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Pregnancy epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146047/maternal-immune-activation-delays-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-switch-in-offspring
#1
Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Marco Rasile, Raffaella Morini, Genni Desiato, Romana Tomasoni, Michela Lizier, Elsa Ghirardini, Riccardo Fesce, Diego Morone, Isabella Barajon, Flavia Antonucci, Davide Pozzi, Michela Matteoli
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental defects in progeny is well established, although the biological mechanisms and the pathogenic trajectories involved have not been defined. METHODS: Pregnant dams were injected intraperitoneally at gestational day 9 with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Neuronal development was assessed by means of electrophysiological, optical, and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid causes an imbalanced expression of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
November 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141532/seizures-and-antiepileptic-drugs-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#2
Nihan CarCaka, Cigdem Ozkara
Recurrent, spontaneous seizure activity caused by abnormal neuronal firing in the brain is a hallmark of epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder. Recent research that has expanded the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that modulate neuronal excitability and network activity in the brain provides the development and discovery of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AED therapy starts with the selection of the most appropriate drug for individual patient on the basis of strategic decision of the risk-benefit ratio...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141311/-study-on-mosaicism-of-scn1a-gene-mutation-in-parents-of-children-with-dravet-syndrome
#3
A J Liu, X X Yang, X J Xu, Q X Wu, X J Tian, X L Yang, X R Wu, L P Wei, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigate the clinical phenotypes and the mutant allele proportion of parents with SCN1A gene mutation mosaicism of Dravet syndrome (DS) children, thus to provide guidance for family reproduction and prenatal diagnosis. Method: The clinical data and peripheral blood DNA samples of DS patients with a SCN1A gene mutation proved by Sanger sequencing were collected prospectively from February 2005 to November 2016 in Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital. The same mutation was searched in parents and other available relatives...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133176/effect-of-zonisamide-on-refractory-epilepsy-during-pregnancy-in-lamotrigine-resistant-kindled-rats
#4
Reza Narenji Sani, Keivan Keramati, Niloufar Saberi, Melika Moezifar, Ali Mahdavi
Drug-resistant epilepsy with uncontrolled severe seizures despite state-of-the-art medical treatment continues to be a major clinical problem. Pregnancy is a state where drug pharmacokinetic changes are more pronounced and more rapid than any other period of life. The current study investigated the effect of zonisamide (ZNS) on refractory epilepsy during pregnancy in lamotrigine-resistant kindled rats. Fifty-six lamotrigine (LTG)-resistant kindled Wistar rats were divided into five experimental (four pregnant and one non-pregnant) and 2 positive controls (pregnant and non-pregnant) groups and eight intact Wistar rats were put in the negative pregnant control group...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128586/contraception-pregnancy-and-peripartum-experiences-among-women-with-epilepsy-in-bhutan
#5
Sheliza Halani, Lhab Tshering, Esther Bui, Sarah J Clark, Sara J Grundy, Tandin Pem, Sonam Lhamo, Ugyen Dema, Damber K Nirola, Chencho Dorji, Farrah J Mateen
INTRODUCTION: Reports on the reproductive health of women with epilepsy (WWE) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are limited. Bhutan is a lower income country with a high estimated prevalence of epilepsy and no out-of-pocket payment requirements for health visits or medications. METHODS: We developed a 10-category survey to interview WWE ages 20-59 years in the Kingdom of Bhutan to understand their contraceptive use and peripartum experiences. WWE were recruited from 2016-2017 from an existing epilepsy cohort and their reproductive health data were merged with epilepsy and socioeconomic data obtained from initial clinical evaluations performed between 2014 and 2016...
December 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127865/which-information-on-women-s-issues-in-epilepsy-does-a-community-pharmacist-need-to-know-a-delphi-consensus-study
#6
Ramzi Shawahna
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and achieve consensus on a core list of important knowledge items that community pharmacists should know on women's issues in epilepsy. METHODS: This was a consensual study using a modified Delphi technique. Knowledge items were collected from the literature and from nine key contacts who were interviewed on their views on what information community pharmacists should have on women's issues in epilepsy. More knowledge items were suggested by five researchers with interest in women's issues who were contacted to rate and comment on the knowledge items collected...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127595/neurological-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#7
Tania Saad, Alessandra Augusta PennaeCosta, Fernanda Veiga de Góes, Marcela de Freitas, Julia Valeriano de Almeida, Lúcio José de Santa Ignêz, Ana Paula Amancio, Renata Joviano Alvim, Ludmilla Athayde Antunes Kramberger
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, it was observed a rise in the number of microcephalic newborns associated with a history of non-specific febrile sickness and rash during pregnancy in Brazil. Since then, microcephaly has emerged as a public health concern. A few months after, the causal relation between congenital microcephaly and the Zika virus was discovered. Zika virus, an arbovirus, is a new TORCH member that leads to congenital infection through vertical transmission and harms the developing brain, disrupting synaptogenesis, and causing other central nervous system lesions...
November 10, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116720/the-croatian-model-of-integrative-prospective-management-of-epilepsy-and-pregnancy
#8
Snježana Miškov, Romana Gjergja Juraški, Ivan Mikula, Silvio Bašić, Marija Bošnjak Pašić, Vesna Košec, Zlatko Sabol, Aleksandra Fučić, Tomislav Sajko, Vanja Bašić Kes
Epilepsy is the most common neurological complication in pregnancy. Women with epilepsy have a higher risk of complications in pregnancy. In Croatia, women with epilepsy are treated by neurologists at tertiary centers according to the place of residence. We prospectively followed-up pregnancies in women with epilepsy and healthy controls, and analyzed the factors responsible for their delivery outcomes and development of their babies. Healthy pregnant women had a higher level of education and economic status, but pregnant women with epilepsy took folic acid in a higher proportion than controls, possibly due to timely preconception counseling...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114815/maternal-use-of-antiepileptic-agents-during-pregnancy-and-major-congenital-malformations-in-children
#9
Rebecca L Bromley, Jennifer Weston, Anthony G Marson
Clinical Question: Is maternal use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy associated with major congenital malformations in children? Bottom Line: Certain antiepileptic drugs were associated with increased rates of congenital malformations (eg, spina bifida, cardiac anomalies). Lamotrigine (2.31% in 4195 pregnancies) and levetiracetam (1.77% in 817 pregnancies) were associated with the lowest risk and valproate was associated with the highest risk (10.93% in 2565 pregnancies) compared with the offspring of women without epilepsy (2...
November 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113876/-indirect-causes-of-maternal-deaths-except-stroke-cardiovascular-diseases-and-infections-results-from-the-french-confidential-enquiry-into-maternal-deaths-2010-2012
#10
V Le Guern, M Rossignol, A Proust
Maternal deaths of indirect causes result of a preexisting disease or an affection appeared during the pregnancy without any relationship with obstetrical causes, but worsened by the physiological effects of pregnancy. Among the 23 deaths of indirect cause related to a preexisiting pathology, 22 (96 %) have been analyzed by the expert comity. A known or preexisting chronic disease was documented in 16 patients (sick-cell disorder, n=3, treated epilepsy, n=3, intracerebral carvenomas, n=1, multifocal glial tumor, n=1, breast cancer, n=1, systemic lupus, n=1, diabetes mellitus, n=3, antiphospholipid syndrome, n=1)...
November 4, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112665/long-term-risk-of-a-seizure-disorder-after-eclampsia
#11
Kara A Nerenberg, Alison L Park, Simone N Vigod, Gustavo Saposnik, Howard Berger, Michelle A Hladunewich, Shital Gandhi, Candice K Silversides, Joel G Ray
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence rate and relative risk of a seizure disorder after eclampsia. METHODS: We evaluated 1,565,733 births in a retrospective data linkage cohort study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2014. We included females aged 15-50 years and excluded patients with epilepsy, conditions predisposing to seizure, and those who died within 30 days of the delivery discharge date. The exposure was defined as a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, namely 1) eclampsia, 2) preeclampsia, or 3) gestational hypertension...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076416/novel-treatment-and-new-drugs-in-epilepsy-treatment
#12
Elissavet Eskioglou, M P Perrenoud, Phiilippe Ryvlin, Jan Novy
We now get benefit from more than 20 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the care of people with epilepsy. Newer generation of AED is associated with a more favourable tolerability profile than older generation AEDs which makes them easier to use, despite similar efficacy. In order to define the place of newer generation AEDs in the therapy, we review here the main current guidelines about their use for a special issue concerning antiepileptic drugs in neurosurgical practice. We also discuss how to tailor the treatment with newer generation AEDs according to the patient's needs and comorbid conditions...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073690/fetal-valproate-syndrome-still-a-problem-today
#13
Katharina Wiedemann, Tanja Stüber, Monika Rehn, Eric Frieauff
Introduction Fetal exposition to valproate can lead to a cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. Case Report In this report we describe 2 cases of fetal valproate syndrome. In the first case, the gravida had a valproate medication before and during pregnancy with additional folic acid. She delivered a male premature infant at 25+2 weeks of gestation due to preterm labor and rupture of the membranes. Physical examination showed even in the premature infant typical signs of fetal valproate syndrome with trigonocephaly, epicanthal folds, broad root of the nose, low-set ears, thin upper lip and anteverted nares...
October 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054051/the-incidence-and-risk-factors-of-epilepsy-in-children-born-preterm-a-nationwide-register-study
#14
Mikko Hirvonen, Riitta Ojala, Päivi Korhonen, Paula Haataja, Kai Eriksson, Mika Gissler, Tiina Luukkaala, Outi Tammela
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare the incidence of epilepsy between very preterm (VP) (<32(+0) weeks), moderately preterm (MP) (32(+0)-33(+6) weeks), late preterm (LP) (34(+0)-36(+6) weeks) and term infants (≥37 weeks) and to establish and compare risk factors of epilepsy in these groups. METHODS: The national register study included all live born infants in Finland in 1991-2008. Excluding infants with missing gestational age, a total of 1,033,349 infants were included in the analysis and they were analyzed in four subgroups (VP, MP, LP and term) and three time periods (1991-1995, 1996-2001 and 2002-2008)...
October 14, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#15
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardiorespiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045977/-clinical-and-genetic-characteristics-of-williams-beuren-syndrome-2-cases-report
#16
S Q Wang, Z X Yang, H Li
To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and to raise awareness of the disease. The characteristics of clinical manifestations, personal history, cardiac ultrasound, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and chromosome detection results of two cases with WBS were analyzed. The two patients were both male and the age was 11 months and 1 day, and 9 months and 9 days, respectively. They both suffered from cardiovascular malformation: case one presented supravalvular aortic stenosis, and case two showed atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991764/hypoglycaemia-in-the-newborn
#17
Orhideja Stomnaroska, Elizabeta Petkovska, Sanja Ivanovska, Snezana Jancevska, Dragan Danilovski
AIM: Severe neonatal hypoglycaemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. The aim was to assess the frequency and severity of HG in a population of newborns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated 739 patients with neonatal hypoglycaemia (HG) (M:F=370:369) born at the University Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetritics in Skopje in the period 2014-2016 and treated at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982961/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-maternal-thyroid-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-and-behavioural-and-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Dagnachew Muluye Fetene, Kim S Betts, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy may lead to persistent neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring appearing in later life. This study aimed to review the available evidence concerning the relationship between maternal thyroid status during pregnancy and offspring behavioural and psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Systematic electronic database searches were conducted using PubMed, Embase, PsycNET, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library...
November 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856694/fetal-growth-and-premature-delivery-in-pregnant-women-on-antiepileptic-drugs
#19
Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Thomas F McElrath, Page B Pennell, W Allen Hauser, Mark Yerby, Lewis B Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used during pregnancy on fetal growth and preterm delivery. METHODS: This study included singleton liveborn infants born to women enrolled in the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry between 1997 and 2016. Data were collected prospectively through telephone interviews. The prevalence of preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small for gestational age status (SGA) among infants exposed prenatally to AEDs when used by women with epilepsy (WWE) or women without epilepsy (WWOE) was compared with that among infants unexposed to AEDs and born to WWOE...
September 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783116/teratogenic-effects-of-topiramate-in-a-zebrafish-model
#20
Yu-Heng Lai, Yu-Ju Ding, David Moses, Yau-Hung Chen
Topiramate is commonly used for treating epilepsy in both children and adults. Recent clinical data suggests that administration of topiramate to women during pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts in their offspring. To better understand the potential effects of topiramate, we dosed adult female zebrafish with topiramate, and investigated the altered morphologies in adult females and their offspring. It showed that topiramate-treated female fish had reduced oocyte maturation, and the survival rates of their offspring were seriously decreased during embryogenesis...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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