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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788931/the-prevalence-of-substance-use-among-russian-somali-and-kurdish-migrants-in-finland-a-population-based-study
#1
Essi Salama, Solja Niemelä, Jaana Suvisaari, Tiina Laatikainen, Päivikki Koponen, Anu E Castaneda
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a well-known public health problem, but population-based research on migrants' substance use in Europe is limited. Factors related to the cultural background and current life situation might influence substance use among migrants. Here, the prevalence of substance use in Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants in Finland is reported in comparison with the general population, and the associations between substance use and socio-economic and migration-related background factors among migrants are analysed...
May 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786898/adults-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder-and-opioid-use-disorder-the-effectiveness-of-modified-prolonged-exposure
#2
Kelly R Peck, Julie A Schumacher, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are a growing problem in the United States. When OUDs co-occur with problematic drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative drug-related mental and physical health outcomes may be exacerbated. Thus, it is important to establish whether PTSD treatments with established efficacy for dually diagnosed individuals also demonstrate efficacy in individuals who engage in problematic drinking and concurrent opioid misuse. Adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD and alcohol dependence were recruited from a substance use treatment facility and were randomly assigned to receive either modified prolonged exposure (mPE) therapy for PTSD or a non-trauma-focused comparison treatment...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779509/adolescent-confidentiality-and-women-s-health-history-rationale-and-current-threats
#3
REVIEW
Naomi A Schapiro, Jayme Mejia
Adolescent access to reproductive health services, mental health services, and treatment of drug and alcohol use depends on teens' rights to consent and confidentiality in the state in which they live. This article reviews the history, current practices, and potential challenges to confidentiality, including Title X funding, questions about brain development and ability to make autonomous choices, and meaningful use practices in electronic records. Resources are provided for professional position statements and individual state regulations...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#4
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#5
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#6
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768586/gender-stereotypes-in-psychosocial-care-for-female-crack-and-powder-cocaine-users
#7
Érika Barbosa de Oliveira Silva, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira, Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna
The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767522/traceless-release-of-alcohols-using-thiol-sensitive-oxanorbornadiene-linkers
#8
Allison G Aioub, Cody J Higginson, M G Finn
A class of ester-amide oxanorbornadiene (EA-OND) molecules was developed to release alcohol cargos by succinimide formation upon addition of a thiol reagent. The resulting ring-closed adducts undergo further fragmentation by retro-Diels-Alder reaction to release a furan moiety in a manner similar to oxanorbornadiene diesters. The rates of each of these fragmentation pathways in the same medium were found to be sensitive to the steric nature of the amide substituent. Alcohol release was much faster in protic solvents than in aprotic ones, suggesting that this system may be useful for rapid response to thiols in biological environments...
May 16, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761479/antidepressants-for-insomnia-in-adults
#9
REVIEW
Hazel Everitt, David S Baldwin, Beth Stuart, Gosia Lipinska, Andrew Mayers, Andrea L Malizia, Christopher Cf Manson, Sue Wilson
BACKGROUND: Insomnia disorder is a subjective condition of unsatisfactory sleep (e.g. sleep onset, maintenance, early waking, impairment of daytime functioning). Insomnia disorder impairs quality of life and is associated with an increased risk of physical and mental health problems including anxiety, depression, drug and alcohol abuse, and increased health service use. hypnotic medications (e.g. benzodiazepines and 'Z' drugs) are licensed for sleep promotion, but can induce tolerance and dependence, although many people remain on long-term treatment...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758539/bulk-and-dispersed-aqueous-behaviour-of-an-endogenous-lipid-selachyl-alcohol-effect-of-tween-80-and-pluronic-f127-on-nanostructure
#10
Mohammad Younus, Adrian Hawley, Ben J Boyd, Shakila B Rizwan
Tween 80 has been reported to provide a means of targeting drug nanocarriers to the blood- brain barrier. This study investigated the influence of addition of Tween 80 on the formation of different bulk and dispersed lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in selachyl alcohol-based systems. The effect of increasing concentrations of Tween 80 and Pluronic F127 (as a control) (0-25% w/w relative to SA) on the bulk phase behaviour and dispersions of selachyl alcohol (SA) were investigated using small angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy...
May 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753276/impaction-of-swallowed-dentures-in-the-sigmoid-colon-requiring-sigmoid-colectomy
#11
Michael Flanagan, Cillian Clancy, Micheal G O Riordain
INTRODUCTION: Foreign body (FB) ingestion results in perforation in 1% of cases and is associated with significant morbidity and rarely mortality. Clinical presentation is variable and can present a diagnostic challenge. We report our experience and management of a patient with a delayed presentation of a sigmoid colon foreign body as a result of ingestion of a dental plate. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 67 year old female attended the colorectal outpatient clinic following an incidental finding of a sigmoid mass on computed tomography (CT) abdomen...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749059/global-statistics-on-alcohol-tobacco-and-illicit-drug-use-2017-status-report
#12
REVIEW
Amy Peacock, Janni Leung, Sarah Larney, Samantha Colledge, Matthew Hickman, Jürgen Rehm, Gary A Giovino, Robert West, Wayne Hall, Paul Griffiths, Robert Ali, Linda Gowing, John Marsden, Alize J Ferrari, Jason Grebely, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
AIMS: This review provides an up-to-date curated source of information on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and their associated mortality and burden of disease. Limitations in the data are also discussed, including how these can be addressed in the future. METHODS: Online data sources were identified through expert review. Data were mainly obtained from the World Health Organization, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation...
May 10, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746920/animal-models-of-nafld-from-the-pathologist-s-point-of-view
#13
REVIEW
Helmut Denk, Peter M Abuja, Kurt Zatloukal
Fatty liver disease is a multifactorial world-wide health problem resulting from a complex interplay between liver, adipose tissue and intestine and initiated by alcohol abuse, overeating, various types of intoxication, adverse drug reactions and genetic or acquired metabolic defects. Depending on etiology fatty liver disease is commonly categorized as alcoholic or non-alcoholic. Both types may progress from simple steatosis to the necro-inflammatory lesion of alcoholic (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), respectively, and finally to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739281/the-association-between-adverse-child-health-psychological-educational-and-social-outcomes-and-nondependent-parental-substance-a-rapid-evidence-assessment
#14
Ruth McGovern, Eilish Gilvarry, Michelle Addison, Hayley Alderson, Emma Geijer-Simpson, Raghu Lingam, Debbie Smart, Eileen Kaner
BACKGROUND: Between 5% and 30% of children in high-income countries live with a substance misusing parent, the majority of which is below dependent levels. However, little is understood about the impact of nondependent parental substance misuse upon children. METHODS: We searched the international literature using rigorous systematic methods to identify studies examining parental substance misuse and adverse outcomes in children. The inclusion criteria were cross-sectional, longitudinal, case-control, and cohort studies; of children aged 0-18 years whose parents are high-risk substance misusers; reporting on their health, psychological, substance use, educational, and social outcomes...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738804/alcohol-aggravates-ketamine-induced-behavioral-morphological-and-neurochemical-alterations-in-adolescent-rats-the-involvement-of-creb-related-pathways
#15
Daiying Zuo, Yumiao Liu, Zi Liu, Jiahui Cui, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu
Currently, an increasing proportion of adolescent ketamine users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential behavioural and neurological alterations induced by such a drug combination and the underlying mechanisms have not been systematically examined. Therefore, in the present study, the behavioural and morphological changes and the underlying mechanisms were studied in adolescent rats after repeated alcohol and/or ketamine treatment. This study provided the first evidence that co-administration of alcohol (2 and 4 g/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733655/stepwise-aggregation-of-cholate-and-deoxycholate-dictates-the-formation-and-loss-of-surface-available-chirally-selective-binding-sites
#16
Adam R Meier, Jenna B Yehl, Kyle W Eckenroad, Gregory A Manley, Timothy G Strein, David Rovnyak
Bile salts are facially amphiphilic, naturally occurring chemicals that aggregate to perform numerous biochemical processes. Because of their unique intermolecular properties, bile salts have also been employed as functional materials in medicine and separation science (e.g. drug delivery, chiral solubilization, purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes). Bile micelle formation is structurally complex, and remains a topic of considerable study. Here, the exposed functionalities on the surface of cholate and deoxycholate micelles are shown to vary from one another and with micelle aggregation state...
May 7, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733373/substance-use-and-recidivism-outcomes-for-prison-based-drug-and-alcohol-interventions
#17
Dominique de Andrade, Jessica Ritchie, Michael Rowlands, Emily Mann, Leanne Hides
We conducted a systematic review to examine the substance use and recidivism outcomes of prison-based substance use interventions. We searched public health, criminology, and psychology databases, and conducted forward and backward snowballing methods to identify additional studies. Studies were included if they were published between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2017; were published in English; and reported substance use and/or recidivism outcomes of prison-based substance use interventions. Studies were reviewed for methodological rigor using the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies...
May 4, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723484/investigational-drugs-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-review-of-preclinical-data
#18
Sarah S Ch'ng, Andrew J Lawrence
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are one of the leading causes of preventable death in the developed world. In the U.S., only three FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for AUDs currently exist, but at a population level they display poor efficacy, low compliance rates, and adverse side effects. Therefore, identifying novel neurobiological targets for pharmacological treatment of AUDs is of urgent concern. Areas covered: We discuss recent preclinical data on investigational drugs that have been assessed for their therapeutic potential in AUDs...
May 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722318/-panax-ginseng-extract-attenuates-neuronal-injury-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-with-vascular-dementia-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#19
Jun-De Zhu, Jun-Jie Wang, Xian-Hu Zhang, Yan Yu, Zhao-Sheng Kang
Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722073/complications-related-to-chronic-supratherapeutic-use-of-codeine-containing-compound-analgesics-in-a-cohort-of-patients-presenting-for-codeine-withdrawal
#20
Victoria Cock, Carolyn Edmonds, Charles Cock
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study aimed to compare complications arising due to the supratherapeutic use of paracetamol/codeine or ibuprofen/codeine containing compound analgesics in primary codeine-dependent patients presenting to a drug and alcohol withdrawal service. Data was compared to determine if there was any difference in the number of complications observed between the two groups. DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective case review of patients presenting for primary codeine dependence from 2009 to 2014...
May 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
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