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Female sex hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242633/sexual-function-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-their-hormonal-and-clinical-correlations
#1
Fatemeh Nasiri Amiri, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Sedighe Esmailzadeh, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi, Zahra Basirat
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appears to be related to sexual dysfunction, especially if associated with obvious clinical and hormonal signs of hyperandrogenism. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of PCOS and its hormonal and clinical parameters with sexual function. This prospective, cross-sectional study conducted on 18-45-year-old PCOS women (according to the Rotterdam criteria), who were referred to the Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Iran, was invited to participate from January 2012 to December 2015...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237414/isogenic-mice-exhibit-sexually-dimorphic-dna-methylation-patterns-across-multiple-tissues
#2
Helen McCormick, Paul E Young, Suzy S J Hur, Keith Booher, Hunter Chung, Jennifer E Cropley, Eleni Giannoulatou, Catherine M Suter
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation is a stable epigenetic modification of DNA that plays an important role in both normal physiology and disease. Most diseases exhibit some degree of sexual dimorphism, but the extent to which epigenetic states are influenced by sex is understudied and poorly understood. To address this deficit we studied DNA methylation patterns across multiple reduced representation bisulphite sequencing datasets (from liver, heart, brain, muscle and spleen) derived from isogenic male and female mice...
December 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232966/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-prolactin-levels-and-impaired-processing-speed-in-early-psychosis
#3
Itziar Montalvo, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Marta Creus, Ángel Cabezas, Montse Solé, Maria José Algora, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella, Javier Labad
INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinaemia is commonly observed in people with psychotic disorders due to D2 receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs, although it may also exist in drug-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a negative impact on cognitive function in people with early psychosis. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the association between prolactin levels and cognitive performance in early psychosis patients...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232631/ambiguous-genitalia-a-social-dilemma-in-bangladesh-a-case-report
#4
Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Rashidul Anwar, Arnab Saha
INTRODUCTION: Ambiguous Genitalia is a form of birth defect in which sex of the newborn cannot be readily distinguishable because of atypical appearance of the external genitalia. CASE REPORT-CLINICAL FINDINGS: The patient, an 8 months old baby, was identified as a female baby since birth; but, some senior members of their neighborhood raised confusion regarding sex differentiation of the child. On examination, there was enlarged clitoris or micropenis, bifid scrotum or labioscrotal fold, and separate presence of urethral and vaginal orifices...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232396/fatty-acids-rather-than-hormones-restore-in-vitro-angiogenesis-in-human-male-and-female-endothelial-cells-cultured-in-charcoal-stripped-serum
#5
Claudia Vanetti, Francesco Bifari, Lucia M Vicentini, Maria Grazia Cattaneo
Charcoal-stripped serum (CSS) is a well-accepted method to model effects of sex hormones in cell cultures. We have recently shown that human endothelial cells (ECs) fail to growth and to undergo in vitro angiogenesis when cultured in CSS. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the CSS-induced impairment of in vitro EC properties are still unknown. In addition, whether there is any sexual dimorphism in the CSS-induced EC phenotype remains to be determined. Here, by independently studying human male and female ECs, we found that CSS inhibited both male and female EC growth and in vitro angiogenesis, with a more pronounced effect on male EC sprouting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231589/-effects-of-moxibustion-at-shenshu-bl-23-on-level-of-sex-hormones-and-amh-in-sub-health-peri-menopausal-women
#6
Jie Shen, Meihong Shen, Zhongren Li, Rongli Zhang, Xia Li, Bingwei Ai
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects between moxibustion at Shenshu (BL 23) and oral administration of Vitamin E on quality of life and mechanism in sub-health perimenopausal women, aiming to provide clinical evidence of moxibustion for health care of sub-health female. METHODS: Sixty participants were randomly divided into a moxibustion group and a medication group, 30 cases in each one. The volunteers in the moxibustion group were treated with mild moxibustion at bilateral Shenshu (BL 23) for 15 min, once a day; five treatments were considered as a course of treatment, and totally 4 courses were given with an interval of 2 days between courses...
April 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225044/fear-extinction-in-an-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-animal-model-influence-of-sex-and-estrous-cycle
#7
Adriano Edgar Reimer, Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira, Juliana Belo Diniz, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Mohammed Ragib Milad, Marcus Lira Brandão
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224111/prenatal-testosterone-programming-of-insulin-resistance-in-the%C3%A2-female-sheep
#8
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224110/sex-differences-in-androgen-regulation-of-metabolism-in-nonhuman-primates
#9
Cadence True, David H Abbott, Charles T Roberts, Oleg Varlamov
The in-depth characterization of sex differences relevant to human physiology requires the judicious use of a variety of animal models and human clinical data. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) represent an important experimental system that bridges rodent studies and clinical investigations. NHP studies have been especially useful in understanding the role of sex hormones in development and metabolism and also allow the elucidation of the effects of pertinent dietary influences on physiology pertinent to disease states such as obesity and diabetes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224106/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-and-sex-specific-metabolic-homeostasis
#10
Geetanjali Sharma, Eric R Prossnitz
Obesity and metabolic syndrome display disparate prevalence and regulation between males and females. Human, as well as rodent, females with regular menstrual/estrous cycles exhibit protection from weight gain and associated chronic diseases. These beneficial effects are predominantly attributed to the female hormone estrogen, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 exerts its actions via multiple receptors, nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously termed GPR30)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#11
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224092/sex-differences-in-leptin-control-of-cardiovascular-function-in-health-and-metabolic-diseases
#12
Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone identified in 1994 for its major role in the control of satiety and body weight regulation, is an adipokine secreted in a sex-specific manner. Although it has clearly been established that females secrete three to four times more leptin than males and that this sexual dimorphism in leptin secretion is exacerbated with overweight and obesity, the origin and the physiological consequences of this sexual dimorphism remain ill-defined. The adipose tissue is the major site of leptin secretion; however, leptin receptors are ubiquitously expressed, conferring to leptin, and indirectly to the adipose tissue, a potential role in the control of numerous physiological functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223873/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiles-of-lpxrfa-at-the-brain-pituitary-gonad-axis-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-during-ovarian-maturation
#13
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Bao Shi
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been characterized by its ability to inhibit either basal or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of GnIH on the reproductive axis in fish remains inconclusive, with most studies focusing on the orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes. To gain insight into the role of GnIH in the regulation of reproduction in the order Pleuronectiformes, we first cloned the LPXRFa gene, the piscine ortholog of GnIH, in the half-smooth tongue sole...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221813/neonatal-programming-with-testosterone-propionate-reduces-dopamine-transporter-expression-in-nucleus-accumbens-and-methylphenidate-induced-locomotor-activity-in-adult-female-rats
#14
Tatiana Dib, Jonathan Martínez-Pinto, Miguel Reyes-Parada, Gonzalo E Torres, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate
Research in programming is focused on the study of stimuli that alters sensitive periods in development, such as prenatal and neonatal stages, that can produce long-term deleterious effects. These effects can occur in various organs or tissues such as the brain, affecting brain circuits and related behaviors. Our laboratory has demonstrated that neonatal programming with sex hormones affects the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, increasing the synthesis and release of dopamine (DA) in striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
December 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217819/association-between-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-age-overweight-and-structural-mri-patterns-in-901-subjects
#15
Johanna Hoffmann, Deborah Janowitz, Sandra Van der Auwera, Katharina Wittfeld, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich, Mohamad Habes, Christos Davatzikos, Jan Terock, Martin Bahls, Annemarie Goltz, Angela Kuhla, Henry Völzke, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Serum neuron-specific enolase (sNSE) is considered a marker for neuronal damage, related to gray matter structures. Previous studies indicated its potential as marker for structural and functional damage in conditions with adverse effects to the brain like obesity and dementia. In the present study, we investigated the putative association between sNSE levels, body mass index (BMI), total gray matter volume (GMV), and magnetic resonance imaging-based indices of aging as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like patterns...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214773/protective-effects-of-female-reproductive-factors-on-lauren-intestinal-type-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#16
Su Mi Kim, Byung Hoon Min, Jeeyun Lee, Ji Yeong An, Jun Ho Lee, Tae Sung Sohn, Jae Moon Bae, Jae J Kim, Won Ki Kang, Sung Kim, Min Gew Choi
PURPOSE: Gastric cancer shows a male predominance that might be explained by protective effects from estrogens in females. Two Lauren classification histological subtypes, intestinal and diffuse, have distinct carcinogeneses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of sex hormone on female gastric cancer according to Lauren classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records for and administered questionnaires, surveying reproductive and hormonal factors, to 758 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Samsung Medical Center from May 2012 to November 2014...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209900/effect-of-testosterone-on-trpv1-expression-in-a-model-of-orofacial-myositis-pain-in-the-rat
#17
Xiaofeng Bai, Xia Zhang, Qing Zhou
Recent clinical studies have revealed sex differences in response to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist-induced pain. However, the mechanism of these differences in TRPV1-related chronic pain remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the effects of inflammation and gonadal hormones on TRPV1 expression in trigeminal ganglia. Inflammatory pain was modeled by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the left masseter muscle in rats. TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels in the trigeminal ganglia of male and female rats following CFA injection were assessed...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208362/feminizing-effects-of-exposure-to-corexit-enhanced-water-accommodated-fraction-of-crude-oil-in-vitro-on-sex-determination-in-alligator-mississippiensis
#18
Cameron E Williams, Nicole A McNabb, Arnold Brunell, Russell H Lowers, Yoshinao Katsu, Demetri D Spyropoulos, Satomi Kohno
Deepwater Horizon spilled over 200 million gallons of oil into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. In an effort to contain the spill, chemical dispersants were applied to minimize the amount of oil reaching coastal shorelines. However, the biological impacts of chemically-dispersed oil are not well characterized, and there is a particular lack of knowledge concerning sublethal long-term effects of exposure. This study examined potential estrogenic effects of CWAF, Corexit 9500-enhanced water-accommodated fraction of oil, by examining its effect on estrogen receptors and sex determination in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis...
December 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203439/an-age-dependent-interaction-between-sex-and-geographical-uv-index-in-melanoma-risk
#19
Feng Liu-Smith, Argyrios Ziogas
BACKGROUND: UV exposure may not equally impact melanoma development in different sexes and ages. Whether and how these factors interact with each other in melanoma risk is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to estimate interactions among UVI, sex and age in melanoma risk. METHODS: Melanoma incidence data was collected from 42 cancer registries. Geographical UV index (UVI) was collected from local satellite stations. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the impact of each risk factor and their interactions...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201945/the-physiology-of-adolescent-sexual-behaviour-a-systematic-review
#20
Jan Pringle, Kathryn L Mills, John McAteer, Ruth Jepson, Emma Hogg, Neil Anand, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Objectives: To examine physiological influences of adolescent sexual behaviour, including associated psychosocial factors. Methods: Systematic review. Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria relating to adolescents, physiology and sexual behaviour. We excluded studies relating to abnormal development. Findings highlighted hormonal and gender differences. Females appear to be more influenced by psychosocial aspects, including the effects of peers, than males. Males may be more inclined to engage in unprotected sex with a greater number of partners...
January 2017: Cogent Social Sciences
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