Read by QxMD icon Read

Polarized macrophages

Adam C Labonte, Sun-Sang J Sung, Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Young S Hahn
: The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Wang-Dong Zhang, Wen-Hui Wang, Shu-Xian Li, Shuai Jia, Xue-Feng Zhang, Ting-Ting Cao
BACKGROUND: The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA) in abomasum, a unique and important mucosal immune structure discovered only in Bactrian camels. In the present study, 27 Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following five age groups: fetus (10-13 months of gestation), young (1-2 years), pubertal (3-5 years), middle-aged (6-16 years) and old (17-20 years)...
October 20, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Al Shaimaa Hasan, Lan Luo, Chen Yan, Tian-Xia Zhang, Yoshishige Urata, Shinji Goto, Safwat A Mangoura, Mahmoud H Abdel-Raheem, Shouhua Zhang, Tao-Sheng Li
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2). Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control...
2016: PloS One
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Su-Min Lim, Hyun Sik Choi, Jin-Ju Jeong, Seung-Won Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC). Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg) did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Daniel Hachim, Samuel T LoPresti, Cecelia C Yates, Bryan N Brown
The present study tests the hypothesis that transient, early-stage shifts in macrophage polarization at the tissue-implant interface from a pro-inflammatory (M1) to an anti-inflammatory/regulatory (M2) phenotype mitigates the host inflammatory reaction against a non-degradable polypropylene mesh material and improves implant integration downstream. To address this hypothesis, a nanometer-thickness coating capable of releasing IL-4 (an M2 polarizing cytokine) from an implant surface at early stages of the host response has been developed...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Xingwei Jiang, Tingting Zhou, Yan Xiao, Jiahui Yu, Shuaijie Dou, Guojiang Chen, Renxi Wang, He Xiao, Chunmei Hou, Wei Wang, Qingzhu Shi, Jiannan Feng, Yuanfang Ma, Beifen Shen, Yan Li, Gencheng Han
T cell Ig mucin-3 (Tim-3), an immune checkpoint inhibitor, shows therapeutic potential. However, the molecular mechanism by which Tim-3 regulates immune responses remains to be determined. In particular, very little is known about how Tim-3 works in innate immune cells. Here, we demonstrated that Tim-3 is involved in the development of tumor-promoting M2 macrophages in colon cancer. Manipulation of the Tim-3 pathway significantly affected the polarization status of intestinal macrophages and the progression of colon cancer...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Adam R Wolfe, Nicholaus J Trenton, Bisrat G Debeb, Richard Larson, Brian Ruffell, Khoi Chu, Walter Hittelman, Michael Diehl, Jim M Reuben, Naoto T Ueno, Wendy A Woodward
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a unique and deadly disease with unknown drivers. We hypothesized the inflammatory environment contributes to the IBC phenotype. We used an in vitro co-culture system to investigate interactions between normal and polarized macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell line), bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and IBC cells (SUM 149 and MDA-IBC3). We used an in vivo model that reproduces the IBC phenotype by co-injecting IBC cells with MSCs into the mammary fat pad. Mice were then treated with a macrophage recruitment inhibitor, anti-CSF1...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Matthias Holzlechner, Katharina Strasser, Elitsa Zareva, Luise Steinhaeuser, Hanna Birnleitner, Andrea Beer, Michael Bergmann, Rudolf Oehler, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann
Tissue-resident immune cells differ from the corresponding blood cells in many functional aspects. Although the proteome of blood immune cells is well investigated there are almost no data on tissue-resident immune cells. Here we explored the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS imaging (MSI) to investigate these cells in colon tissue, which exhibits a strong immune infiltration. MSI identified several proteinaceous markers that colocalized with specific structures of the colon such as mucosa or muscularis mucosae in six patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Lien M Dos Santos, Tatiane M da Silva, Juliana H Azambuja, Priscila T Ramos, Pathise S Oliveira, Elita F da Silveira, Nathalia S Pedra, Kennia Galdino, Carlus A T do Couto, Mayara S P Soares, Rejane G Tavares, Roselia M Spanevello, Francieli M Stefanello, Elizandra Braganhol
Methionine is an essential amino acid involved in critical metabolic process, and regulation of methionine flux through metabolism is important to supply this amino acid for cell needs. Elevation in plasma methionine commonly occurs due to mutations in methionine-metabolizing enzymes, such as methionine adenosyltransferase. Hypermethioninemic patients exhibit clinical manifestations, including neuronal and liver disorders involving inflammation and tissue injury, which pathophysiology is not completely established...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Sunhee Kang, Young Mi Kim, Ryang Yeo Kim, Min Jung Seo, Zaesung No, Kiyean Nam, Sanghee Kim, Jaeseung Kim
The anti-tubercular activity of 6-chloro-2-ethyl-N-(4-(4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)piperidin-1-yl)benzyl)imidazo [1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Q203) is modified by varying its side chain. In this study, we synthesized Q203 analogues with different side chains and studied their effects on anti-tubercular activity. Many analogues showed good potency against M. tuberculosis replicating in liquid broth culture medium (extracellular activity) regardless of chain length and conformational changes. However, a polar character in the side chain region was unfavorable for anti-tubercular activity...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Min Zhang, Zhongqi Zhou, Jinguang Wang, Shufa Li
Inflammatory pathways play an important role in impaired glucose metabolism and insulin production. Adipose tissue inflammation is characterized by infiltration and expansion of macrophages, leading to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophage polarization contributes to various inflammatory responses and cytokine production profiles. MiR-130b is involved in regulating immune response and metabolism. However, the specific role in macrophage polarization and glucose metabolism of T2D has not been reported. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce T2D mice model...
October 13, 2016: Immunology Letters
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Yinqiu Wang, Aolei Niu, Suwan Wang, Chenhang Zou, Raymond C Harris
Cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 play important roles in polarization of macrophages/dendritic cells to an M2 phenotype, which is important for recovery from acute kidney injury. Both IL-4 and IL-13 activate JAK3/STAT6 signaling. In mice with diphtheria toxin receptor expression in proximal tubules (selective injury model), a relatively selective JAK3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, led to more severe kidney injury, delayed recovery from acute kidney injury, increased inflammatory M1 phenotype markers and decreased reparative M2 phenotype markers of macrophages/dendritic cells, and development of more severe renal fibrosis after diphtheria toxin administration...
October 10, 2016: Kidney International
Hao Meng, Yuan Liu, Bruce P Lee
: Mussel adhesive moiety, catechol, has been utilized to design a wide variety of biomaterials. However, the biocompatibility and biological responses associated with the byproducts generated during the curing process of catechol has never been characterized. An in situ curable polymer model system, 4-armed polyethylene glycol polymer end-capped with dopamine (PEG-D4), was used to characterize the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during the oxidative crosslinking of catechol. Although PEG-D4 cured rapidly (under 30s), catechol continues to polymerize over several hours to form a more densely crosslinked network over time...
October 12, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Konstantinos A Economou, Dimitra Christopikou, Erika Tsorva, Stephen Davies, Minas Mastrominas, Haris Cazlaris, Michael Koutsilieris, Panagoula Angelogianni, Dimitris Loutradis
PURPOSE: Artificial oocyte activation using calcium ionophores and enhancement of embryonic developmental potential by the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have already been reported. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic effect of these two methods on aged human unfertilized oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Then, we cultured the resulting embryos to the blastocyst stage and screened them for chromosomal abnormalities, to assess the safety of this protocol...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Kristi J Warren, Xi Fang, Nagaraj M Gowda, Joshua J Thompson, Nicola M Heller
Lung M2 macrophages are regulators of airway inflammation, associated with poor lung function in allergic asthma. Previously, we demonstrated that IL-4-induced M2 gene expression correlated with tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 in macrophages. We hypothesized that negative regulation of IRS-2 activity following IL-4 stimulation is dependent upon serine phosphorylation of IRS-2. Herein, we describe an inverse relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation (pY) and serine phosphorylation (pS) of IRS-2 following IL-4 stimulation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
JoAnn Trial, Lawrence A Potempa, Mark L Entman
The participation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in host defense against microorganisms has been well described. More controversial has been its role in chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Our recent publications explain the reasons for some of the confusion concerning CRP as a risk factor for disease and whether it is pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. We found that two isoforms of CRP, pentameric (pCRP) and monomeric (mCRP), on microparticles (MPs), were not measureable by standard clinical assays...
2016: Inflammation and Cell Signaling
Casey M Gries, Eric L Bruger, Derek E Moormeier, Tyler D Scherr, Christopher M Waters, Tammy Kielian
S. aureus is a leading cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired infections, with a propensity for biofilm formation. S. aureus biofilms actively skew the host immune response toward an anti-inflammatory state; however, the biofilm effector molecules and their mechanism(s) of action responsible for this phenomenon remain to be fully defined. The essential bacterial second messenger cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is an emerging pathogen-associated molecular pattern during intracellular bacterial infections, where c-di-AMP secretion into the infected host cytosol induces a robust type I interferon (IFN) response...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Kaitlyn Sadtler, Brian W Allen, Kenneth Estrellas, Franck Housseau, Drew M Pardoll, Jennifer H Elisseeff
The immune system mediates tissue growth and homeostasis and is the first responder to injury or biomaterial implantation. Recently, it has been appreciated that immune cells play a critical role in wound healing and tissue repair and should thus be considered as potentially beneficial particularly in the context of scaffolds for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a flow cytometric analysis of cellular recruitment to tissue-derived extracellular matrix scaffolds where we quantitatively describe the infiltration and polarization of several immune subtypes including macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, monocytes, T cells, and B cells...
October 13, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"