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P W Crous, M J Wingfield, T I Burgess, G E St J Hardy, P A Barber, P Alvarado, C W Barnes, P K Buchanan, M Heykoop, G Moreno, R Thangavel, S van der Spuy, A Barili, S Barrett, S O Cacciola, J F Cano-Lira, C Crane, C Decock, T B Gibertoni, J Guarro, M Guevara-Suarez, V Hubka, M Kolařík, C R S Lira, M E Ordoñez, M Padamsee, L Ryvarden, A M Soares, A M Stchigel, D A Sutton, A Vizzini, B S Weir, K Acharya, F Aloi, I G Baseia, R A Blanchette, J J Bordallo, Z Bratek, T Butler, J Cano-Canals, J R Carlavilla, J Chander, R Cheewangkoon, R H S F Cruz, M da Silva, A K Dutta, E Ercole, V Escobio, F Esteve-Raventós, J A Flores, J Gené, J S Góis, L Haines, B W Held, M Horta Jung, K Hosaka, T Jung, Ž Jurjević, V Kautman, I Kautmanova, A A Kiyashko, M Kozanek, A Kubátová, M Lafourcade, F La Spada, K P D Latha, H Madrid, E F Malysheva, P Manimohan, J L Manjón, M P Martín, M Mata, Z Merényi, A Morte, I Nagy, A-C Normand, S Paloi, N Pattison, J Pawłowska, O L Pereira, M E Petterson, B Picillo, K N A Raj, A Roberts, A Rodríguez, F J Rodríguez-Campo, M Romański, M Ruszkiewicz-Michalska, B Scanu, L Schena, M Semelbauer, R Sharma, Y S Shouche, V Silva, M Staniaszek-Kik, J B Stielow, C Tapia, P W J Taylor, M Toome-Heller, J M C Vabeikhokhei, A D van Diepeningen, N Van Hoa, Van Tri M, N P Wiederhold, M Wrzosek, J Zothanzama, J Z Groenewald
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomycesaustraliensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Disculoides calophyllae on Corymbia calophylla, Harknessia banksiae on Banksia sessilis, Harknessia banksiae-repens on Banksia repens, Harknessia banksiigena on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Harknessia communis on Podocarpus sp...
June 2017: Persoonia
Svenja Nörenberg, Christiane Kiske, Andrea Burmann, Iulia Poplacean, Karl-Heinz Engel
2-Mercapto-4-heptanone, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone, and the corresponding mercaptoalcohols, previously identified in cooked red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), were used as examples to determine the distributions of stereoisomers of naturally occurring polyfunctional thiols. The thiols were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction and enriched by affinity chromatography. Enantioselective analysis was performed via multidimensional gas chromatography. For the studied cultivar California Wonder, the investigation of different batches of cooked red bell pepper revealed consistent ratios of the stereoisomers independent of origin and date of purchase...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mai Hazekawa, Yuko Hideshima, Kazuhiko Ono, Takuya Nishinakagawa, Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Tomoka Takatani-Nakase, Manabu Nakashima
Fruits and vegetables have been recognized as natural sources of various bioactive compounds. Peppers, one such natural source, are consumed worldwide as spice crops. They additionally have an important role in traditional medicine, as a result of their antioxidant bioactivity via radical scavenging. However, there are no reports regarding the bioactivity of the bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum), a commonly used edible vegetable. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of water extract from bell pepper leaves on mouse spleen cells, and explore the potential mechanism underlying this effect...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sun-Young Shin, Me-Hea Park, Ji-Weon Choi, Ji-Gang Kim
Cold storage is an effective postharvest control strategy to maintain the freshness of vegetables by suppressing respiration. However, subtropical plants including pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) undergo chilling injury. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in preventing chilling injury, transcriptome profiling analysis of peppers stored in a cold chamber and treated with 50μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 1μLL(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene as an ethylene reaction inhibitor was performed. A total of 240, 470, and 290 genes were upregulated and 184, 291, and 219 genes down-regulated in cold-, MeJA- and 1-methylcyclopropene-treated peppers, respectively...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Seungill Kim, Jieun Park, Seon-In Yeom, Yong-Min Kim, Eunyoung Seo, Ki-Tae Kim, Myung-Shin Kim, Je Min Lee, Kyeongchae Cheong, Ho-Sub Shin, Saet-Byul Kim, Koeun Han, Jundae Lee, Minkyu Park, Hyun-Ah Lee, Hye-Young Lee, Youngsill Lee, Soohyun Oh, Joo Hyun Lee, Eunhye Choi, Eunbi Choi, So Eui Lee, Jongbum Jeon, Hyunbin Kim, Gobong Choi, Hyeunjeong Song, JunKi Lee, Sang-Choon Lee, Jin-Kyung Kwon, Hea-Young Lee, Namjin Koo, Yunji Hong, Ryan W Kim, Won-Hee Kang, Jin Hoe Huh, Byoung-Cheorl Kang, Tae-Jin Yang, Yong-Hwan Lee, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Doil Choi
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements are major evolutionary forces which can cause new genome structure and species diversification. The role of transposable elements in the expansion of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich-repeat proteins (NLRs), the major disease-resistance gene families, has been unexplored in plants. RESULTS: We report two high-quality de novo genomes (Capsicum baccatum and C. chinense) and an improved reference genome (C. annuum) for peppers. Dynamic genome rearrangements involving translocations among chromosomes 3, 5, and 9 were detected in comparison between C...
November 1, 2017: Genome Biology
James Owusu-Kwarteng, Francis K K Kori, Fortune Akabanda
The objective of this work was to determine the effects of blanching and two drying methods, open-sun drying and natural convection solar drying, on the quality characteristics of red pepper. A 2 × 3 factorial design with experimental factors as 2 drying methods (open-sun drying and use of solar dryer) and 3 levels of pepper blanching (unblanched, blanched in plain water, and blanched in 2% NaCl) was conducted. Dried pepper samples were analysed for chemical composition, microbial load, and consumer sensory acceptability...
2017: International journal of food science
Bahman Rahimi-Esboei, Mahdi Najm, Morad Shaker, Mahdi Fakhar, Iraj Mobedi
AIM: There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections...
September 2017: Veterinary World
Azareel Angulo-Castro, Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato, Alejandro Alarcón, Juan José Almaraz-Suárez, Julián Delgadillo-Martínez, Maribel Jiménez-Fernández, Oscar García-Barradas
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a biological alternative for the sustainable management of Capsicum annuum L. This research work evaluated the effects of both PGPR and AMF on bell pepper and jalapeno pepper plants. Five bacterial strains isolated from several locations in Estado de Mexico were used: [P61 (Pseudomonas tolaasii), A46 (P. tolaasii), R44 (Bacillus pumilus), BSP1.1 (Paenibacillus sp.), and OLs-Sf5 (Pseudomonas sp.)], and three treatments with AMF [H1 (consortium isolated from pepper crops in the State of Puebla), H2 (Rhizophagus intraradices), and H3 (consortium isolated from the rhizosphere of lemon trees, State of Tabasco)]...
October 17, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Mariel Gullian-Klanian, Maria José Sánchez-Solis
Despite the increasing reports on the incidence of fresh vegetables and fruits as a possible vehicle for human pathogens, there is currently limited knowledge on the growth potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on different plant substrates. This study analyzed the selective adhesion and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on chili habanero (Capsicum chinense L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), and onion (Allium cepa L.) under laboratory conditions...
August 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Kyumi Jeong, Doil Choi, Jundae Lee
The genomic region cosegregating with the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene of Capsicum annuum L. was delimited to a region of 869.9 kb on chromosome 5 through fine mapping analysis. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 gene that controls pollen development, was identified in this region. Genic male sterility caused by the ms 1 gene has been used for the economically efficient production of massive hybrid seeds in paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), a colored bell-type sweet pepper...
October 14, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Yilan Qiu, Lijuan Liao, Xiaorui Jin, Dandan Mao, Rushi Liu
CMS, which refers to the inability to generate functional pollen grains while still producing a normal gynoecium, has been widely used for pepper hybrid seed production. Pepper line 8214A is an excellent CMS line exhibiting 100% male sterility and superior economic characteristics. A TUNEL assay revealed the nuclear DNA is damaged in 8214A PMCs during meiosis. TEM images indicated that the 8214A PMCs exhibited asynchronous meiosis after prophase I, and some PMCs degraded prematurely with morphological features typical of PCD...
October 11, 2017: Gene
Jung Eun Kim, Hyeon-Son Choi, Dong-Un Lee, Sea C Min
The efficacy of microwave-combined cold plasma treatment (MCPT) for inactivating Bacillus cereus spores contaminating red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) flakes was investigated. The effects of red pepper drying method, particle size, and water activity (aw) were also evaluated at two levels of microwave power (1700 and 2500W/cm(2)). The inactivation effect of MCPT was higher at higher microwave power. Spore reduction was more effective with vacuum-dried red pepper than far-infrared-dried flakes. A significantly higher level of spore reduction was observed with the red pepper sample with a smaller surface to volume ratio when one surface (exterior surface) was inoculated (p<0...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Justine Charon, Amandine Barra, Jocelyne Walter, Pauline Millot, Eugénie Hébrard, Benoît Moury, Thierry Michon
Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins is defined as a lack of stable structure in physiological conditions. Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are highly abundant in some RNA virus proteomes. Low topological constraints exerted on IDRs are expected to buffer the effect of numerous deleterious mutations and could be related to the remarkable adaptive potential of RNA viruses to overcome resistance of their host. To experimentally test this hypothesis in a natural pathosystem, a set of four variants of Potato virus Y (PVY; Potyvirus genus) containing various ID degrees in the Viral genome-linked (VPg) protein, a key determinant of potyvirus adaptation, was designed...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Rongwei Yan, Leilei Zhao, Junfei Tao, Yong Zou, Xinjun Xu
BACKGROUND: Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 (SFE-CO2 ) was utilized for extraction of capsaicin (CA) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCA) from Capsici Fructus, and then a two-step enrichment method about separating capsaicinoids from SFE-CO2 extracts was developed. The process involved extraction with aqueous methanol and crystallization by alkali-extraction and acid-precipitation. Finally, a consecutive high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) separation method was successfully applied in the purification of CA and DHCA from capsaicinoids crystal...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ting Wang, Hong Wei, Cui Zhou, Yanwen Gu, Rui Li, Hongchun Chen, Wenchao Ma
Hyperspectral remote sensing can be applied to the rapid and nondestructive monitoring of heavy-metal pollution in crops. To realize the rapid and real-time detection of cadmium in the edible part (fruit) of Capsicum annuum, the leaf spectral reflectance of plants exposed to different levels of cadmium stress was measured using hyperspectral remote sensing during four growth stages. The spectral indices or bands sensitive to cadmium stress were determined by correlation analysis, and hyperspectral estimation models for predicting the cadmium content in the fruit of C...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lautaro Hilbert, Eduardo Góes Neves, Francisco Pugliese, Bronwen S Whitney, Myrtle Shock, Elizabeth Veasey, Carlos Augusto Zimpel, José Iriarte
The development of agriculture is one of humankind's most pivotal achievements. Questions about plant domestication and the origins of agriculture have engaged scholars for well over a century, with implications for understanding its legacy on global subsistence strategies, plant distribution, population health and the global methane budget. Rice is one of the most important crops to be domesticated globally, with both Asia (Oryza sativa L.) and Africa (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) discussed as primary centres of domestication...
October 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
C S Bento, A G de Souza, C P Sudré, S Pimenta, R Rodrigues
This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jang-Kyun Seo, Hae-Ryun Kwak, Boram Choi, Soo-Jung Han, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Hong-Soo Choi
Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2, genus Fabavirus, family Secoviridae) has a wide host range and infects many economically important crops. Various isolates of BBWV2 have been identified from diverse host plants, and their molecular and biological characteristics have been investigated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that BBWV2 RNA2 contains a symptom determinant(s) capable of enhancing symptom severity by utilizing infectious full-length cDNA clones of two distinct strains of BBWV2, pBBWV2-PAP1 (a severe strain) and pBBWV2-RP1 (a mild strain)...
September 29, 2017: Virus Research
Johann M R Antoine, Leslie A Hoo Fung, Charles N Grant
Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops - ackee (Blighia sapida), banana (Musa acuminate), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), cassava (Manihot esculenta), coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) - were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Tiago Fidemann, Gabriela Aparecida de Araujo Pereira, Lia Bossard Nascimento, Milena Cristina Moraes, Mônica Rosa Bertão, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández Núñez
Plants endue a key role against illnesses caused by oxidative stress. These attributes are frequently associated with polyphenolic compounds. However, presence and concentration of secondary metabolites are affected by abiotic factors. The in vitro culture techniques can solve these drawbacks. Peppers can be a suitable alternative to obtain polyphenols. Aiming to optimise the callus culture stage from Capsicum baccatum to produce polyphenols, this work evaluated systemically the effects of the explant's origin (root, hypocotyl and cotyledon), growth hormone type (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), benzylaminopurine (BAP) and a combination of 2,4-D/BAP at five-to-one ratio) and concentration (0...
September 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
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