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Polarized macrophages

Ling-Li Zhang, Lian-Feng Zhang, Yun-Bo Shi
The paxillin and M2 macrophage are all involved in cell proliferation and tumor progression, and this study aims to explore the interaction between them in colon cancer and the role of paxillin in cancer progression. Expression of mRNAs and proteins was determined by qRTPCR and western blot, separately. Endogenous expression of genes was modulated by recombinant plasmids and cell transfection. The levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA. The cell viability, invasion and migration were detected by MTT assay, transwell assay and wound-healing cell migration assay, respectively...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Anna Gawda, Grzegorz Majka, Bernadeta Nowak, Małgorzata Śróttek, Maria Walczewska, Janusz Marcinkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Macrophages are responsible for the regulation of chronic inflammation. However, whether PM affects macrophage polarization remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nontoxic concentrations of urban PM are able to prime macrophages to altered inflammatory response upon LPS challenge. METHODS: We used two forms of the urban particulate matter SRM 1648a, intact PM and PM deprived of organic compounds (PM∆C)...
June 19, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Lionel B Ivashkiv
IFNγ is a cytokine with important roles in tissue homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses and tumour immunosurveillance. Signalling by the IFNγ receptor activates the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway to induce the expression of classical interferon-stimulated genes that have key immune effector functions. This Review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional, chromatin-based and metabolic mechanisms that underlie IFNγ-mediated polarization of macrophages to an 'M1-like' state, which is characterized by increased pro-inflammatory activity and macrophage resistance to tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory factors...
June 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Chiraz Atri, Fatma Z Guerfali, Dhafer Laouini
Experimental models have often been at the origin of immunological paradigms such as the M1/M2 dichotomy following macrophage polarization. However, this clear dichotomy in animal models is not as obvious in humans, and the separating line between M1-like and M2-like macrophages is rather represented by a continuum, where boundaries are still unclear. Indeed, human infectious diseases, are characterized by either a back and forth or often a mixed profile between the pro-inflammatory microenvironment (dominated by interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokines) and tissue injury driven by classically activated macrophages (M1-like) and wound healing driven by alternatively activated macrophages (M2-like) in an anti-inflammatory environment (dominated by IL-10, Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, chemokine ligand (CCL)1, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, and CCL22)...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hiromi Shiratori, Carmen Feinweber, Sonja Luckhardt, Nadja Wallner, Gerd Geisslinger, Andreas Weigert, Michael J Parnham
Macrophages undergo activation by pathophysiological stimuli to pro-inflammatory and bactericidal, or wound-healing and anti-inflammatory phenotypes, termed M1 or M2, respectively. Dysregulation of the M1-M2 balance is often associated with inflammatory diseases. Therefore, mechanisms of macrophage polarization may reveal new drug targets. We profiled six compounds with claimed modulatory effects on macrophage polarization using peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Based on the distinct mRNA or protein expression in macrophages stimulated either with M1 [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + interferon-γ, IFNγ] or M2 interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimuli, we selected a combination of M1 (IL1β, tumor necrosis factor-α,TNFα, CC chemokine receptor 7, CCR7 and CD80) and M2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22, CCL22, CD200R and mannose receptor C type 1, MRC1) markers to monitor drug effects on "M1 polarization" or cells "pre-polarized to M1"...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Heba M Abdel-Haleem, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Carlos Azevedo, Lamjed Mansour
This study describes infection of intestinal smooth muscle in fringelip mullets Crenimugil crenilabis with Kudoa crenimugilis n. sp. Of 30 individuals sampled from the Red Sea off Saudi Arabia, 6 (20%) were infected. Ovoid plasmodia (279-412 × 157-295 µm) in the smooth muscle of the intestine were packed with only mature myxospores with 4 valves. Specifically, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed quadrate myxospores with 4 equal, rounded, spore valves uniting at thin delicate suture lines. The mature myxospores were 8 (7-9) µm long, 5...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hilary A Seifert, Gil Benedek, Ha Nguyen, Grant Gerstner, Ying Zhang, Gail Kent, Arthur A Vandenbark, Jürgen Bernhagen, Halina Offner
A seven day pretreatment course of an oral antibiotic cocktail (Ampicillin, Metronidazole, Neomycin Sulfate, and Vancomycin) was shown to induce changes in peripheral immune regulation and protect mice from signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To determine if a shorter course of antibiotic pretreatment could also protect the mice from EAE and induce regulatory immune cells, studies were conducted using the same oral antibiotic cocktail for three days. In addition, the CNS was examined to determine the effects of antibiotic pretreatment on EAE disease course and immune modulation within the affected tissue...
June 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Francesco Ursini, Emilio Russo, Gianluca Pellino, Salvatore D'Angelo, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Roberto Manfredini, Roberto De Giorgio
Metformin ( dimethyl biguanide ) is a synthetic derivative of guanidine, isolated from the extracts of Galega officinalis , a plant with a prominent antidiabetic effect. Since its discovery more than 50 years ago, metformin represents a worldwide milestone in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent evidence in humans indicates novel pleiotropic actions of metformin which span from its consolidated role in T2D management up to various regulatory properties, including cardio- and nephro-protection, as well as antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antioxidant effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chengmin He, Zhi Yang, Ying Jin, Xiaoyang Qi, Jin Chu, Xiaoyuan Deng
Adult mammalian skin has a defective regenerative capacity following full-thickness cutaneous injury; this defect overshadows the complete physiological functions of the skin. Immune-mediated skin reconstruction driven by biological scaffolds is a recently developed innovative repair strategy to support regenerative wound healing. However, to date, little is known about how biological scaffolds orchestrate the immune response to promote regeneration. Here, using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) scaffolds, we discovered that the default pro-inflammatory response was altered in response to a pro-regenerative response characterized by specific M2 polarization...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shang-Hung Lin, Hung-Yi Chuang, Ji-Chen Ho, Chih-Hung Lee, Chang-Chun Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease with dramatic responses to TNF-α inhibitors. TNF-α is mainly produced by macrophages. However, how macrophage polarization contributes to psoriasis remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of macrophage polarization in psoriasis. METHODS: 8 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis (Male/Female: 4/4, average age: 47.9 years old) and 8 healthy controls (Male/Female: 4/4, average age: 49...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Shohei Kawanishi, Kazuyuki Takata, Shouma Itezono, Hiroko Nagayama, Sayaka Konoya, Yugo Chisaki, Yuki Toda, Susumu Nakata, Yoshitaka Yano, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Eishi Ashihara
Microglia, the primary immune cells in the brain, sense pathogens and tissue damage, stimulate cytokine production, and phagocytosis to maintain homeostasis. Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain triggers the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, promotion of Aβ clearance represents a promising strategy for AD therapy. We previously demonstrated that primary-cultured rat microglia phagocytose Aβ, and that transplantation of these cells ameliorates the Aβ burden in brains of Aβ-injected rats...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Cong Wang, Weisheng Cheng, Qian Yu, Tian Xing, Shoubin Chen, Lei Liu, Li Yu, Jian Du, Qingli Luo, Jilong Shen, Yuanhong Xu
Toxoplasma gondii infection evokes a strong Th1-type response with interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion. Recent studies suggest that the infection of pregnant mice with T. gondii may lead to adverse pregnancy results caused by subversion of physiological immune tolerance at maternofetal interface rather than direct invasion of the parasite. Genotype-associated dense granule protein GRA15II tends to induce classically activated macrophage (M1) differentiation and subsequently activating NK, Th1, and Th17 cells whereas rhoptry protein ROP16I/III drives macrophages to alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization and elicits Th2 immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Zhang, Shinji Ohno, Beatrix Steer, Stephan Klee, Claudia A Staab-Weijnitz, Darcy Wagner, Mareike Lehmann, Tobias Stoeger, Melanie Königshoff, Heiko Adler
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating interstitial lung disease, characterized by damage of lung epithelial cells, excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the lung interstitium, and enhanced activation and proliferation of fibroblasts. S100a4, also termed FSP-1 (fibroblast-specific protein-1), was previously considered as a marker of fibroblasts but recent findings in renal and liver fibrosis indicated that M2 macrophages are an important cellular source of S100a4. Thus, we hypothesized that also in pulmonary fibrosis, M2 macrophages produce and secrete S100a4, and that secreted S100a4 induces the proliferation and activation of fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Akram Firouzi-Amandi, Mehdi Dadashpour, Mohammad Nouri, Nosratollah Zarghami, Hamed Serati-Nouri, Davoud Jafari-Gharabaghlou, Bita Hazhir Karzar, Hassan Mellatyar, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Zohreh Babaloo, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a natural flavonoid, Chrysin (Chr), encapsulated in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) for the modulation of macrophage polarity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. The synthetized NPs were characterized using FTIR, DLS and FE-SEM. MTT assay was used to assess the toxicity of different concentration of Chr-encapsulated NPs on LPS/IFN-γ stimulated peritoneal exudate macrophages. To investigate the repolarization efficiency of Chr-encapsulated NPs, real-time PCR was applied to measure M1 (iNOS and SOCS3) and M2 (Arg1 and Fizz) markers expression...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Joy E Tomlinson, Emilija Žygelytė, Jennifer K Grenier, Michael G Edwards, Jonathan Cheetham
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a key role in peripheral nerve repair and demonstrate complex phenotypes that are highly dependent on microenvironmental cues. METHODS: We determined temporal changes in macrophage gene expression over time using RNA sequencing after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) macrophage populations from injured peripheral nerve. We identified key upstream regulators and dominant pathways using ingenuity pathway analysis and confirmed these changes with NanoString technology...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
William D Cornwell, Victor Kim, Xiaoxuan Fan, Marie Elena Vega, Frederick V Ramsey, Gerard J Criner, Thomas J Rogers
BACKGROUND: The ability of circulating monocytes to develop into lung macrophages and promote lung tissue damage depends upon their phenotypic pattern of differentiation and activation. Whether this phenotypic pattern varies with COPD severity is unknown. Here we characterize the activation and differentiation status of circulating monocytes in patients with moderate vs. severe COPD. METHODS: Blood monocytes were isolated from normal non-smokers (14), current smokers (13), patients with moderate (9), and severe COPD (11)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Qianping Luo, Yong Fan, Lili Lin, Jingjing Wei, Zuanfang Li, Yongkun Li, Susumu Nakae, Wei Lin, Qi Chen
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a novel member of the IL-1 family, expressed in many tissue and cell types, and is involved in inflammation and immune functions. Previous studies suggest that IL-33 may play a role in ischemic stroke. We tried to investigate the role of IL-33 in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury and its underlying mechanism. Our data indicated that IL-33 deficiency exacerbated the neurological dysfunction caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and led to the formation of larger cerebral infarct volume as shown by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and magnetic resonance imaging...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Agata Mlynska, Egle Povilaityte, Inga Zemleckaite, Karolina Zilionyte, Marius Strioga, Jan Krasko, Neringa Dobrovolskiene, Mei-Wen Peng, Birute Intaite, Vita Pasukoniene
PROBLEM: Development of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer is mediated by both cancer cells and tumor microenvironment. Activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition program in cancer cells may lead to enrichment for resistant clones. These processes can be affected by tumor-associated macrophages, a highly plastic population of cells that participate in tumor progression and response to treatment by shaping the microenvironment. We aimed to study how platinum resistance influences the crosstalk between macrophages and ovarian cancer cells...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Maria I Guillén, Julia Platas, María D Pérez Del Caz, Vicente Mirabet, Maria J Alcaraz
The inflammatory process is an essential phenomenon in the induction of immune responses. Monocytes are key effector cells during the inflammatory process. A wide range of evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ASC) are endowed with immunomodulatory capacity. However, the interaction between ASC and monocytes in the innate immune response is not well understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible paracrine anti-inflammatory effects of ASC in human monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from buffy coats and ASC from fat of non-obese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pei Xiao, Xinxin Long, Lijie Zhang, Yingnan Ye, Jincheng Guo, Pengpeng Liu, Rui Zhang, Junya Ning, Wenwen Yu, Feng Wei, Jinpu Yu
We previously demonstrated that neurotensin (NTS) induces local inflammation and promotes tumor invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, positive correlations between NTS and interleukin (IL)-8 were identified at both the mRNA and protein levels in 71 fresh HCC tissues and 100 paraffin-embedded HCC tissues. Furthermore, significant correlations were determined among the co-expression of NTS and IL-8, infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells...
2018: Oncoimmunology
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