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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934736/reduced-drinking-in-alcohol-dependence-treatment-what-is-the-evidence
#1
Karl Mann, Henri-Jean Aubin, Katie Witkiewitz
Abstinence from alcohol has been the prevailing treatment goal for individuals with alcohol dependence (AD) within the context of specialty alcohol treatment. Yet, alcohol use has been conceptualized as existing on a continuum. Importantly, most people who meet criteria for AD and could benefit from treatment never receive treatment. About half of these individuals do not seek treatment because they report a desire to continue drinking. To increase acceptability of treatment, reductions in alcohol consumption have been examined as alternative outcomes in treatment trials for AD...
September 22, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934076/delayed-urinary-symptoms-induced-by-ketamine
#2
María Robles-Martínez, Alfonso C Abad, Violeta Pérez-Rodríguez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Abderraman Esojo, Carlos Roncero
One of the side-effects of ketamine abuse is genito-urinary damage. This report describes a case of a former ketamine user who presented with urinary symptoms associated with ketamine years after stopping consumption. This was a 26-year-old male with a history of ketamine abuse. He started treatment for alcohol dependence at age 19. He smoked marijuana daily and denied any other drug use. During the follow-up, urinary symptoms were evidenced (dysuria, frequency, urgency, incontinence, nocturia, hematuria, and suprapubic pain)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933709/evidence-for-misspecification-of-a-nationally-used-quality-measure-for-substance-use-treatment
#3
Soeren Mattke, Zachary Predmore, Elizabeth Sloss, Asa Wilks, Katherine E Watkins
OBJECTIVES: The National Committee for Quality Assurance's (NCQA) measure "Initiation and Engagement of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence Treatment" captures the proportion of substance use patients with (1) treatment initiation within 14 days and (2) treatment engagement within 30 days thereafter. The definition of treatment considers only counseling but not medication-assisted treatment (MAT), although MAT is supported by current guidelines. Our research question is whether this omission results in meaningful measurement error...
September 4, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#4
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925161/-protective-effects-of-liuwei-wuling-tablet-on-acute-alcoholic-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#5
Ping Yin, He-Rong Cui, Cong-En Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Ya-Kun Meng, Lan-Zhi He, Hui-Min Liu, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The protective action and the relevant mechanism of Liuwei Wuling tablet on acute alcoholic hepatic injury in mice were investigated. All the C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 7 groups including blank, model, bifendate (150 mg•kg⁻¹, positive control) and experimental groups consisted of extremely low dose (0.1 g•kg⁻¹), low (0.5 g•kg⁻¹), upper (4 g•kg⁻¹) and high dose (8 g•kg⁻¹) of Liuwei Wuling tablet groups. The acute liver injury model was induced by modified method that the model, positive control and experimental groups were orally administrated 56% alcohol (6 g•kg⁻¹) twice at 12 hour intervals on the fifth day after drugs administration...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915966/use-of-anthropogenic-nitrogen-fertilizers-in-agriculture-is-associated-with-per-capita-ethanol-consumption
#6
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
It has previously been demonstrated that emissions of the agricultural pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O), may be a confounder to the relationship between herbicide use and psychiatric impairments, including ADHD. This report attempts to extend this hypothesis by testing whether annual use of anthropogenic nitrogen-based fertilizers in U.S. agriculture (thought to be the most reliable indicator of environmental N2O emissions) is associated with per capita ethanol consumption patterns, a behavior often comorbid with ADHD...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904078/towards-a-systems-approach-to-human-cytochrome-p450-ensemble-interactions-between-cyp2d6-and-cyp2e1-and-their-functional-consequences
#7
Dmitri R Davydov, Nadezhda Y Davydova, John T Rodgers, Thomas H Rushmore, Jeffrey P Jones
Functional cross-talk among human drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 through their association is a topic of emerging importance. Here we studied the interactions of human CYP2D6, a major metabolizer of psychoactive drugs, with one of the most prevalent human P450 enzymes, ethanol-inducible CYP2E1. Detection of P450-P450 interactions was accomplished through luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between labeled proteins incorporated into human liver microsomes and the microsomes of insect cells containing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903508/effect-of-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-dasabuvir-and-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-regimens-on-survival-compared-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-persons-results-from-erchives
#8
Adeel Ajwad Butt, Peng Yan, Tracey G Simon, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra
Background: Interferon-based regimens are associated with a substantial survival benefit for persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Survival data with direct-acting antiviral agents are not available. We conducted this study to quantify the effect of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir (PrOD) and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) regimens upon mortality. Methods: In the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), a well-established national cohort of HCV-infected Veterans, we identified HCV-infected persons initiated on PrOD or LDV/SOF, excluding those with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, hepatocellular carcinoma, or missing HCV RNA or FIB-4 scores...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898302/-belief-system-regarding-cannabis-its-use-and-consequences-users-versus-non-users-in-colombian-university-students
#9
Gonzalo Galván, Álvaro Sánchez-Carballo, Ileana Gómez-Morales, Oscar Humánez-Julio, Manuel Guerrero-Martelo, Francisco Vásquez De la Hoz
Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893570/phytoestrogenic-effect-of-inula-racemosa-hook-f-a-cardioprotective-root-drug-in-traditional-medicine
#10
Mangathayaru Kalachaveedu, Divya Raghavan, Srivani Telapolu, Sarah Kuruvilla, Balakrishna Kedike
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Roots of Inula racemosa are used as a cardio protective in Ayurveda in India, being prescribed as a medicine for precordial chest pain, cough and dyspnoea, both singly and as a poly herbal. AIM: Evaluation of Phytoestrogenic activity of the root extracts of Inula racemosa and compounds isolated therefrom in vivo, in silico and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcohol (IrA) and hexane (IrH) extracts characterized by HPTLC/GC-MS analysis respectively and processed for compound isolation were evaluated for estrogenic activity (100 & 250mg/kg bw) by the Immature rat uterotrophic assay using ethinylestradiol (EE -30µg/kg bw) as standard drug...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890649/recent-alcohol-tobacco-and-substance-use-variations-between-rural-and-urban-middle-and-high-school-students
#11
Jacob C Warren, K Bryant Smalley, K Nikki Barefoot
The use of addictive substances by adolescents is a major public health concern; however, rural vs. urban variations are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in the prevalence of recent use of 11 substances in grades 6-12 in a statewide sample of students from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (n = 513,909). We found that rural-urban differences in substance use depend largely upon grade level, with rural middle school students demonstrating higher rates of alcohol, smoking tobacco, and chewing tobacco use, and urban high school students demonstrating higher rates of illicit drugs...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887129/disulfiram-is-a-slow-binding-partial-noncompetitive-inhibitor-of-20s-proteasome-activity
#12
Brian B Hasinoff, Daywin Patel
The alcohol abuse drug disulfiram has also been shown to exhibit potent cell growth inhibitory and anticancer activity. While a number of cellular and animal studies have suggested that disulfiram exhibits its anticancer activity through interaction with the proteasome, direct evidence for inhibition of proteasome activity is lacking. In this study we show that disulfiram potently inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified human 20S proteasome at low micromolar pharmacological concentrations. The enzyme progress curves displayed characteristics of a slow-binding reaction, similar to that observed for the FDA-approved proteasomal-targeted anticancer drugs bortezomib and carfilzomib...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882694/embryonic-alcohol-exposure-leading-to-social-avoidance-and-altered-anxiety-responses-in-adult-zebrafish
#13
Suelen Baggio, Ben Hur Mussulini, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Robert Gerlai, Eduardo Pacheco Rico
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a syndrome characterized by neurological and behavioral impairments. A recently discovered hallmark of FASD is impaired social behavior. Avoidance of social interaction typical of FASD may be the result of increased anxiety. Previously, the zebrafish was successfully used to model embryonic alcohol induced social abnormalities. Here, we analyzed both anxiety and social responses using a zebrafish FASD model, in adult fish. We exposed zebrafish embryos to low concentrations of ethanol (0...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882598/iris-cysts-a-comprehensive-review-on-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Ilias Georgalas, Petros Petrou, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios Brouzas, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Menelaos Kanakis
Iris cysts, both primary and secondary, are a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. Primary cysts arise either from the iris pigment epithelium or the iris stroma. Posterior pigment epithelial cysts are subdivided according to their location as central, midzonal and peripheral. Iris stromal cysts are classified either as congenital or acquired. Free floating cysts are usually dislodged pigment epithelial cysts. Secondary cysts are classified according to the underlying cause as implantation cysts, drug-induced, uveitic, tumor-induced, parasitic, or as cysts associated with systemic disorders...
September 4, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882399/risky-pleasures-and-drugged-assemblages-young-people-s-consumption-practices-of-aod-in-madrid
#15
Montserrat Cañedo, Enrique Moral
BACKGROUND: Drawing on a research project that we carried out on the functionality of "excessive" consumption practices in the lifestyles of young people in Madrid, this article aims to understand how (dis)pleasurable states emerge during young people's consumption of alcohol and other drugs. METHODS: This article claims that these states derive from "drugged assemblages," that is, a set of (human and non-human) actants that intra-act to produce different effects...
September 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879021/diamond-digital-alcohol-management-on-demand-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-rct-and-embedded-process-evaluation-of-a-digital-health-intervention-to-reduce-hazardous-and-harmful-alcohol-use
#16
Fiona L Hamilton, Jo Hornby, Jessica Sheringham, Stuart Linke, Charlotte Ashton, Kevin Moore, Fiona Stevenson, Elizabeth Murray
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a major risk factor for preventable illness, with huge cost to healthcare economies. There is a role for alcohol-specific digital health interventions (DHI), but there have been few randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing DHI with face-to-face treatment. Such trials are complex and face obstacles in recruitment and retention. METHODS: Mixed-methods feasibility RCT of an alcohol DHI, testing recruitment, online data-collection and randomisation processes, with an embedded process evaluation...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867415/gender-differences-in-mental-and-physical-health-conditions-in-u-s-veterans-results-from-the-national-health-and-resilience-in-veterans-study
#17
Hannah Ziobrowski, Carolyn E Sartor, Jack Tsai, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVES: To characterize gender differences in the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions and evaluate the moderating effect of assaultive trauma on risk for these conditions in a nationally representative sample of male and female U.S. veterans. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 3157 U.S. veterans from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses assessed gender differences in health outcomes and evaluated physical and sexual trauma as possible moderators of these outcomes...
October 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864983/epigenetic-influences-during-the-periconception-period-and-assisted-reproduction
#18
Akwasi A Amoako, Tamer M Nafee, Bolarinde Ola
The periconception period starts 6 months before conception and lasts until the tenth week of gestation. In this chapter, we will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA and gene expression within this period and during assisted reproduction. There are two critical times during the periconception window when significant epigenetic 'reprogramming' occur: one during gametogenesis and another during the pre-implantation embryonic stage. Furthermore, assisted conception treatments, laboratory protocols and culture media can affect the embryo development and birth weights in laboratory animals...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864917/formulation-physicochemical-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-human-insulin-loaded-microspheres-as-potential-oral-carrier
#19
Gauravkumar R Agrawal, Pravin Wakte, Santosh Shelke
The objective of the present investigation was to formulate and characterize the human insulin entrapped Eudragit S100 microspheres containing protease inhibitors and to develop an optimized formulation with desirable features. A w/o/w multiple emulsion solvent evaporation technique was employed to produce microspheres of human insulin using Eudragit S-100 as coating material and polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for drug-excipient compatibility, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, micromeritic properties, enteric nature, and in vitro drug release studies...
September 1, 2017: Progress in biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864261/the-efficacy-of-naltrexone-on-alcohol-preference-and-seeking-behaviour-is-dependent-on-light-cycle
#20
Jonathan Henry W Jacobsen, Femke Ta Buisman-Pijlman, Sanam Mustafa, Kenner C Rice, Mark R Hutchinson
Circadian rhythm affects drug-induced reward behaviour and the innate immune system. Peaks in reward-associated behaviour and immune responses typically occur during the active (dark) phase of rodents. While the role of the immune system, specifically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, an innate immune receptor) in drug-induced reward is becoming increasingly appreciated, it is unclear whether its effects vary according to light-cycle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the effects of the phase of the light-cycle and the state of the innate immune system on alcohol reward behaviour and subsequently determine whether the efficacy of targeting the immune component of drug reward depends upon the light-cycle...
August 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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