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Drug and alcohol dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346056/alcohol-and-drug-use-and-aberrant-drug-related-behavior-among-patients-on-chronic-opioid-therapy
#1
Cynthia I Campbell, Andrea H Kline-Simon, Michael Von Korff, Kathleen W Saunders, Constance Weisner
OBJECTIVE: To better identify individuals on chronic opioid therapy (COT) at high risk for aberrant-drug related behavior (ADRB). We examine whether patients with low level alcohol and drug use have similar characteristics to those with alcohol and drug disorders. We then examined the relationship of alcohol and drug use to ADRBs among COT patients. METHODS: The sample was 972 randomly selected COT patients (age 21-80 years old) from a large health system in Northern California, USA, and interviewed in 2009...
March 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343423/management-of-precipitated-opiate-withdrawal-syndrome-induced-by-nalmefene-mistakenly-prescribed-in-opiate-dependent-patients-a-review-for-clinicians
#2
Nicolas Franchitto, Benedicte Jullian, Juliette Salles, Fanny Pelissier, Benjamin Rolland
Nalmefene, a long-acting µ-opioid antagonist approved to treat alcohol use disorder, is occasionally mistakenly prescribed to opiate-dependent or opioid-treated patients. We review recent literature on drug-drug interactions between nalmefene and opioids that lead to precipitated opioid withdrawal, and focus on its management and planning for care at discharge. Areas covered: This article provides a brief and comprehensive review of management of precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome when nalmefene is associated with an opioid, whether misused or legally prescribed...
March 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341597/effect-of-isopropyl-myristate-on-transdermal-permeation-of-testosterone-from-carbopol-gel
#3
Ahmed S Zidan, Nahid Kamal, Alaadin Alayoubi, Mark Seggel, Sarah Ibrahim, Ziyaur Rahman, Celia Cruz, Muhammad Ashraf
The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of isopropyl myristate (IPM) on the in vitro permeation of Testosterone through human cadaver skin from carbopol- gels. Six Testosterone gel formulations were prepared employing different IPM contents of 0, 0.4, 0.7, 1, 2 and 3%. The gels were characterized for drug permeation, matrix morphology, pH, kinetics of ethanol evaporation and viscosity. Mass balance studies were performed to estimate testosterone distribution among the compartments of diffusion cells...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#4
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333571/screening-and-assessment-of-substance-use-in-hospice-care-examining-content-from-a-national-sample-of-psychosocial-assessments
#5
Paul Sacco, John G Cagle, Melissa L Moreland, Elizabeth A S Camlin
BACKGROUND: Quality of care provided by hospice and palliative care agencies depends on a thorough understanding of the patient, the family, their history, and current risk factors. It is therefore imperative for social workers and other providers in these settings to assess patients and caregivers for substance use disorders and potential for substance misuse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how hospice social workers in the United States screen and assess for alcohol and substance use and risk of medication diversion among patients and family caregivers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332590/nicotine-enhances-alcohol-intake-and-dopaminergic-responses-through-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#6
Stefania Tolu, Fabio Marti, Carole Morel, Carole Perrier, Nicolas Torquet, Stephanie Pons, Renaud de Beaurepaire, Philippe Faure
Alcohol and nicotine are the most widely co-abused drugs. Both modify the activity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and lead to an increase in DA release in the Nucleus Accumbens, thereby affecting the reward system. Evidences support the hypothesis that distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular target of acetylcholine (ACh) and exogenous nicotine, are also in addition implicated in the response to alcohol. The precise molecular and neuronal substrates of this interaction are however not well understood...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327799/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-syphilis-in-a-reference-center
#7
Natália Carolina Rodrigues Colombo Gomes, Denise Andrade Pereira Meier, Flávia Meneguetti Pieri, Elaine Alves, Silvia Paulino Ribeiro Albanese, Edvilson Cristiano Lentine, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio, Elma Mathias Dessunti
INTRODUCTION: The implementation of the rapid test (RT) for syphilis increases access of vulnerable populations to early diagnosis and treatment, impacting the outcomes of infection. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with syphilis in a Center for Testing and Counseling (CTC). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a Reference Center for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Londrina, Northern Paraná State, Southern Brazil...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325149/low-dose-naltrexone-in-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia
#8
Samy K Metyas, Karen Yeter, John Solyman, Daniel Arkfeld
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment. A significant number of fibromyalgia patients do not respond adequately to the current drugs (pregabalin, milnacipran, duloxetine) approved for fibromyalgia treatment by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thus, there is still a need for adjunctive therapies. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. It is hypothesized that low dose naltrexone causes transient blockade of opioid receptors centrally resulting in a rebound of endorphin function which may attenuate pain in fibromyalgia...
March 21, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322465/opioid-substitution-therapy-or-hidden-opioids-are-a-minefield-for-nalmefene-an-atypical-case-series-of-11-patients-in-lorraine
#9
Melissa Yéléhé-Okouma, Hervé Martini, Jérémie Lemarié, Pierre Labroca, Nadine Petitpain, Valérie Gibaja, François Paille, Pierre Gillet
Opioid antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene are used in drug therapy for alcoholism. Nalmefene, approved in Europe in February 2013 for the reduction of alcohol consumption is used in patients with alcohol dependence. We report 11 cases of opioid withdrawal syndrome after a single dose of nalmefene in patients usually treated with methadone, buprenorphine, but also with fentanyl or loperamide. Nalmefene is both a partial agonist and an antagonist of opioid receptors. Regarding to its opioid antagonist activity, nalmefene is contraindicated in patients with an opioid treatment...
March 21, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320841/prefrontal-cortex-kca2-channels-regulate-mglu5-dependent-plasticity-and-extinction-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#10
Reginald Cannady, Justin T McGonigal, Ryan J Newsom, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland, Justin T Gass
Identifying novel treatments that facilitate extinction learning could enhance cue-exposure therapy and reduce high relapse rates in alcoholics. Activation of mGlu5 receptors in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) facilitates learning during extinction of cue-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels have also been implicated in extinction learning of fear memories, and mGlu5 receptor activation can reduce KCa2 channel function. Using a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches, this study examined KCa2 channels as a novel target to facilitate extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320722/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antibacterial-activities-of-patchouli-alcohol-a-natural-occurring-tricyclic-sesquiterpene-against-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#11
Y F Xu, D W Lian, Y Q Chen, Y F Cai, Y F Zheng, P L Fan, W K Ren, L J Fu, Y C Li, J H Xie, H Y Cao, B Tan, Z R Su, P Huang
This study further evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and potential underlying mechanism of patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene. In in vitro assay, the capacities of PA to inhibit and kill H. pylori were tested on three standard strains at different pH values and 12 clinical isolates. The effects of PA on H. pylori adhesion (and its alpA, alpB and babA genes), motility (and its flaA and flaB genes), ultrastructure and flagellation were investigated. Moreover, the H...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319159/drug-therapy-for-alcohol-dependence-in-primary-care-in-the-uk-a-clinical-practice-research-datalink-study
#12
Andrew Thompson, Darren M Ashcroft, Lynn Owens, Tjeerd P van Staa, Munir Pirmohamed
AIM: To evaluate drug therapy for alcohol dependence in the 12 months after first diagnosis in UK primary care. DESIGN: Open cohort study. SETTING: General practices contributing data to the UK Clinical Practice Research Database. PARTICIPANTS: 39,980 people with an incident diagnosis of alcohol dependence aged 16 years or older between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of pharmacotherapy (acamprosate, disulfiram, naltrexone, baclofen and topiramate) to promote abstinence from alcohol or reduce drinking to safe levels in the first 12 months after a recorded diagnosis of alcohol dependence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318754/differences-between-men-and-women-in-substance-use-the-role-of-educational-level-and-employment-status
#13
Ester Teixidó-Compañó, Albert Espelt, Luis Sordo, María J Bravo, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, B Iciar Indave, Marina Bosque-Prous, M Teresa Brugal
OBJECTIVE: To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation...
March 15, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317271/baclofen-and-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-real-risk-of-severe-self-poisoning
#14
David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Ali Touré, Anais Garnier, Alain Turcant, Gaël Le Roux
Baclofen is often prescribed in high doses to fight cravings experienced by alcohol-dependent patients. Such an increase in the availability of baclofen is concerning. This study aimed to determine the change in number and profile of self-poisoning with baclofen over time, since baclofen has become increasingly popular, in order to describe the severity of self-poisoning with baclofen and to focus on co-existing alcohol use disorders and psychiatric illnesses determine predictors of severity. This was a retrospective study of self-poisoning with baclofen as reported by the western France Poison Control Center (PCC), which represents a population of more than 12 million people from January 2008 to March 2014...
March 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317259/a-prospective-study-of-the-substance-use-and-mental-health-outcomes-of-young-adult-former-and-current-cannabis-users
#15
Edmund Silins, Wendy Swift, Tim Slade, Barbara Toson, Bryan Rodgers, Delyse M Hutchinson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The extent to which young adult former cannabis users fare better than infrequent users is unclear. We investigated the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and substance use and mental health outcomes at age 27. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from the 20+ year cohort of the PATH Through Life Study. Lifetime cannabis users (n = 1410) at age 23 were classified as former/occasional/regular users. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and six outcomes assessed at age 27...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317200/self-limiting-non-medical-pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-young-people-in-sydney-australia-an-exploratory-study
#16
George C Dertadian, Thomas C Dixon, Jennifer Iversen, Lisa Maher
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indicators suggest an escalation in opioid use globally, with recent HIV outbreaks linked to non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use. Little is known about how young Australians engage in NMPO use. DESIGN AND METHODS: During 2015, we conducted qualitative interviews with young people (16-29 years) who reported oral NMPO use at least twice in the past 90 days. The study included a sample of injecting (n = 14) and oral (n = 22) users...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314049/biological-evaluation-of-3-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol-an-extrolite-produced-by-aspergillus-nidulans-strain-kzr-132
#17
C Ganesh Kumar, Poornima Mongolla, Sujitha Pombala, Shiva Bandi, K Suresh Babu, Kallaganti Venkata Siva Ramakrishna
AIMS: The aim of the study was to purify and characterize a bioactive compound from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132 and its biological evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bioactive extolite was purified from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132, and its chemical structure was elucidated as 3-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol (3-HBA) based on (1) H and (13) C NMR, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial efficacy of 3-HBA was established against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and different Candida strains...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296656/severity-and-outcome-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-is-dependent-on-the-etiology-of-acute-hepatic-insults-analysis-of-368-patients
#18
Shalimar, Saurabh Kedia, Soumya J Mahapatra, Baibaswata Nayak, Deepak Gunjan, Bhaskar Thakur, Subrat K Acharya
BACKGROUND: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) may be precipitated by various hepatic insults. The present study evaluated the outcomes of ACLF with different acute insults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 368 ACLF patients were included. Data collected included etiologies of acute hepatic insult and underlying chronic liver disease, and organ failure. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), chronic liver failure consortium (CLIF)-C ACLF, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores were calculated...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294443/health-service-utilisation-attributable-to-methamphetamine-use-in-australia-patterns-predictors-and-national-impact
#19
Rebecca McKetin, Louisa Degenhardt, Marian Shanahan, Amanda L Baker, Nicole K Lee, Dan I Lubman
AIM AND BACKGROUND: We estimated health service utilisation attributable to methamphetamine use, its national impact and examined other predictors of health service utilisation among dependent methamphetamine users. METHOD: Past year rates of health service utilisation (number of attendances for general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, emergency departments, general practitioners, psychiatrists, counsellors or psychologists, and dentists) were estimated for three levels of methamphetamine use (no use, < weekly, ≥ weekly) using panel data from a longitudinal cohort of 484 dependent methamphetamine users from Sydney and Brisbane, Australia...
March 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292529/-spanish-adaptation-of-the-2016-european-guidelines-on-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-clinical-practice
#20
M Á Royo-Bordonada, P Armario, J M Lobos Bejarano, J Pedro-Botet, F Villar Alvarez, R Elosua, C Brotons Cuixart, O Cortés, B Serrano, M Camafort Babkowski, A Gil Núñez, A Pérez, A Maiques, A de Santiago Nocito, A Castro, E Alegría, C Baeza, M Herranz, S Sans, P Campos
The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk...
March 11, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
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