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Zi-Xin Zhang, Shu-Niu Zhao, Gao-Feng Liu, Zu-Mei Huang, Zhen-Mu Cao, Shan-Han Cheng, Shi-Sen Lin
The Indian pepper 'Guijiangwang' (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world's hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper's expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Romina Schwarzlin, Nika Pušenjak, Damjan Makuc, Mitja Križman, Irena Vovk, Janez Plavec, Urban Švajger
BACKGROUND: It had been demonstrated that sugars from various plants can act as potent agents, which induce apoptosis of cancer cells. METHODS: Using HPLC, we fractionated a mixture of two plant extracts from the plant family Solanaceae, namely Capsicum chinense and the plant family Amaryllidaceae namely Allium sativum. We evaluated the effect of different fractions on apoptosis of HepG2 cell line. The most effective fraction was further studied to determine its molecular composition using mass spectrometry (MS) and NMR...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zahira Fernández-Bedmar, Angeles Alonso-Moraga
: The purpose of this study is to determine the nutraceutic potential of different Capsicum sp, capsaicin, capsanthin and lutein and provide data in order to clarify the conflicting results obtained for capsaicin by different authors. To achieve these objectives, in vivo (geno/antigenotoxicity and lifespan assays in the animal model Drosophila) and in vitro (cytotoxicity and DNA-fragmentation assays in HL60 promyelocytic cell line) assays were carried out. Results showed that i) none of the tested substances were genotoxic except green hot pepper and capsaicin at the highest tested concentration (5 mg/mL and 11...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Zainul A Khan, Jawaid A Khan
Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a serious problem and a major limitation to chilli (Capsicum spp.) cultivation in India. Leaves of a chilli plant showing leaf curl symptoms were collected from the Gonda district in Uttar Pradesh, India, in April, 2013. Full-length genomes of a begomovirus and an associated betasatellite were amplified, cloned and sequenced. The size of the begomovirus genome and the betasatellite were 2760 bp and 1374 bp, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of the begomovirus genome shared maximum identity (89 %) with pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus-India isolate Chhapra (PepLCBV, JN663853), below the threshold for species demarcation...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Virology
Jiang-Lin Li, Da-Wen Sun, Hongbin Pu, Digvir S Jayas
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging coupling with multivariate analysis in spectral region of 200 to 1800cm(-1) was developed to quantify and visualize thiophanate-methyl (TM) and its metabolite carbendazim residues in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) and support vector machines (SVM) models based on seven optimized characteristic peaks that showed SERS effects of TM and its metabolite carbendazim residues were employed to establish prediction models...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Meng Guo, Jin-Hong Liu, Xiao Ma, Yu-Fei Zhai, Zhen-Hui Gong, Ming-Hui Lu
Hsp70s function as molecular chaperones and are encoded by a multi-gene family whose members play a crucial role in plant response to stress conditions, and in plant growth and development. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop whose genome has been sequenced. Nonetheless, no overall analysis of the Hsp70 gene family is reported in this crop plant to date. To assess the functionality of Capsicum annuum Hsp70 (CaHsp70) genes, pepper genome database was analyzed in this research. A total of 21 CaHsp70 genes were identified and their characteristics were also described...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
G S C Buso, A M M Reis, Z P S Amaral, M E Ferreira
This study was undertaken primarily to develop new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Capsicum. As part of this project aimed at broadening the use of molecular tools in Capsicum breeding, two genomic libraries enriched for AG/TC repeat sequences were constructed for Capsicum annuum. A total of 475 DNA clones were sequenced from both libraries and 144 SSR markers were tested on cultivated and wild species of Capsicum. Forty-five SSR markers were randomly selected to genotype a panel of 48 accessions of the Capsicum germplasm bank...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Y Cheng, Z P Yao, M Y Ruan, Q J Ye, R Q Wang, G Z Zhou, J Luo
The WRKY family is one of the most important transcription factor families in plants, involved in the regulation of a broad range of biological roles. The recent releases of whole-genome sequences of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) allow us to perform a genome-wide identification and characterization of the WRKY family. In this study, 61 CaWRKY proteins were identified in the pepper genome. Based on protein structural and phylogenetic analyses, these proteins were classified into four main groups (I, II, III, and NG), and Group II was further divided into five subgroups (IIa to IIe)...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Rawaa H K Al-Isawi, Miklas Scholz, Furat A M Al-Faraj
In order to avoid environmental pollution and eliminate the need for using fertiliser, this study assessed for the first time the optimum performance of mature (in operation since 2011) vertical flow constructed wetlands in treating domestic wastewater (with and without hydrocarbon) and the subsequent recycling of the outflow to irrigate chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') grown in a greenhouse. Various variables were investigated to assess the treatment performance. Concerning chilli fruit numbers, findings showed that the highest fruit yields for all wetland filters were associated with those that received inflow wastewater with a high loading rate, reflecting the high nutrient availability in treated wastewater, which is of obvious importance for yield production...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jee Hoon Kim, Joon Woo Lee, Tae In Ahn, Jong Hwa Shin, Kyung Sub Park, Jung Eek Son
Canopy photosynthesis has typically been estimated using mathematical models that have the following assumptions: the light interception inside the canopy exponentially declines with the canopy depth, and the photosynthetic capacity is affected by light interception as a result of acclimation. However, in actual situations, light interception in the canopy is quite heterogenous depending on environmental factors such as the location, microclimate, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. It is important to apply these factors in an analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sanja Ž Mudrić, Uroš M Gašić, Aleksandra M Dramićanin, Ivanka Ž Ćirić, Dušanka M Milojković-Opsenica, Jelena B Popović-Đorđević, Nebojša M Momirović, Živoslav Lj Tešić
Spice peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) var. Lemeška and Lakošnička paprika were investigated to evaluate their polyphenolic and carbohydrate profiles and antioxidant activity. A total of forty-nine polyphenolics were identified using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to LTQ OrbiTrap mass analyzer. Twenty-five of them were quantified using available standards, while the other compounds were confirmed by exact mass search of their deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) and its MS(4) fragmentation...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Guangjun Guo, Shubin Wang, Jinbing Liu, Baogui Pan, Weiping Diao, Wei Ge, Changzhou Gao, John C Snyder
Next-generation sequencing enabled a fast discovery of QTLs controlling CMV resistant in pepper. The gene CA02g19570 as a possible candidate gene of qCmr2.1 was identified for resistance to CMV in pepper. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting pepper, but the genetic basis of CMV resistance in pepper is elusive. In this study, we identified a candidate gene for CMV resistance QTL, qCmr2.1 through SLAF-seq. Segregation analysis in F2, BC1 and F2:3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines 'PBC688' (CMV-resistant) and 'G29' (CMV-susceptible) suggested quantitative inheritance of resistance to CMV in pepper...
September 20, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Karen-Beth G Scholthof
One of the seminal events in plant pathology was the discovery by Francis O. Holmes that necrotic local lesions induced on certain species of Nicotiana following rub-inoculation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was due to a specific interaction with a dominant host gene (N). From this, Holmes had an idea that if the N-gene from N. glutinosa was introgressed into susceptible tobacco the greatly reduced titer of TMV would, by extension, prevent subsequent infection of tomato and pepper plants by field workers whose hands were contaminated with TMV from their use of chewing and smoking tobacco...
September 19, 2016: Phytopathology
Jiaowen Cheng, Cheng Qin, Xin Tang, Huangkai Zhou, Yafei Hu, Zicheng Zhao, Junjie Cui, Bo Li, Zhiming Wu, Jiping Yu, Kailin Hu
The development and application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is in its infancy for pepper. Here, a set of 15,000 SNPs were chosen from the resequencing data to develop an array for pepper with 12,720 loci being ultimately synthesized. Of these, 8,199 (~64.46%) SNPs were found to be scorable and covered ~81.18% of the whole genome. With this array, a high-density interspecific genetic map with 5,569 SNPs was constructed using 297 F2 individuals, and genetic diversity of a panel of 399 pepper elite/landrace lines was successfully characterized...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jie Li, Ping Yang, Jungen Kang, Yantai Gan, Jihua Yu, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea, Jian Lyu, Guobin Zhang, Zhi Feng, Jianming Xie
Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kuldeep Singh Jadon, Rakesh Shah, Hari Narayan Gour, Pankaj Sharma
Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Saet-Byul Kim, Won-Hee Kang, Hoang Ngoc Huy, Seon-In Yeom, Jeong-Tak An, Seungill Kim, Min-Young Kang, Hyun Jung Kim, Yeong Deuk Jo, Yeaseong Ha, Doil Choi, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Plants have evolved hundreds of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich domain proteins (NLRs) as potential intracellular immune receptors, but the evolutionary mechanism leading to the ability to recognize specific pathogen effectors is elusive. Here, we cloned Pvr4 (a Potyvirus resistance gene in Capsicum annuum) and Tsw (a Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance gene in Capsicum chinense) via a genome-based approach using independent segregating populations. The genes both encode typical NLRs and are located at the same locus on pepper chromosome 10...
September 9, 2016: New Phytologist
Fangling Liu, Guiting Tang, Xiaojuan Zheng, Ying Li, Xiaofang Sun, Xiaobo Qi, You Zhou, Jing Xu, Huabao Chen, Xiaoli Chang, Sirong Zhang, Guoshu Gong
The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Javaid Hassan Sheikh, M Z Chishti, Majidah Rasheed, Irfan-Ur-Rauf Tak, Shoaib Ali Dar, Eugenia P Lal, Dawood Mohiuddin
In order to list the genera buildup on Brassica oleracea (Cauliflower), Capsicum frustscens (Chillies), Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) and Phaseolus vulgaris (Farash bean) a general survey was carried in the summer season of 2013. On examining the soil samples as well as root samples of Cauliflower Boleodorus, Psilenchus, Helicotylenchus, Merlinius, Aglenchus and Filenchus were encountered with their absolute density of 18, 31, 34.5, 35, 35 and 31.5 %. On Chillies, Tylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Psilenchus, Pratylenchus and Hirschmaniella with their absolute frequency of 86, 96...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Hamid Ashrafi, Joerg Plieske, Jana Lemm, Kevin Stoffel, Theresa Hill, Hartmut Luerssen, Charit L Pethiyagoda, Cindy T Lawley, Martin W Ganal, Allen Van Deynze
The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)...
2016: Horticulture Research
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