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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913147/electro-kinetically-driven-peristaltic-transport-of-viscoelastic-physiological-fluids-through-a-finite-length-capillary-mathematical-modelling
#1
Dharmendra Tripathi, Ashu Yadav, O Anwar Bég
Analytical solutions are developed for the electro-kinetic flow of a viscoelastic biological liquid in a finite length cylindrical capillary geometry under peristaltic waves. The Jefferys' non-Newtonian constitutive model is employed to characterize rheological properties of the fluid. The unsteady conservation equations for mass and momentum with electro-kinetic and Darcian porous medium drag force terms are reduced to a system of steady linearized conservation equations in an axisymmetric coordinate system...
November 29, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913023/in-stream-metabolism-and-atmospheric-carbon-sequestration-in-a-groundwater-fed-karst-stream
#2
Junbing Pu, Jianhong Li, Mitra B Khadka, Jonathan B Martin, Tao Zhang, Shi Yu, Daoxian Yuan
Atmospheric carbon sequestered in karst systems through dissolution of carbonate minerals is considered to have no net effect on long-term regional and global carbon budgets because precipitation of dissolved carbonate minerals emits CO2 back to the atmosphere. Even though recent studies have implied that rapid kinetics of carbonate dissolution coupled with the aquatic photosynthetic uptake of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) could facilitate a stable atmospheric C sink in karst rivers and streams, little is known about the magnitudes and long-term stability of this C sink...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912137/a-novel-continuous-two-phase-partitioning-bioreactor-operated-with-polymeric-tubing-performance-validation-for-enhanced-biological-removal-of-toxic-substrates
#3
M Concetta Tomei, Domenica Mosca Angelucci, Andrew J Daugulis
A continuous two-phase partitioning bioreactor (C-TPPB), operated with coiled tubing made of the DuPont polymer Hytrel 8206, was tested for the bioremediation of 4-chlorophenol, as a model toxic compound. The tubing was immersed in the aqueous phase, with the contaminated water flowing tube-side, and an adapted microbial culture suspended in the bioreactor itself, with the metabolic demand of the cells creating a concentration gradient to cause the substrate to diffuse into the bioreactor for biodegradation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911734/the-spatiotemporal-regulation-of-ras-signalling
#4
REVIEW
Ana Herrero, David Matallanas, Walter Kolch
Nearly 30% of human tumours harbour mutations in RAS family members. Post-translational modifications and the localisation of RAS within subcellular compartments affect RAS interactions with regulator, effector and scaffolding proteins. New insights into the control of spatiotemporal RAS signalling reveal that activation kinetics and subcellular compartmentalisation are tightly coupled to the generation of specific biological outcomes. Computational modelling can help utilising these insights for the identification of new targets and design of new therapeutic approaches...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911548/phase-controlled-bistability-of-a-dark-soliton-train-in-a-polariton-fluid
#5
V Goblot, H S Nguyen, I Carusotto, E Galopin, A Lemaître, I Sagnes, A Amo, J Bloch
We use a one-dimensional polariton fluid in a semiconductor microcavity to explore the nonlinear dynamics of counterpropagating interacting Bose fluids. The intrinsically driven-dissipative nature of the polariton fluid allows us to use resonant pumping to impose a phase twist across the fluid. When the polariton-polariton interaction energy becomes comparable to the kinetic energy, linear interference fringes transform into a train of solitons. A novel type of bistable behavior controlled by the phase twist across the fluid is experimentally evidenced...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910752/submicron-emulsions-and-their-applications-in-oral-delivery
#6
Veenu Mundada, Mitali Patel, Krutika Sawant
A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910576/measurement-of-local-internal-magnetic-fluctuations-via-cross-polarization-scattering-in-the-diii-d-tokamak-invited
#7
K Barada, T L Rhodes, N A Crocker, W A Peebles
We present new measurements of internal magnetic fluctuations obtained with a novel eight channel cross polarization scattering (CPS) system installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Measurements of internal, localized magnetic fluctuations provide a window on an important physics quantity that we heretofore have had little information on. Importantly, these measurements provide a new ability to challenge and test linear and nonlinear simulations and basic theory. The CPS method, based upon the scattering of an incident microwave beam into the opposite polarization by magnetic fluctuations, has been significantly extended and improved over the method as originally developed on the Tore Supra tokamak...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909224/sarcomeric-protein-modification-during-adrenergic-stress-enhances-cross-bridge-kinetics-and-cardiac-output
#8
Kenneth S Gresham, Ranganath Mamidi, Jiayang Li, Hyerin Kwak, Julian E Stelzer
Molecular adaptations to chronic neurohormonal stress, including sarcomeric protein cleavage and phosphorylation, provide a mechanism to increase ventricular contractility and enhance cardiac output, yet the link between sarcomeric protein modifications and changes in myocardial function remains unclear. To examine the effects of neurohormonal stress on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric proteins, mice were administered combined α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonists (isoproterenol and phenylephrine; IPE) for 14 days using implantable osmotic pumps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906480/integrating-sugar-and-dopamine-into-one-polymer-controlled-synthesis-and-robust-surface-modification
#9
Lun Peng, Zhiyun Li, Xiaohui Li, Hui Xue, Weidong Zhang, Gaojian Chen
Glycopolymers attached to a surface possess the ability to bind to certain carbohydrate binding proteins in a highly specific manner, and because of this, the fabrication of glycopolymer-modified surfaces has evolved as an effective route toward bioresponsive systems. Poly(N-3,4-dihydroxybenzenethyl methacrylamide-co-2-(methacrylamido) glucopyranose) copolymers, containing sugar and catechol functionalities, are for the first time successfully prepared in a well-controlled manner via room temperature single-electron transfer initiation and propagation through radical addition fragmentation chain transfer technique...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906393/geometric-control-of-active-collective-motion
#10
Maxime Theillard, Roberto Alonso-Matilla, David Saintillan
Recent experimental studies have shown that confinement can profoundly affect self-organization in semi-dilute active suspensions, leading to striking features such as the formation of steady and spontaneous vortices in circular domains and the emergence of unidirectional pumping motions in periodic racetrack geometries. Motivated by these findings, we analyze the two-dimensional dynamics in confined suspensions of active self-propelled swimmers using a mean-field kinetic theory where conservation equations for the particle configurations are coupled to the forced Navier-Stokes equations for the self-generated fluid flow...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906051/the-lysine-methyltransferase-ehmt2-g9a-is-dispensable-for-skeletal-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#11
Regan-Heng Zhang, Robert N Judson, David Y Liu, Jürgen Kast, Fabio M V Rossi
BACKGROUND: Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (G9a/Ehmt2) is the main enzyme responsible for the apposition of H3K9 di-methylation on histones. Due to its dual role as an epigenetic regulator and in the regulation of non-histone proteins through direct methylation, G9a has been implicated in a number of biological processes relevant to cell fate control. Recent reports employing in vitro cell lines indicate that Ehmt2 methylates MyoD to repress its transcriptional activity and therefore its ability to induce differentiation of activated myogenic cells...
May 27, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905295/desensitization-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-fibroblasts-to-alternaria-alternata-extract-mediated-necrotic-cell-death
#12
Jintaek Im, Kyutae Kim, Ji Young Yhee, Scott M O'Grady, Richard S Nho
Alternaria alternata is an allergenic fungus and known to cause an upper respiratory tract infection and asthma in humans with compromised immunity. Although A. alternata's effect on airway epithelial cells has previously been examined, the potential role of A. alternata on lung fibroblast viability is not understood. Since lung fibroblasts derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) display a distinct phenotype that is resistant to stress and cell death inducing conditions, the investigation of the role of Alternaria on pathological IPF fibroblasts provides a better understanding of the fibrotic process induced by an allergenic fungus...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904441/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-of-the-bowel-wall-with-quantitative-assessment-of-crohn-s-disease-activity-in-childhood
#13
Damjana Kljucevsek, Dubravka Vidmar, Darja Urlep, Rok Dezman
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become an established non-invasive, patient-friendly imaging technique which improves the characterization of lesions. In addition, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) provides valuable information concerning perfusion of examined organs. This review addresses current applications of CEUS in children, focused on DCE-US of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn disease, which enables realtime assessment of the bowel wall vascularity with semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of disease activity and response to medical treatment...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904403/quality-and-composition-of-air%C3%A3-n-wines-fermented-by-sequential-inoculation-of-lachancea-thermotolerans-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Ángel Benito, Fernando Calderón, Felipe Palomero, Santiago Benito
This study evaluates the influence of Lachancea thermotolerans on low-acidity Airén grape must from the south of Spain. For this purpose, combined fermentations with Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared to a single fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Results of all developed analyses showed significant differences in several parameters including acidity, population growth kinetics, concentration of amino acids, volatile and non-volatile compounds, and sensorial parameters. The Airén wine quality increased mainly due to the acidification by L...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903802/a-protective-role-for-il-1-signaling-during-mouse-adenovirus-type-1-induced-encephalitis
#15
Luiza A Castro-Jorge, Carla Pretto, Asa Smith, Oded Foreman, Kelly E Carnahan, Katherine R Spindler
: IL-1β, an inflammatory cytokine and IL-1 receptor ligand, has diverse activities in the brain. We examined whether IL-1 signaling contributes to the encephalitis observed in mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection, using mice lacking the IL-1 receptor, Il1r1(-/-) Il1r1(-/-) mice had lower survival, higher disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), higher brain viral loads, and higher brain inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than control C57BL/6 mice. We also examined infections of mice defective in IL-1β production (Pycard(-/-)mice) and mice defective in trafficking of TLRs to the endosome (Unc93b1(-/-) mice)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903281/improving-the-clinical-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-through-the-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-peripheral-blood-biomarkers
#16
Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi, Damir Janigro
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as well as the effects of glomerular filtration, age, gender, and ethnicity. To study these factors, and to provide a method for markers' analyses, we developed a kinetic model that allows the integrated interpretation of these properties...
November 30, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902939/factor-xiii-deficiency-enhances-thrombin-generation-due-to-impaired-fibrin-polymerization-an-effect-corrected-by-factor-xiii-replacement
#17
Hanna H Pitkänen, Annukka Jouppila, Marja Lemponen, Minna Ilmakunnas, Jouni Ahonen, Riitta Lassila
INTRODUCTION: Factor XIII (FXIII) cross-links fibrin, completing blood coagulation. Congenital FXIII deficiency is managed with plasma-derived FXIII (pdFXIII) or recombinant FXIII (rFXIII) concentrates. AIM: As the mechanisms protecting patients with low FXIII levels (<5IU/dL) from spontaneous bleeds remain unknown we assessed the interplay between thrombin generation (TG), fibrin formation and clot kinetics before and after FXIII administration in three patients with FXIII deficiency...
November 16, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902870/a-thioacetal-photocage-designed-for-dual-release-application-in-the-quantitation-of-therapeutic-release-by-synchronous-reporter-decaging
#18
Pamela T Wong, Shengzhuang Tang, Jayme Cannon, Jhindan Mukherjee, Danielle Isham, Kristina Gam, Michael Payne, Sean A Yanik, James R Baker, Seok Ki Choi
Despite the immense potential of existing photocaging technology, its application is limited by the paucity of advanced caging tools. Here, we report on the design of a novel thioacetal ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde (TNB) dual arm photocage that enabled control of the simultaneous release of two payloads linked to a single TNB unit. By using this cage, which was prepared in a single step from commercial 6-nitroverataldehyde, three drug-fluorophore conjugates were synthesized: Taxol-TNB-fluorescein, Taxol-TNB-coumarin, and doxorubicin-TNB-coumarin, and long-wavelength UVA light-triggered release experiments demonstrated that dual payload release occurred with rapid decay kinetics for each conjugate...
November 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901147/size-controlled-growth-and-antibacterial-mechanism-for-cu-c-nanocomposite-thin-films
#19
Amjed Javid, Manish Kumar, Seokyoung Yoon, Jung Heon Lee, Jeon Geon Han
The interdependence of 'size' and 'volume-fraction' hinders the identification of their individual role in the interface properties of metal nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a matrix. Here, the case of Cu NPs embedded in a C matrix is presented for their profound antibacterial activity. Cu:C nanocomposite thin films with fixed Cu content (≈12 atomic%) are prepared using a plasma process where plasma energy controls the size of Cu NPs (from 9 nm to 16 nm). An inverse relationship between the size-effect on antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is established through the real time monitoring of an aliquot by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, which confirmed the inverse relationship of Cu ion release from the nanocomposite with varied Cu NP sizes...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900590/assessment-of-oxidative-nitrative-modifications-of-plasma-proteins-selected-rotem-parameters-and-kinetics-of-fibrinogen-polymerization-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-at-diagnosis
#20
W Nowak, J Treliński, K Chojnowski, J Matczak, M Robak, M Misiewicz, P Nowak
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk of thrombosis. Growing evidence indicates that oxidative and nitrative modifications of proteins, including fibrinogen, may lead to changes in hemostasis. The study compares samples from patients with MM at diagnosis and healthy volunteers with regard to the oxidative/nitrative modifications of proteins, ROTEM and thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization. The content of carbonyl groups in plasma proteins of patients with MM was significantly higher than in controls (2...
January 2017: Medical Oncology
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