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Sobiya Shafique, Shazia Shafique, Aqeel Ahmad
Pakistan holds the position of top chilies producers. So Capsicum annuum L. production in Pakistan should be promoted by combating against diseases. The only solution is to cultivate resistant varieties. Presently six chili varieties were treated with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and screened for the most resistant and the most susceptible varieties. Representative varieties were evaluated for their biochemical and transcriptional profiles to discover the bases of antifungal-resistance. Results concluded that the most resistant variety was "Dandicut" and the most susceptible was "Ghotki"...
April 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Rafaella Cardoso, Claudete F Ruas, Renata M Giacomin, Paulo M Ruas, Eduardo A Ruas, Rosa L Barbieri, Rosana Rodrigues, Leandro S A Gonçalves
Capsicum baccatum is one of the main pepper species grown and consumed in South America. In Brazil, it is commonly cultivated by family farmers, using mostly the genotypes bishop's hat genotypes (locally cambuci) and red chili pepper (dedo-de-moça). This study had the objective of characterizing 116 C. baccatum accessions from different regions of Brazil, based on morphological fruit descriptors and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) markers. Broad phenotypic variability among the C. baccatum accessions was detected when using morphological fruit descriptors...
2018: PloS One
B D Haokip, D Alice, R Selvarajan, K Nagendran, L Rajendran, S K Manoranjitham, G Karthikeyan
Bud necrosis and chlorotic spots causing virus affecting chilli crop in Tamil Nadu (India) was identified as Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV). Specific primers were used for amplification and sequencing of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene. Polyclonal antibody against the bacterially expressed NP from the CaCV-TN-CBE isolate was produced using recombinant DNA technology. NP gene was subcloned into the pET-28a (+) vector and expressed by transformation in BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The expressed protein was about ~34 kDa and was confirmed through western blot analysis using Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) polyclonal antiserum from ICRISAT, India...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
J Oh, M Harper, C H Lang, E H Wall, A N Hristov
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytonutrients, compared with monensin as a positive control, on productivity, milk fatty acids, fat mobilization, and blood cells in lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six Holstein cows were used in a 9-wk randomized complete block design study. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, parity, and milk yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (12 cows/treatment): 450 mg/cow per day of monensin (MO), 250 mg/cow per day of capsicum plus 450 mg/cow per day of MO (MOCAP), and 1,000 mg/cow per day of a mixture of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and capsicum (CEC)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ansar Hussain, Xia Li, Yahong Weng, Zhiqin Liu, Muhammad Furqan Ashraf, Ali Noman, Sheng Yang, Muhammad Ifnan, Shanshan Qiu, Yingjie Yang, Deyi Guan, Shuilin He
The WRKY web, which is comprised of a subset of WRKY transcription factors (TFs), plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant immunity, however, the mode of organization and operation of this network remains obscure, especially in non-model plants such as pepper ( Capsicum annuum ). Herein, CaWRKY22 , a member of a subgroup of IIe WRKY proteins from pepper, was functionally characterized in pepper immunity against Ralstonia Solanacearum . CaWRKY22 was found to target the nuclei, and its transcript level was significantly upregulated by Ralstonia Solanacearum inoculation (RSI) and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA), Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or ethephon (ETH)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hasan Hüseyin İpçak, Ahmet Alçiçek
Background: In recent years, with the prohibition of antibiotics used as growth stimulants in the nutrition of farm animals, researchers have searched for alternative natural and reliable products in order to be able to sustain the developments experienced during the use of antibiotics and to overcome the possible inconveniences. In this context, studies on evaluation of essential oils in poultry nutrition have been reported to improve the utilization of feed, stimulate the release of digestive enzymes, increase absorption in the stomach and intestines, antimicrobial and anti-parasitic effects and thus, can be an alternative to antibiotics and improve meat quality as well...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Chunhui Zhu, Xuefeng Li, Jingyuan Zheng
Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), which is a member of the Solanaceae family, is becoming an increasingly important vegetable crop worldwide. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive virus that can cause leaf distortion and fruit lesions, affecting pepper production. However, studies on the responses to CMV infection in pepper at the transcriptional level are limited. In this study, the transcript profiles of pepper leaves after CMV infection were investigated using Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq)...
May 3, 2018: Gene
Jinju Guo, Chen Liu, Peng Wang, Qing Cheng, Liang Sun, Wencai Yang, Huolin Shen
Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Although many genes associated with anther and pollen development have been identified, little is known about the mechanism of pollen abortion in pepper. Here, we identified and isolated two putative aborted microspore ( AMS ) isoforms from pepper flowers: CaAMS1 and CaAMS2 . Sequence analysis showed that CaAMS2 was generated by retention of the fourth intron in CaAMS1 pre-mRNA. CaAMS1 encodes a putative protein with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain belonging to the MYC subfamily of bHLH transcription factors, and it is localized to the nucleus...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniel Spalink, Kevin Stoffel, Genevieve K Walden, Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Theresa A Hill, Allen Van Deynze, Lynn Bohs
The integration of genomics and phylogenetics allows new insight into the structure of gene tree discordance, the relationships among gene position, gene history, and rate of evolution, as well as the correspondence of gene function, positive selection, and gene ontology enrichment across lineages. We explore these issues using the tribe Capsiceae (Solanaceae), which is comprised of the genera Lycianthes and Capsicum (peppers). In combining the annotated genomes of Capsicum with newly sequenced transcriptomes of four species of Lycianthes and Capsicum, we develop phylogenies for 6,747 genes, and construct a backbone species tree using both concordance and explicit phylogenetic network approaches...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Maribel Ovando-Martínez, Nohemí Gámez-Meza, Claudia Celeste Molina-Domínguez, Corina Hayano-Kanashiro, Luis Angel Medina-Juárez
Chiltepin, a wild chili mostly used in different traditional foods and traditional medicine in Northwest Mexico, represents a source of polyphenols. However, studies about the bioaccessibility of polyphenols as a parameter to measure the nutritional quality and bioefficacy of them in the fruit after consumption are scarce. Chiltepin showed phenolic acids and flavonoids contents between 387 and 65 μg/g, respectively. Nevertheless, these values decreased after the digestion process. Before digestion, gallic acid, 4-hydroxibenzoinc acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin and luteolin were the main polyphenols found in chiltepin by HPLC-DAD and confirmed by FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS...
April 26, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
C E Lara-Hidalgo, L Dorantes-Álvarez, H Hernández-Sánchez, F Santoyo-Tepole, A Martínez-Torres, L Villa-Tanaca, C Hernández-Rodríguez
Three yeast strains were isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of guajillo pepper: Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, which were identified by amplification of the ITS/5.8S ribosomal DNA. Some probiotic characteristics of these strains were evaluated and compared with one commercial probiotic yeast (Saccharomyces boulardii). The survival percentage of all the yeasts was similar to that of the commercial product. They showed different hydrophobicity characteristics with hydrocarbons, autoaggregation > 90%, and characteristics of co-aggregation with pathogenic microorganisms...
April 25, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Ailian Qiu, Yufen Lei, Sheng Yang, Ji Wu, Jiazhi Li, Bingjin Bao, Yiting Cai, Song Wang, Jinhui Lin, Yuzhu Wang, Lei Shen, Jinsen Cai, Deyi Guan, Shuilin He
Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger (TZnF) proteins have been implicated in plant defense, but their role in pepper (Capsicum annuum) is unclear. In the present study, the role of CaC3H14, a pepper TZnF protein, in the immune response of pepper plants to Ralstonia solanacearum infection was characterized. When fused to the green fluorescent protein, CaC3H14 was localized exclusively to nuclei in leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing CaC3H14. Transcript abundance of CaC3H14 was upregulated by inoculation with R...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ghasem Asgari-Targhi, Alireza Iranbakhsh, Zahra Oraghi Ardebili
Concerning environmental issues of metal based-nanomaterials and increasing demand for nano-based products; various strategies have been employed to find eco-friendly natural nano-compounds, among which nano-polymer chitosan is mostly considered. Herein, the various aspects of the way in which bulk or nano-chitosan may modify growth, morphogenesis, micropropagation, and physiology of Capsicum annuum L. were considered. Culture medium was manipulated with different concentrations of bulk chitosan or synthesized chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nano-particle...
April 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Purushottam R Lomate, Veena Dewangan, Neha Mahajan, Yashwant Kumar, Abhijeet Kulkarni, Li Wang, Smita Saxsena, Vidya S Gupta, Ashok P Giri
Insects adapt to plant protease inhibitors (PIs) present in their diet by differentially regulating multiple digestive proteases. However, mechanisms regulating protease gene expression in insects are largely enigmatic. Ingestion of multi-domain recombinant Capsicum annuum protease inhibitor-7 (CanPI-7) arrests growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Using de novo RNA sequencing and proteomic analysis, we examined the response of H. armigera larvae fed on recombinant CanPI-7 at different time intervals...
April 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Lobna Hajji-Hedfi, Emna Rebai, Asma Larayedh, Hajer Regaieg, Najet Horrigue-Raouani
Pot and greenhouse trials were conducted for the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, infestation in tomato. Growth parameters, gall index, soil, and root nematode populations were measured to assess the effect of a novel bio-pesticide (Dazitol®), made from mustard oil and oleoresin of Capsicum, on plant growth and nematode reproduction. Data generated within the pot experiment showed that the tested bio-pesticide did not improve plant growth, but it reduced significantly root-knot nematode damage resulting in a decrease in gall index and root (91%) and soil (62%) population of M...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jose Luis Ortega, Wathsala Rajapakse, Suman Bagga, Kimberly Apodaca, Yvonne Lucero, Champa Sengupta-Gopalan
Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important high valued crop worldwide, and when grown on a large scale has problems with weeds. One important herbicide used is glyphosate. Glyphosate inactivates the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids. A transgenic approach towards making glyphosate resistant plants, entails introducing copies of a gene encoding for glyphosate-resistant EPSPS enzyme into the plant. The main objective of our work was to use an intragenic approach to confer resistance to glyphosate in chile which would require using only chile genes for transformation including the selectable marker...
2018: PloS One
M Wiafe-Kwagyan, G T Odamtten
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of spent mushroom compost of Pleurotus eous strain P-31 on the growth and yield performance of pepper and tomato seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Sandy loam soil was combined with different percentages of SMC to obtain the following combinations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) %. Lower concentrations SMC5 , SMC10 and SMC15 promoted vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll content, number of leaves and axillary branches) of the two test plants...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Francisco Marcelo Vieira-Araújo, Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto Vieira, Francisca Noelia Pereira Mendes, José Caludio Carneiro de Freitas, Selene Maia de Morais
The primary choice of drugs to treat Leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimony-based compounds, nevertheless these drugs presented undesirable side effects. However, safe natural compounds could be used in combination with these drugs to enhance their activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sinergism of capsaicin and piperine, isolated from Capsicum frutescens and Piper nigrum, respectively, in combination with meglumine antimoniate against Leishmania infantum promastigote and amastigote forms...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Abid Khan, Ru-Jian Li, Jian-Tian Sun, Fang Ma, Huai-Xia Zhang, Jing-Hao Jin, Muhammad Ali, Saeed Ul Haq, Jun-E Wang, Zhen-Hui Gong
The dirigent (DIR and DIR-like) proteins involved in lignification, play a pivotal role against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, no information is available about DIR gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this study, 24 putative dirigent genes (CaDIRs) were identified, their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication and phylogenetic relationship were elucidated. Tissue-specific expression analysis displayed the highest transcription levels in flower, stem and leaf. Some CaDIRs were up-regulated by virulent (CaDIR2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 14, 16, 22 and 23) and avirulent (CaDIR3, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23 and 24) Phytophthora capsici strains, as well as by Methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, NaCl and mannitol stresses...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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