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Galen P Dively, P Dilip Venugopal, Dick Bean, Joanne Whalen, Kristian Holmstrom, Thomas P Kuhar, Hélène B Doughty, Terry Patton, William Cissel, William D Hutchison
Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
E Cabrera-Díaz, L Martínez-Chávez, J Sánchez-Camarena, J A Muñiz-Flores, A Castillo, P Gutiérrez-González, S M Arvizu-Medrano, D G González-Aguilar, N E Martínez-Gonzáles
Simultaneous and individual enumeration of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes was compared on inoculated Roma tomatoes and Serrano peppers using an Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Samples consisting of tomatoes (4 units) or peppers (8 units) were individually inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of Salmonella, Shigella or L. monocytogenes, or by simultaneous inoculation of three strains of each pathogen, at low (1.2-1.7 log CFU/sample) and high (2.2-2.7 log CFU/sample) inocula. Samples were analyzed by an MPN technique using universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth at 35 °C for 24 ± 2 h...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Javed Nawab, Junaid Ghani, Sardar Khan, Wang Xiaoping
Mining activity releases toxic metals (TMs) into the soil ecosystem and creates serious problems for the environment and human beings due to their adverse eco-toxilogical impacts. Currently, several remediation techniques can be used to immobilize TMs within contaminated soil. The present study focuses on the application of different organic amendments biochar (B), farmyard manure (FYM) and peat moss (PTM) - at different application rates (1%, 2% and 5%) in mining-impacted agricultural soil to immobilize TMs (Ni, Cr, As, Zn, Cd and Pb) and minimize their bioaccumulation in pea (Pisum sativum) and chili (Capsicum annuum) and the associated human health risk...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
İlknur Polat, Ömür Baysal, Francesco Mercati, Emine Gümrükcü, Görkem Sülü, Aytül Kitapcı, Fabrizio Araniti, Francesco Carimi
Botrytis cinerea is a polyphagous fungal pathogen causing gray mold disease. Moreover, it is one of the most destructive infections of small fruit crops such as pepper (Capsicum annnum L.). C. sativum is a species belonging to the Solanaceae family and Turkey is one of the main producers in the World. In the present work, aiming to obtain information useful for pest management, fifty B. cinerea isolates collected from Turkey and a reference isolate (B05.10) were characterized using molecular markers and fungicide resistance genes...
March 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jareerat Chunthawodtiporn, Theresa Hill, Kevin Stoffel, Allen Van Deynze
Bell pepper ( L.) is a group of fruit vegetables that has large variation in fruit shape, fruit size, and horticultural traits. Using unadapted sources of germplasm to bring in novel alleles while maintaining favorable quality and horticultural traits is challenging for breeding in pepper. A genetic map with 318 loci from genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) and single nucleotide polymorphism assays was generated from a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cultivated bell-type 'Maor' and a landrace highly resistant to , 'Criollo de Morelos-334'...
March 2018: Plant Genome
Hanmei Li, Sonja Krstin, Shihui Wang, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) can develop in cancer cells after treatment with anticancer drugs, mainly due to the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We analyzed the ability of two pungent-tasting alkaloids-capsaicin and piperine from Capsicum frutescens and Piper nigrum , respectively-to reverse multidrug resistance in the cancer cell lines Caco-2 and CEM/ADR 5000, which overexpress P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and other ABC transporters. METHODS: The MTT assay was first used to determine the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, the alkaloids, and digitonin alone, and then their combinations...
March 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Derek W Barchenger, Zong-Ming Sheu, Sanjeet Kumar, Shih-Wen Lin, Rishi R Burlakoti, Paul W Bosland
Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization...
February 27, 2018: Phytopathology
Carlo Vecchioli-Scaldazza, Carolina Morosetti, Serena Maruccia, Stefano Casellato, Wilma Rociola, Ester Illiano, Francesco Garofalo
INTRODUCTION: To assess efficacy and tolerability of a new complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) consisting of vitamins (C and D), herbal products (cucurbita maxima, capsicum annum, polygonum capsicatum) and amino acid L-Glutammina, in the treatment of female Overactive Bladder syndrome (OAB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 90 consecutive women with OAB symptoms were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, controlled study. Women were divided randomly into two groups of 45 patients each...
December 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Cengiz Kaya, Muhammad Ashraf, Nudrat Aisha Akram
In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Junxia Yuan, Yu Chen, Huasheng Li, Jinying Lu, Hui Zhao, Min Liu, Galina S Nechitaylo, Natalia N Glushchenko
In this study, the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of Capsicum annuum to iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) were determined. The results showed that the bio-effects of Fe NPs on plants could be positive or negative, depending on the additive concentrations. Low concentrations of Fe NPs were found to promote plant growth. Light and electron microscope analyses showed that the Fe NPs promoted plant growth by altering the leaf organization, and increasing the chloroplast number and grana stacking, as well as regulating the development of vascular bundles...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neta Luria, Elisheva Smith, Noa Sela, Oded Lachman, Ilana Bekelman, Amnon Koren, Aviv Dombrovsky
During October 2014, unfamiliar mild mosaic and mottling symptoms were identified on leaves of pepper (Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero) seedlings grown in the Arava valley in Israel 2-3 weeks post planting. Symptomatic plants were tested positive by ELISA using laboratory-produced antisera for tobamovirus species. Typical tobamovirus rod-shaped morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of purified virion preparation that was used for mechanical inoculation of laboratory test plants for the completion of Koch's postulates...
February 10, 2018: Virus Genes
Marcus John Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael Bellinger Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Many countries are utilizing reclaimed wastewater for agriculture as water demands due to drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations. Unfortunately, wastewater often contains biologically active, pseudopersistant pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Runoff from agriculture and effluent from wastewater treatment plants also contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on an agricultural pest, the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Hemiptera: Aphididae)...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Shamoni Maheshwari, Kevin Stoffel, Theresa A Hill, David Jaffe, Stephen R Williams, Neil Weisenfeld, Srividya Ramakrishnan, Vijay Kumar, Preyas Shah, Michael C Schatz, Deanna M Church, Allen Van Deynze
Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of human genomes, however, the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5-gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Capsicum annuum) genome with a single Linked-Read library. Plant genomes, including pepper, are characterized by long, highly similar repetitive sequences. Accordingly, significant effort is used to ensure that the sequenced plant is highly homozygous and the resulting assembly is a haploid consensus...
2018: Horticulture Research
Bong Nam Chung, Joung-Ho Lee, Byoung-Cheorl Kang, Sang Wook Koh, Jae Ho Joa, Kyung San Choi, Jeong Joon Ahn
Resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus isolated from paprika (TSWV-Pap) was overcome at high temperatures (30 ± 2°C) in both accessions of Capsicum annuum S3669 (Hana Seed Company) and C. chinense PI15225 (AVRDC Vegetable Genetic Resources). S3669 and PI15225, which carrying the Tsw gene, were mechanically inoculated with TSWV-Pap, and then maintained in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 ± 2°C to 30 ± 2°C (in 5°C increments). Seven days post inoculation (dpi), a hypersensitivity reaction (HR) was induced in inoculated leaves of PI152225 and S3669 plants maintained at 25°C ± 2°C...
February 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Tanahiri García-González, Hilda Karina Sáenz-Hidalgo, Hilda Victoria Silva-Rojas, Carlos Morales-Nieto, Taca Vancheva, Ralf Koebnik, Graciela Dolores Ávila-Quezada
A previously unreported bacterial disease on chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings affecting as many as 4% of seedlings was observed in greenhouses in Chihuahua, Mexico (Delicias and Meoqui counties). Initial lesions appeared as irregular small spots on leaves and brown necrosis at margins tips were observed. Later, the spots became necrotic with a chlorotic halo. Advanced disease was associated with defoliation. A Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from diseased chili pepper seedlings...
February 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Koeun Han, Hea-Young Lee, Na-Young Ro, On-Sook Hur, Joung-Ho Lee, Jin-Kyung Kwon, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Capsaicinoids are unique compounds produced only in peppers (Capsicum spp.). Several studies using classical quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping and genomewide association studies (GWAS) have identified QTLs controlling capsaicinoid content in peppers; however, neither the QTLs common to each population nor the candidate genes underlying them have been identified due to the limitations of each approach used. Here, we performed QTL mapping and GWAS for capsaicinoid content in peppers using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations and one GWAS population...
February 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Hyun Jung Yang, Young Soon Lee, Il Sook Choi
The purposes of this study were to identify physicochemical properties and evaluate bioactive compound levels and antioxidant characteristics at 30 day intervals during the 90 days of fermentation of gochujang fortified with five different varieties of red pepper: Juktoma pepper (RP1), facing heaven pepper (RP2), Thai chili pepper (RP3), bird's eye pepper (RP4), and red bell pepper (RP5). Physicochemicals properties, including reducing sugar, capsaicin, pH, β-carotene, and color parameters, of gochujang were evaluated...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
S S Shirkole, P P Sutar
In the present study, the GAB and moisture migration rate models were used to predict the shelf life of paprika under domestic (40 °C and 90% RH) and industrial (5, 10, 15 and 20 °C with 70% RH) storage conditions. The correlations between physicochemical characteristics and moisture content of paprika were developed to estimate the stability of the paprika. The estimated shelf life of low moisture paprika (4.40% dry basis) was found to be 101 and 31 days in HDPE and LDPE packages, respectively when stored in domestic condition...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jasim Basheer, Aswani Ravi, Jyothis Mathew, Radhakrishnan Edayileveettil Krishnankutty
Endophytic bacteria are considered to have a plethora of plant growth promoting and anti-phytopathogenic traits to live within the plants. Hence, they have immense promises for plant probiotic development. In the current study, plant probiotic endophytic Bacillus sp. CaB5 which has been previously isolated from Capsicum annuum was investigated for its performance in talc-based formulation. For this, CaB5 was made into formulation with sterile talc, calcium carbonate, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The viability analysis of the formulation by standard plate count and fluorescence methods has confirmed the stable microbial count up to 45 days...
January 25, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Nikita Mehta, Ferry Hagen, Sadaf Aamir, Sanjay K Singh, Abhishek Baghela
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an economically important fungal pathogen causing substantial yield losses indifferent host plants. To understand the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of this fungus, we have developed a novel, high-resolution multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) method. Bioinformatic analysis of C. gloeosporioides unannotated genome sequence yielded eight potential microsatellite loci, of which five, CG1 (GT)n, CG2 (GT1)n, CG3 (TC)n, CG4 (CT)n, and CG5 (CT1)n were selected for further study based on their universal amplification potential, reproducibility, and repeat number polymorphism...
December 2017: Mycobiology
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