often a complicating comorbid factor in alcohol use disorders and substance use disorders. Previous work showed that abstinent alcoholics endorsed lifetime and current symptoms of most of the BPD criteria at much higher rates than controls, with much higher symptom counts for short-term abstinent alcoholic (STAA) women than men, which is consistent with such symptoms negatively affecting female alcoholics' ability to maintain abstinence. Because prior work has also shown that treatment-naïve alcoholics (TNA) are not the same as treated alcoholics observed earlier in their alcohol dependence, but rather are a different population with potentially lower psychiatric comorbidity, in this study we compared BPD symptom criteria between TNA samples of comparable age to the control and STAA samples, including both men and women and individuals dependent on alcohol only or with lifetime dependence on both alcohol and drugs...
October 31, 2017: Alcohol
André Q C Miguel, Clarice S Madruga, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Viviane Simões, Claudio J Da Silva, Renata R Abdalla, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M Roll, Jair J Mari, Ronaldo R Laranjeira
Crack cocaine (crack) dependence is a severe disorder associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, constituting a major public health problem in Brazil. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the profile of treatment-seeking crack-dependent individuals. We recruited 65 crack-dependent individuals from among those seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic for alcohol and drug treatment in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Assessments, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, focused on sociodemographic characteristics, the pattern/history of crack use, treatment history, concomitant substance use disorders, psychiatric symptomatology, and impulsivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Raul-Augustin Mitran, Cristian Matei, Daniela Berger, Laura Băjenaru, Mihaela G Moisescu
Mesoporous silica materials are promising nano-carriers for drug delivery systems. Even though there are many strategies for controlling the drug release kinetics, these must be adapted through trial and error on a case-by-case basis. Here we explore the possibility of tailoring the release kinetics of hydrophilic, water soluble therapeutic agents from mesoporous silica through addition of a hydrophobic excipient, 1-tetradecanol. In vitro drug release experiments performed at 37 °C, in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Michael Schloss, Daniel Becak, Sebastian T Tosto, Arash Velayati
BACKGROUND Levofloxacin covers a broad spectrum of pathogens and is readily prescribed by clinicians. Hepatotoxicity is a known but unusual complication of levofloxacin use. Here, we present a case of severe transaminitis caused by levofloxacin. CASE REPORT A young man in his thirties with a history of asthma, chronic alcoholism, methamphetamine intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), and non-compliant insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) presented to an emergency department with suicidal ideation. Vital signs were stable and the patient was noted to have cellulitis of the right forearm, for which cultures were drawn, and he received IV clindamycin...
March 10, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Michelle McKenzie, Alexandria Macmadu, Sarah Larney, Nickolas Zaller, Emily Dauria, Josiah Rich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Hui-Lin Chen, Chen-Chen Cai, Jun-Yuan Ma, Mei-Ling Yu, Mei-Hui Zhao, Jian-Bo Guo, Hui Xu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dispersion states of azone in gels on the transdermal permeation of levamisole hydrochloride (LH). LH hydro-alcoholic gels containing azone of different dispersion states were prepared by varying the contents of azone and Tween80, and the in vitro transdermal permeation of LH across excised rat skin was evaluated. Depending on the content of azone, mixed solvents and solubilizer used, azone presented as dissolved molecules, solubilized in micelles, and fine or coarse emulsion droplets in gels...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
David E Moorman
The hypocretin/orexin (ORX) system has been repeatedly demonstrated to regulate motivation for drugs of abuse, including alcohol. In particular, ORX seems to be critically involved in highly motivated behaviors, as is observed in high-seeking individuals in a population, in the seeking of highly palatable substances, and in models of dependence. It seems logical that this system could be considered as a potential target for treatment for addiction, particularly alcohol addiction, as ORX pharmacological manipulations significantly reduce drinking...
March 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Karolina de Oliveira Gonçalves, Leandro Ribeiro, Cecilia Maria Alves de Oliveira, Jesiel Freitas Carvalho, Felipe T Martins
Naltrexone [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS)-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-dihydroxy-2,4,5,6,7a,13-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7-one] is an important morphine-related drug used for combating alcoholism and opioid dependence. Of the eight crystal forms of naltrexone known thus far, only one exists in the neutral form and it crystallizes as a monohydrate. We have isolated the naltrexone free base as two new solvate forms, i.e. the ethyl acetate 0.33-solvate, C20 H23 NO4 ·0.33C4 H8 O2 , (I), and the diethyl ether hemisolvate, C20 H23 NO4 ·0...
March 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Elaine Setiawan, Sophia Attwells, Alan A Wilson, Romina Mizrahi, Pablo M Rusjan, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Sarita Sharma, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (VT ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Indu Yadav, Suraj K Nayak, V S Sharan Rathnam, Indranil Banerjee, Sirsendu S Ray, Arfat Anis, Kunal Pal
The current study deals with the preparation and the characterization of the PVA-CMT-GO films. The PVA-CMT film was translucent in nature and smooth to touch. The addition of GO resulted in the formation of agglomerated structures. XRD studies suggested that the incorporation of GO increased the average crystallite size. The mechanical properties of the films as determined by stress relaxation studies suggested that all the films were viscoelastic in nature. The drug release study showed a decrease in the amount of the drug release with the increase in the GO content...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Nuria García-Marchena, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, María Pedraz, Pedro Fernando Araos, Gabriel Rubio, Juan Jesús Ruiz, Francisco Javier Pavón, Antonia Serrano, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Luis J Santín, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Aims: Despite alcohol being the most often used addictive substance among addicted patients, use of other substances such as cocaine has increased over recent years, and the combination of both drugs aggravates health impairment and complicates clinical assessment. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize heterogeneous subgroups of cocaine- and alcohol-addicted patients with common characteristics based on substance use disorders, psychiatric comorbidity and impulsivity. Methods: A total of 214 subjects with cocaine and/or alcohol use disorders were recruited from outpatient treatment programs and clinically assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Qiaohong Yang, Don Operario, Nickolas Zaller, Wen Huang, Yanyan Dong, Hongbo Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Among the dramatic increased internal migration in China in past three decades, a considerable proportion of young females migrated to urban areas and found employment in "entertainment venues", who may be vulnerable to psychological distress. This study examines the prevalence of depression and explores its associations with health-risk behaviors and social capital among this subgroup. METHODS: 358 female migrants were recruited from entertainment venues in a rapidly growing urban city in China...
2018: PloS One
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