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Padma Nimmakayala, Venkata L Abburi, Thangasamy Saminathan, Suresh B Alaparthi, Aldo Almeida, Brittany Davenport, Marjan Nadimi, Joshua Davidson, Krittika Tonapi, Lav Yadav, Sridhar Malkaram, Gopinath Vajja, Gerald Hankins, Robert Harris, Minkyu Park, Doil Choi, John Stommel, Umesh K Reddy
Accumulated capsaicinoid content and increased fruit size are traits resulting from Capsicum annuum domestication. In this study, we used a diverse collection of C. annuum to generate 66,960 SNPs using genotyping by sequencing. The study identified 1189 haplotypes containing 3413 SNPs. Length of individual linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks varied along chromosomes, with regions of high and low LD interspersed with an average LD of 139 kb. Principal component analysis (PCA), Bayesian model based population structure analysis and an Euclidean tree built based on identity by state (IBS) indices revealed that the clustering pattern of diverse accessions are in agreement with capsaicin content (CA) and fruit weight (FW) classifications indicating the importance of these traits in shaping modern pepper genome...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Takami Yokogawa, Yohei Sasaki, Hirokazu Ando, Katsuya Yamamoto, Masayuki Mikage
Kanazawa Sutra (KanS) is a medicinal thread that is used for the treatment of anal fistula. It is used as a substitute for Kshara Sutra (KS) which is used in Ayurvedic medicine. KanS is composed of Ficus carica latex (FCL), Capsicum annuum tincture (CAT), Achyranthes fauriei Kshara (which is processed ash from the whole plant) and powdered Curcuma longa rhizome (CLR). In this study, we evaluated the ingredients of KanS by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage-like cell line J774.1 as well as examining cytotoxicity to rat skeletal muscle myoblasts (L6) and L6 differentiation, with a view to improving its pharmacological effect...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Rama Jayasundar, Somenath Ghatak
BACKGROUND: The use of medicinal plants in Ayurveda is based on rasa, generally taken to represent taste as a sensory perception. This chemosensory parameter plays an important role in Ayurvedic pharmacology. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to explore the use of structuro-functional information deduced from analytical techniques for the rasa-based classification of medicinal plants in Ayurveda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methods of differential sensing and spectroscopic metabolomics have been used in select medicinal plants from three different taste categories (sweet, pungent and multiple taste): Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera and Glycyrrhiza glabra from sweet category; Piper longum, Cuminum cyminum and Capsicum annum from pungent group; Emblica officinalis with five tastes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Feng Sun, Kaiwen Pan, Akash Tariq, Lin Zhang, Xiaoming Sun, Zilong Li, Sizhong Wang, Qinli Xiong, Dagang Song, Olusanya Abiodun Olatunji
An agroforestry experiment was conducted that involved four planting systems: monoculture of the focal species Zanthoxylum bungeanum and mixed cultures of Z. bungeanum and Capsicum annuum, Z. bungeanum and Medicago sativa and Z. bungeanum and Glycine max. Soil microbial food web (microorganisms and nematodes) was investigated under manipulated extreme rainfall in the four planting systems to assess whether presence of neighbor species alleviated the magnitude of extreme rainfall on nutrient uptake of the focal species by increasing the stability of soil food web...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Fumihiro Nakashima, Erasmus Kirii, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Yasuba
This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero)...
November 21, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
F Taranto, N D'Agostino, B Greco, T Cardi, P Tripodi
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on population structure and genetic diversity in vegetable crops is essential for association mapping studies and genomic selection. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) represents an innovative method for large scale SNP detection and genotyping of genetic resources. Herein we used the GBS approach for the genome-wide identification of SNPs in a collection of Capsicum spp. accessions and for the assessment of the level of genetic diversity in a subset of 222 cultivated pepper (Capsicum annum) genotypes...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
N Sahin, C Orhan, M Tuzcu, V Juturu, K Sahin
1. To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from Capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n=180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22(o)C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34(o)C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kg for 12 weeks (2x3 factorial arrangement). 2. The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66...
November 21, 2016: British Poultry Science
Padma Nimmakayala, Venkata L Abburi, Thangasamy Saminathan, Aldo Almeida, Brittany Davenport, Joshua Davidson, C V Chandra Mohan Reddy, Gerald Hankins, Andreas Ebert, Doil Choi, John Stommel, Umesh K Reddy
Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jun Wang, Xiao-Ming Fang, A S Mujumdar, Jing-Ya Qian, Qian Zhang, Xu-Hai Yang, Yan-Hong Liu, Zhen-Jiang Gao, Hong-Wei Xiao
Effects of high-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) under different times (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240s) on drying characteristics and quality attributes of red peppers in terms of surface colour, red pigment content, microstructure and texture were investigated. Results showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) residual activity of the samples decreased with increasing blanching time; it was decreased to 7% after 120s. A first-order fraction model described PPO inactivation well. Suitable HHAIB time can reduce drying time extensively...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Sigal Popovsky-Sarid, Yelena Borovsky, Adi Faigenboim, Eugene P Parsons, Gregory T Lohrey, Sharon Alkalai-Tuvia, Elazar Fallik, Matthew A Jenks, Ilan Paran
Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL...
November 14, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hea-Young Lee, Na-Young Ro, Hee-Jin Jeong, Jin-Kyung Kwon, Jinkwan Jo, Yeaseong Ha, Ayoung Jung, Ji-Woong Han, Jelli Venkatesh, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
BACKGROUND: Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum...
November 14, 2016: BMC Genetics
Ligia Brito-Argáez, José A Tamayo-Sansores, Dianeli Madera-Piña, Francisco J García-Villalobos, Rosa E Moo-Puc, Ángela Kú-González, Marco A Villanueva, Ignacio Islas-Flores
The DING protein family consists of proteins of great biological importance due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenic cell growth. A DING peptide with Mr ∼7.57 kDa and pI ∼5.06 was detected in G10P1.7.57, a protein fraction from Capsicum chinense Jacq. seeds. Amino acid sequencing of the peptide produced three smaller peptides showing identity to the DING protein family. G10P1.7.57 displayed a phosphatase activity capable of dephosphorylating different phosphorylated substrates and inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells...
November 3, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article on p. 211 in vol. 7, PMID: 26941768.].
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marcus Jenn Yang Chee, Grantley W Lycett, Teng-Jin Khoo, Chiew Foan Chin
Production of vanillin by bioengineering has gained popularity due to consumer demand toward vanillin produced by biological systems. Natural vanillin from vanilla beans is very expensive to produce compared to its synthetic counterpart. Current bioengineering works mainly involve microbial biotechnology. Therefore, alternative means to the current approaches are constantly being explored. This work describes the use of vanillin synthase (VpVAN), to bioconvert ferulic acid to vanillin in a plant system. The VpVAN enzyme had been shown to directly convert ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Y Q Song, H Z Sun, J Du, X D Wang, Z J Cheng
Bank plant systems provide effective biological control for pests infesting commercially important crops. Aphids cause physical damage to crops by feeding on the leaves, as well as transmitting damaging viral diseases. To develop a bank plant system to control aphids that damage vegetable crops, we initially reared the parasitoid Aphelinus albipodus (Hayat and Fatima) on the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura) reared on the soybean plant, Glycine max (L.) that was elected as the alternate host. Parasitoid adults that emerged from A...
November 5, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Irene Gavilanes-Terán, Janneth Jara-Samaniego, Julio Idrovo-Novillo, Ma Angeles Bustamante, Ma Dolores Pérez-Murcia, Aurelia Pérez-Espinosa, Marga López, Concepción Paredes
This work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using different agroindustrial composts in the production of horticultural seedlings, thereby replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species differing in salt sensitivity - tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Malpica) (the least sensitive), courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Mastil F1) (moderately sensitive) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Largo de Reus Pairal) (the most sensitive) - were grown in nine media containing three composts, prepared by co-composting vegetable waste (flower, broccoli or tomato waste) with laying hen manure and sawdust, as well as peat in various ratios...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
P S S Leite, R Rodrigues, R N O Silva, S Pimenta, A M Medeiros, C S Bento, L S A Gonçalves
Capsicum baccatum is one of the most important chili peppers in South America, since this region is considered to be the center of origin and diversity of this species. In Brazil, C. baccatum has been widely explored by family farmers and there are different local names for each fruit phenotype, such as cambuci and dedo-de-moça (lady's finger). Although very popular among farmers and consumers, C. baccatum has been less extensively studied than other Capsicum species. This study describes the phenotypic and genotypic variability in C...
October 5, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Yang Jae Kang, Yul-Kyun Ahn, Ki-Taek Kim, Tae-Hwan Jun
BACKGROUND: Bacterial wilt (BW) is a widespread plant disease that affects a broad range of dicot and monocot hosts and is particularly harmful for solanaceous plants, such as pepper, tomato, and eggplant. The pathogen responsible for BW is the soil-borne bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum, which can adapt to diverse temperature conditions and is found in climates ranging from tropical to temperate. Resistance to BW has been detected in some pepper plant lines; however, the genomic loci and alleles that mediate this are poorly studied in this species...
October 28, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
K Chitravathi, O P Chauhan, P S Raju
Shellac-based surface coating was used in combination with passive modified atmosphere (MA) packaging for shelf life extension of fresh green chillies. The green chillies were coated with shellac coating, packed in anti-fog film and kept at 8 ± 1 °C for storage along with uncoated control. The coated and MA packed chillies showed significantly lower respiration rates as compared to control. The physico-chemical characteristics showed significantly lesser variations in terms of physiological loss in weight, firmness, colour, pigments, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity during storage...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Zi-Xin Zhang, Shu-Niu Zhao, Gao-Feng Liu, Zu-Mei Huang, Zhen-Mu Cao, Shan-Han Cheng, Shi-Sen Lin
The Indian pepper 'Guijiangwang' (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world's hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper's expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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