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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938515/regulation-of-hepatic-hydroxy-methyl-glutarate-coa-reductase-for-controlling-hypercholesterolemia-in-rats
#1
Abeer A Khamis, Afrah F Salama, Marwa E Kenawy, Tarek M Mohamed
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor upon developing cardiovascular diseases. This study is aiming to investigate the inhibition role of quercetin on hydroxy methyl glutarate - CoA reductase activity and its gene for attenuating hypercholesterolemia. The kinetic characteristics of HMG-CoA reductase activity were evaluated on extracellular rat liver microsomes. For studying the effect of quercetin by inducing hypercholesterolemia rats by Tyloxapol (i.v.). In addition, rats were treated with different doses of quercetin according to the inhibition constant of this inhibitor...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938216/efficient-removal-of-priority-hazardous-priority-and-emerging-pollutants-with-prunus-armeniaca-functionalized-biochar-from-aqueous-wastes-experimental-optimization-and-modeling
#2
Maja Turk Sekulić, Sabolč Pap, Zoran Stojanović, Nikola Bošković, Jelena Radonić, Tatjana Šolević Knudsen
This paper investigates the ability of the phosphoric acid functionalized Prunus armeniaca stones biochar (AsPhA) prepared by thermochemical activation to remove lead (Pb(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)), naproxen and chlorophenols from aqueous wastes. The engineered biochar was characterized using the Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller technique. The batch studies were performed by varying the initial pH of the solution (2-9), adsorbent dosage (0...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937947/wastewater-treatment-by-means-of-thermophilic-aerobic-membrane-reactors-respirometric-tests-and-numerical-models-for-determination-of-stoichiometric-kinetic-parameters
#3
Maria Cristina Collivignarelli, Giorgio Bertanza, Alessandro Abbà, Vincenzo Torretta, Ioannis Anastasios Katsoyiannis
The present work considers the pollution abatement of wastewaters, the efficiency of which is depending on stringent verification of the performance of wastewater treatment plants. This is very important especially given that eExisting wastewater/aqueous waste treatment plants often need to be upgraded in order to improve their performance. The satisfactory operation of biological treatment plants requires appropriate monitoring, and respirometric techniques are needed to determine the kinetic parameters that regulate biological processes...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937744/methane-c-h-activation-via-3d-metal-methoxide-complexes-with-potentially-redox-noninnocent-pincer-ligands-a-density-functional-theory-study
#4
Ahmad Najafian, Thomas R Cundari
This paper reports a density functional theory study of 3d transition-metal methoxide complexes with potentially redox-noninnocent pincer supporting ligands for methane C-H bond activation to form methanol (LnM-OMe + CH4 → LnM-Me + CH3OH). The three types of tridentate pincer ligands [terpyridine (NNN), bis(2-pyridyl)phenyl-C,N,N' (NCN), and 2,6-bis(2-phenyl)pyridine-N,C,C' (CNC)] and different first-row transition metals (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) are used to elucidate the reaction mechanism as well as the effect of the metal identity on the thermodynamics and kinetics of a methane activation reaction...
September 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936867/anisotropic-dye-adsorption-and-anhydrous-proton-conductivity-in-smectic-liquid-crystal-networks-the-role-of-cross-link-density-order-and-orientation
#5
Ting Liang, Huub P C van Kuringen, Dirk J Mulder, Shuai Tan, Yong Wu, Zandrie Borneman, Kitty Nijmeijer, Albertus P H J Schenning
In this work the decisive role of rigidity, orientation and order in the smectic liquid crystalline network on the anisotropic proton and adsorbent properties is reported. The rigidity in the hydrogen-bonded polymer network has been altered by changing the cross-link density, the order by using different mesophases (smectic, nematic and isotropic phases) while the orientation of the mesogens was controlled by alignment layers. Adding more cross-linker improved the integrity of the polymer films. For the proton conduction, an optimum was found in the amount of cross-linker and the smectic organization results in the highest anhydrous proton conduction...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936531/knudsen-cell-studies-of-the-uptake-of-gaseous-ammonia-and-amines-onto-c3-c7-solid-dicarboxylic-acids
#6
Michelle C Fairhurst, Michael J Ezell, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
While atmospheric particles affect health, visibility and climate, the details governing their formation and growth are poorly understood on a molecular level. A simple model system for understanding the interactions between the gas and particle phases is the reaction of bases with acids, both of which are common constituents of atmospheric particles. In the present study, uptake coefficients for the reactions of gas phase ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine with a series of solid dicarboxylic acids (diacids) were measured at 296 ± 1 K using a Knudsen cell interfaced to a quadrupole mass spectrometer...
September 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935256/application-of-feedback-control-and-in-situ-milling-to-improve-particle-size-and-shape-in-the-crystallization-of-a-slow-growing-needle-like-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient
#7
Yang Yang, Kanjakha Pal, Andy Koswara, Qingqing Sun, Yuqi Zhang, Justin Quon, Rahn McKeown, Charles Goss, Zoltan K Nagy
Control of crystal size and shape is crucially important for crystallization process development in the pharmaceutical industries. In general crystals of large size and low aspect ratio are desired for improved downstream manufacturability. It can be extremely challenging to design crystallization processes that achieve these targets for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that have very slow growth kinetics and needle-like morphology. In this work, a batch cooling crystallization process for a GlaxoSmithKline patented API, which is characterized by very slow growth rate and needle morphology, was studied and improved using process analytical technology (PAT) based feedback control techniques and in situ immersion milling...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935251/leachable-diphenylguanidine-from-rubber-closures-used-in-pre-filled-syringes-a-case-study-to-understand-solid-and-solution-interactions-with-oxytocin
#8
Ahmed S Zidan, Sabir M Aqueel, Alaadin Alayoubi, Adil Mohammad, Jinhui Zhang, Ziyaur Rahman, Patrick Faustino, Richard T Lostritto, Muhammad Ashraf
Leachables derived from multi-component drug-device syringe systems can result in changes to the quality of drug products. Diphenylguanidine (DPG), a leachable released from styrene butadiene rubber syringe plungers, interacts with Oxytocin to form protein-adducts. This study investigated the mechanism and kinetics of this interaction in both solid and solution states through in-vitro tests and spectroscopic methods For solid state interaction, the protein-adducts with DPG were characterized using SEM, XRD, DSC, FTIR, (13)C ss NMR, and dissolution analysis...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934421/a-zebrafish-model-of-mycobacterium-leprae-granulomatous-infection
#9
Cressida A Madigan, James Cameron, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Understanding the pathogenesis of leprosy granulomas has been hindered by a paucity of tractable experimental animal models. Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, grows optimally at approximately 30°C, so we sought to model granulomatous disease in the ectothermic zebrafish. We found that noncaseating granulomas develop rapidly and eventually eradicate infection. rag1 mutant zebrafish, which lack lymphocytes, also form noncaseating granulomas with similar kinetics, but these control infection more slowly...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933817/unusual-spinel-to-layered-transformation-in-limn2o4-cathode-explained-by-electrochemical-thermal-stability-investigation
#10
Liubin Ben, Hailong Yu, Bin Chen, Yuyang Chen, Yue Gong, Xinan Yang, Lin Gu, Xuejie Huang
Distorted surface regions (5-6 nm) with an unusual layered-like structure on LiMn2O4 cathode material were directly observed after it was cycled (3-4.9 V), indicating a possible spinel-to-layered structural transformation. Formation of these distorted regions severely degrades LiMn2O4 cathode capacity. Getting a better understanding of the exact crystal structure of the distorted regions, the structural transformation pathways and the origins of the distortion is made difficult by the regions' nanoscopic size...
September 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933262/the-measurement-and-mathematical-analysis-of-5-fu-release-from-magnetic-polymeric-nanocapsules-following-the-application-of-ultrasound
#11
Ziaeddin Abed, Samideh Khoei, Behafarid Ghalandari, Jaber Beik, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh, Habib Ghaznavi, Mohammad Bagher Shiran
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of ultrasound irradiation on the release profile of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) loaded magnetic poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanocapsules. Also, the controlled drug-release behaviour of the nanocapsules was mathematically investigated. METHOD: The nanocapsules were synthesized, dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), transferred to a dialysis bag, and finally, irradiated by various ultrasound parameters (1 or 3MHz; 0.3-1W/cm2; 5-10 minutes)...
September 21, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932676/carbon-nanofibers-heavy-laden-with-li3v2-po4-3-particles-featuring-superb-kinetics-for-high-power-lithium-ion-battery
#12
Jeongyim Shin, Junghoon Yang, Chernov Sergey, Min-Sang Song, Yong-Mook Kang
Fast lithium ion and electron transport inside electrode materials are essential to realize its superb electrochemical performances for lithium rechargeable batteries. Herein, a distinctive structure of cathode material is proposed, which can simultaneously satisfy these requirements. Nanosized Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) particles can be successfully grown up on the carbon nanofiber via electrospinning method followed by a controlled heat-treatment. Herein, LVP particles are anchored onto the surface of carbon nanofiber, and with this growing process, the size of LVP particles as well as the thickness of carbon nanofiber can be regulated together...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931064/dynamics-of-soil-organic-carbon-mineralization-in-tea-plantations-converted-from-farmland-at-western-sichuan-china
#13
Renhuan Zhu, Zicheng Zheng, Tingxuan Li, Xizhou Zhang, Shuqin He, Yongdong Wang, Tao Liu, Wei Li
Climate warming and land use change are some of the drivers affecting soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The Grain for Green Project, local natural resources, and geographical conditions have resulted in farmland conversion into tea plantations in the hilly region of Western Sichuan. However, the effect of such land conversion on SOC mineralization remains unknown. In order to understand the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in tea plantations converted from farmland, this study considered the different years (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930875/the-kinetic-determinants-of-reactive-strength-in-highly-trained-sprint-athletes
#14
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
The purpose of this study was to determine the braking and propulsive phase kinetic variables underpinning reactive strength in highly trained sprint athletes in comparison to a non-sprint trained control group. Twelve highly trained sprint athletes and twelve non-sprint trained participants performed drop jumps (DJs) from 0.25m, 0.50m and 0.75m onto a force plate. One familiarization session was followed by an experimental testing session within the same week. Reactive strength index (RSI), contact time, flight time, and leg stiffness were determined...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#15
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929771/kinetic-and-thermodynamic-control-in-porphyrin-and-phthalocyanine-self-assembled-monolayers
#16
K W Hipps, Ursula Mazur
Porphyrins and phthalocyanines are ubiquitous in modern science and technology. Their stability, redox properties, and photoresponse make them candidates for numerous applications. Many of these applications rely on thin films, and these are critically dependent on the first monolayer. In this article, we focus on noncovalently bound self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and phthalocyanines at the solution-solid interface with special emphasis on the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that define the films and their reaction chemistry...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929758/nucleation-and-growth-kinetics-from-lamer-burst-data
#17
Daniel B K Chu, Jonathan S Owen, Baron Peters
In LaMer burst nucleation, the individual nucleation events happen en masse, quasi-simultaneously, and at nearly identi-cal homogeneous conditions. These properties make LaMer burst nucleation important for applications that require monodispersed particles and also for theoretical analyses. Sugimoto and coworkers predicted that the number of nuclei generated during a LaMer burst depends only on the solute supply rate and the growth rate, independent of the nucleation kinetics. Some experiments confirm that solute supply kinetics control the number of nuclei, but flaws in the original theoretical analysis raise questions about the predicted roles of growth and nucleation kinetics...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929742/beta-hemolytic-bacteria-selectively-trigger-liposome-lysis-enabling-rapid-and-accurate-pathogen-detection
#18
Rongji Sum, Muthukaruppan Swaminathan, Sahil Kumar Rastogi, Obdulio Piloto, Ian Cheong
For more than a century, blood agar plates have been the only test for beta-hemolysis. Although blood agar cultures are highly predictive for bacterial pathogens, they are too slow to yield actionable information. Here, we show that beta-hemolytic pathogens are able to lyse and release fluorophores encapsulated in sterically stabilized liposomes whereas alpha and gamma-hemolytic bacteria have no effect. By analyzing fluorescence kinetics, beta-hemolytic colonies cultured on agar could be distinguished in real time with 100% accuracy within 6 h...
September 20, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927930/biodegradable-and-adjustable-sol-gel-glass-based-hybrid-scaffolds-from-multi-armed-oligomeric-building-blocks
#19
Christian Kascholke, Stephan Hendrikx, Tobias Flath, Dzmitry Kuzmenka, Hans-Martin Dörfler, Dirk Schumann, Mathias Gressenbuch, F Peter Schulze, Michaela Schulz-Siegmund, Michael C Hacker
Biodegradability is a crucial characteristic to improve the clinical potential of sol-gel-derived glass materials. To this end, a set of degradable organic/inorganic class II hybrids from a tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)-derived silica sol and oligovalent cross-linker oligomers containing oligo(D,L-lactide) domains was developed and characterized. A series of 18 oligomers (Mn: 1100-3200 Da) with different degrees of ethoxylation and varying length of oligoester units was established and chemical composition was determined...
September 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927842/synthesis-and-preparation-of-biodegradable-hybrid-dextran-hydrogel-incorporated-with-biodegradable-curcumin-nanomicelles-for-full-thickness-wound-healing
#20
Mona Alibolandi, Marzieh Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Khalil Abnous, Mohammad Ramezani
There is a clinical need for a novel, more efficient therapy for full thickness wound healing. In the current study, curcumin encapsulated PEG-PLA [poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)] nanomicelles were incorporated into dextran hydrogel for a full thickness dermal wound healing application. To assess the application of the hydrogel as a therapeutic wound dressing, its morphology, swelling pattern, kinetics of degradation, and capacity to control curcumin release were evaluated. It was found that the prepared hybrid hydrogel had acceptable biocompatibility, incorporation capacity of curcumin nanomicelles, and mechanical properties...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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