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Jeffrey Gordon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911843/impact-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-enhancer-accessibility-in-gut-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#1
Nicholas P Semenkovich, Joseph D Planer, Philip P Ahern, Nicholas W Griffin, Charles Y Lin, Jeffrey I Gordon
The gut microbiota impacts many aspects of host biology including immune function. One hypothesis is that microbial communities induce epigenetic changes with accompanying alterations in chromatin accessibility, providing a mechanism that allows a community to have sustained host effects even in the face of its structural or functional variation. We used Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) to define chromatin accessibility in predicted enhancer regions of intestinal αβ(+) and γδ(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes purified from germ-free mice, their conventionally raised (CONV-R) counterparts, and mice reared germ free and then colonized with CONV-R gut microbiota at the end of the suckling-weaning transition...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898800/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-stored-dairy-slurry-from-multiple-farms
#2
Etienne L Le Riche, Andrew C VanderZaag, Jeffrey D Wood, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Kari Dunfield, N Martin Ngwabie, John McCabe, Robert J Gordon
A significant need exists to improve our understanding of the extent of greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of livestock manure to both improve the reliability of inventory assessments and the impact of beneficial management practice adoption. Factors affecting the extent and variability of greenhouse gas emissions from stored dairy manure were investigated. Emissions from six slurries stored in clean concrete tanks under identical "warm-season" conditions were monitored consecutively over 173 d (18°C average air temperature)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891647/a-roadmap-for-improving-the-representation-of-photosynthesis-in-earth-system-models
#3
Alistair Rogers, Belinda E Medlyn, Jeffrey S Dukes, Gordon Bonan, Susanne von Caemmerer, Michael C Dietze, Jens Kattge, Andrew D B Leakey, Lina M Mercado, Ülo Niinemets, I Colin Prentice, Shawn P Serbin, Stephen Sitch, Danielle A Way, Sönke Zaehle
Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881825/effects-of-a-gut-pathobiont-in-a-gnotobiotic-mouse-model-of-childhood-undernutrition
#4
Vitas E Wagner, Neelendu Dey, Janaki Guruge, Ansel Hsiao, Philip P Ahern, Nicholas P Semenkovich, Laura V Blanton, Jiye Cheng, Nicholas Griffin, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Olga Ilkayeva, Christopher B Newgard, William Petri, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jeffrey I Gordon
To model how interactions among enteropathogens and gut microbial community members contribute to undernutrition, we colonized gnotobiotic mice fed representative Bangladeshi diets with sequenced bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of two 24-month-old Bangladeshi children: one healthy and the other underweight. The undernourished donor's bacterial collection contained an enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strain (ETBF), whereas the healthy donor's bacterial collection contained two nontoxigenic strains of B...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833695/spermatic-cord-anesthesia-block-an-old-technique-re-imaged
#5
Jeffrey Gordon, Robert P Rifenburg
Spermatic cord anesthesia block (SCAB) is a useful technique for providing anesthesia to males with scrotal pain. This technique has been described and published in the urology and anesthesia literature for more than 40 years. Initially described as a blind injection, anesthesia of the spermatic cord provides pain control to the scrotal contents. The technique can easily be performed under ultrasound guidance by emergency physicians and should be considered a useful option when seeking to provide pain relief to male patients with scrotal pain...
November 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792658/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-coronary-artery-calcium-in-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-study-cardia
#6
Katie A Meyer, Thomas Z Benton, Brian J Bennett, David R Jacobs, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Myron D Gross, J Jeffrey Carr, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Steven H Zeisel
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies implicate trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO; a gut microbiota-dependent nutrient metabolite) in cardiovascular disease risk. There is a lack of population-based data on the role of TMAO in advancing early atherosclerotic disease. We tested the prospective associations between TMAO and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA), a biracial cohort of US adults recruited in 1985-1986 (n=5115)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776519/novel-algorithmic-approach-predicts-tumor-mutation-load-and-correlates-with-immunotherapy-clinical-outcomes-using-a-defined-gene-mutation-set
#7
Jason Roszik, Lauren E Haydu, Kenneth R Hess, Junna Oba, Aron Y Joon, Alan E Siroy, Tatiana V Karpinets, Francesco C Stingo, Veera Baladandayuthapani, Michael T Tetzlaff, Jennifer A Wargo, Ken Chen, Marie-Andrée Forget, Cara L Haymaker, Jie Qing Chen, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Agda K Eterovic, Kenna R Shaw, Gordon B Mills, Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Laszlo G Radvanyi, Patrick Hwu, P Andrew Futreal, Don L Gibbons, Alexander J Lazar, Chantale Bernatchez, Michael A Davies, Scott E Woodman
BACKGROUND: While clinical outcomes following immunotherapy have shown an association with tumor mutation load using whole exome sequencing (WES), its clinical applicability is currently limited by cost and bioinformatics requirements. METHODS: We developed a method to accurately derive the predicted total mutation load (PTML) within individual tumors from a small set of genes that can be used in clinical next generation sequencing (NGS) panels. PTML was derived from the actual total mutation load (ATML) of 575 distinct melanoma and lung cancer samples and validated using independent melanoma (n = 312) and lung cancer (n = 217) cohorts...
October 25, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749110/reactions-and-receptivity-to-framing-hiv-prevention-message-concepts-about-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-black-and-latino-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-three-urban-us-cities
#8
Matthew J Mimiaga, Elizabeth F Closson, Shanice Battle, Jeffrey H Herbst, Damian Denson, Nicole Pitts, Jeremy Holman, Stewart Landers, Gordon Mansergh
Men who have sex with men (MSM) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretroviral medications is a newer biomedical prevention modality with established efficacy for reducing the risk of acquiring HIV. We conducted formative qualitative research to explore audience reactions and receptivity to message concepts on PrEP as part of the development of prevention messages to promote PrEP awareness among black and Latino MSM in the United States...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732721/clinical-practice-guidelines-from-the-aabb-red-blood-cell-transfusion-thresholds-and-storage
#9
Jeffrey L Carson, Gordon Guyatt, Nancy M Heddle, Brenda J Grossman, Claudia S Cohn, Mark K Fung, Terry Gernsheimer, John B Holcomb, Lewis J Kaplan, Louis M Katz, Nikki Peterson, Glenn Ramsey, Sunil V Rao, John D Roback, Aryeh Shander, Aaron A R Tobian
Importance: More than 100 million units of blood are collected worldwide each year, yet the indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and the optimal length of RBC storage prior to transfusion are uncertain. Objective: To provide recommendations for the target hemoglobin level for RBC transfusion among hospitalized adult patients who are hemodynamically stable and the length of time RBCs should be stored prior to transfusion. Evidence Review: Reference librarians conducted a literature search for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating hemoglobin thresholds for RBC transfusion (1950-May 2016) and RBC storage duration (1948-May 2016) without language restrictions...
November 15, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725679/imaging-biomarker-roadmap-for-cancer-studies
#10
James P B O'Connor, Eric O Aboagye, Judith E Adams, Hugo J W L Aerts, Sally F Barrington, Ambros J Beer, Ronald Boellaard, Sarah E Bohndiek, Michael Brady, Gina Brown, David L Buckley, Thomas L Chenevert, Laurence P Clarke, Sandra Collette, Gary J Cook, Nandita M deSouza, John C Dickson, Caroline Dive, Jeffrey L Evelhoch, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Ferdia A Gallagher, Fiona J Gilbert, Robert J Gillies, Vicky Goh, John R Griffiths, Ashley M Groves, Steve Halligan, Adrian L Harris, David J Hawkes, Otto S Hoekstra, Erich P Huang, Brian F Hutton, Edward F Jackson, Gordon C Jayson, Andrew Jones, Dow-Mu Koh, Denis Lacombe, Philippe Lambin, Nathalie Lassau, Martin O Leach, Ting-Yim Lee, Edward L Leen, Jason S Lewis, Yan Liu, Mark F Lythgoe, Prakash Manoharan, Ross J Maxwell, Kenneth A Miles, Bruno Morgan, Steve Morris, Tony Ng, Anwar R Padhani, Geoff J M Parker, Mike Partridge, Arvind P Pathak, Andrew C Peet, Shonit Punwani, Andrew R Reynolds, Simon P Robinson, Lalitha K Shankar, Ricky A Sharma, Dmitry Soloviev, Sigrid Stroobants, Daniel C Sullivan, Stuart A Taylor, Paul S Tofts, Gillian M Tozer, Marcel van Herk, Simon Walker-Samuel, James Wason, Kaye J Williams, Paul Workman, Thomas E Yankeelov, Kevin M Brindle, Lisa M McShane, Alan Jackson, John C Waterton
Imaging biomarkers (IBs) are integral to the routine management of patients with cancer. IBs used daily in oncology include clinical TNM stage, objective response and left ventricular ejection fraction. Other CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers are used extensively in cancer research and drug development. New IBs need to be established either as useful tools for testing research hypotheses in clinical trials and research studies, or as clinical decision-making tools for use in healthcare, by crossing 'translational gaps' through validation and qualification...
October 11, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721238/dendritic-cells-maintain-dermal-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-in-skin-fibrosis
#11
Jennifer J Chia, Tong Zhu, Susan Chyou, Dragos C Dasoveanu, Camila Carballo, Sha Tian, Cynthia M Magro, Scott Rodeo, Robert F Spiera, Nancy H Ruddle, Timothy E McGraw, Jeffrey L Browning, Robert Lafyatis, Jessica K Gordon, Theresa T Lu
Scleroderma is a group of skin-fibrosing diseases for which there are no effective treatments. A feature of the skin fibrosis typical of scleroderma is atrophy of the dermal white adipose tissue (DWAT). Adipose tissue contains adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSCs) that have regenerative and reparative functions; however, whether DWAT atrophy in fibrosis is accompanied by ADSC loss is poorly understood, as are the mechanisms that might maintain ADSC survival in fibrotic skin. Here, we have shown that DWAT ADSC numbers were reduced, likely because of cell death, in 2 murine models of scleroderma skin fibrosis...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696430/using-diurnal-temperature-signals-to-infer-vertical-groundwater-surface-water-exchange
#12
Dylan J Irvine, Martin A Briggs, Laura K Lautz, Ryan P Gordon, Jeffrey M McKenzie, Ian Cartwright
Heat is a powerful tracer to quantify fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater. Temperature time series can be used to estimate pore water fluid flux, and techniques can be employed to extend these estimates to produce detailed plan-view flux maps. Key advantages of heat tracing include cost-effective sensors and ease of data collection and interpretation, without the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory analyses or induced tracers. While the collection of temperature data in saturated sediments is relatively straightforward, several factors influence the reliability of flux estimates that are based on time series analysis (diurnal signals) of recorded temperatures...
October 3, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695884/sepsis-frontiers-in-diagnosis-resuscitation-and-antibiotic-therapy
#13
Anders Perner, Anthony C Gordon, Daniel De Backer, George Dimopoulos, James A Russell, Jeffrey Lipman, Jens-Ulrik Jensen, John Myburgh, Mervyn Singer, Rinaldo Bellomo, Timothy Walsh
Sepsis is a major growing global burden and a major challenge to intensive care clinicians, researchers, guideline committee members and policy makers, because of its high and increasing incidence and great pathophysiological, molecular, genetic and clinical complexity. In spite of recent progress, short-term mortality remains high and there is growing evidence of long-term morbidity and increased long-term mortality in survivors of sepsis both in developed and developing countries. Further improvement in the care of patients with sepsis will impact upon global health...
October 1, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679759/prostatic-adenocarcinoma-with-hormone-exposure-related-changes-in-a-patient-with-hepatic-cirrhosis-value-of-autopsy-in-a-case-report
#14
Stephanie L Skala, Scott R Owens, Hong Xiao, Kristy A Bauman, Scott A Tomlins, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Lina Shao, Jeffrey M Jentzen, David Gordon, Rohit Mehra
Hepatic cirrhosis is commonly associated with hyperestrogenism. Previous studies have reported morphologic changes in benign and malignant prostate tissue exposed to estrogen or anti-androgens. To our knowledge, histopathologic features of prostatic adenocarcinoma in patients with cirrhosis have not been well-reported. We present a case of incidental, but pathologically significant, prostatic adenocarcinoma detected on autopsy in a 67-year-old male patient with cirrhosis and spider angiomata. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features (including variable ERG expression) of the prostatic adenocarcinoma were consistent with hormone exposure related changes, suggesting that cirrhosis-induced elevated estrogen-to-testosterone ratio and exogenous hormone therapy might induce similar phenotypes...
November 2016: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636916/knee-pain-and-activity-outcomes-after-femoral-derotation-osteotomy-for-excessive-femoral-anteversion
#15
Jeffrey B Stambough, Lauren Davis, Deborah A Szymanski, June C Smith, Perry L Schoenecker, J Eric Gordon
BACKGROUND: Excessive femoral anteversion is a developmental condition that can become symptomatic into adolescence and manifest as anterior knee pain, tripping, and or problems with sports. Femoral derotational osteotomy about an antegrade intramedullary nail (IMN) is an accepted option to treat this condition. This is the first report of the clinical and functional outcomes of treatment of excessive anteversion with femoral derotational osteotomy stabilized with an IMN. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2014 who underwent derotational osteotomy...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628940/a-replication-and-extension-of-the-peers%C3%A2-for-young-adults-social-skills-intervention-examining-effects-on-social-skills-and-social-anxiety-in-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Alana J McVey, Bridget K Dolan, Kirsten S Willar, Sheryl Pleiss, Jeffrey S Karst, Christina L Casnar, Christina Caiozzo, Elisabeth M Vogt, Nakia S Gordon, Amy Vaughan Van Hecke
Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, PEERS® for Young Adults, shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment tool, and examining changes in social anxiety utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. Results indicated improvements in social responsiveness (SSIS-RS SS, p = ...
December 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588425/a-unified-framework-for-the-infection-dynamics-of-zoonotic-spillover-and-spread
#17
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Andrew A Cunningham, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Robert F Garry, Donald S Grant, Melissa Leach, Lina M Moses, Gordon Nichols, John S Schieffelin, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Colleen T Webb, James L N Wood
A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585401/truncated-autoinducing-peptides-as-antagonists-of-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-quorum-sensing
#18
Christopher P Gordon, Shondra D Olson, Jessica L Lister, Jeffrey S Kavanaugh, Alexander R Horswill
Competitive quorum sensing (QS) antagonism offers a novel strategy for attenuating current multidrug resistant staphylococcal infections. To this end, a series of 10 truncated analogues based on the parent autoinducing peptides (AIPs) of Staphylococcus lugdunensis (groups I and II) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (groups I-III) were sequentially assessed against a newly developed Staphylococcus lugdunensis group I QS reporter strain. The truncated analogues based upon Staphylococcus lugdunensis AIP-1 (1) and AIP-2 (2) displayed respective IC50 values of 0...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567329/a-randomized-trial-of-quilizumab-in-adults-with-refractory-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#19
Jeffrey M Harris, Christopher R Cabanski, Heleen Scheerens, Divya Samineni, Mary S Bradley, Colette Cochran, Petra Staubach, Martin Metz, Gordon Sussman, Marcus Maurer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562031/influenza-transmission-during-extreme-indoor-conditions-in-a-low-resource-tropical-setting
#20
James Tamerius, Sergio Ojeda, Christopher K Uejio, Jeffrey Shaman, Brenda Lopez, Nery Sanchez, Aubree Gordon
Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
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