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Rob Knight

Justine Debelius, Se Jin Song, Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Antonio Gonzalez, Rob Knight
Many factors affect the microbiomes of humans, mice, and other mammals, but substantial challenges remain in determining which of these factors are of practical importance. Considering the relative effect sizes of both biological and technical covariates can help improve study design and the quality of biological conclusions. Care must be taken to avoid technical bias that can lead to incorrect biological conclusions. The presentation of quantitative effect sizes in addition to P values will improve our ability to perform meta-analysis and to evaluate potentially relevant biological effects...
October 19, 2016: Genome Biology
Siddhartha Mandal, Keith M Godfrey, Daniel McDonald, Will V Treuren, Jørgen V Bjørnholt, Tore Midtvedt, Birgitte Moen, Knut Rudi, Rob Knight, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Shyamal D Peddada, Merete Eggesbø
BACKGROUND: Although diet is known to have a major modulatory influence on gut microbiota, knowledge of the specific roles of particular vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients is limited. Modulation of the composition of the microbiota in pregnant women is especially important as maternal microbes are transferred during delivery and initiate the colonization process in the infant. We studied the associations between intake of specific dietary nutrients during pregnancy and gut microbiota composition...
October 19, 2016: Microbiome
Daniel Petras, Louis-Félix Nothias, Robert A Quinn, Theodore Alexandrov, Nuno Bandeira, Amina Bouslimani, Gabriel Castro-Falcón, Liangyu Chen, Tam Dang, Dimitrios J Floros, Vivian Y H Hook, Neha Garg, Nicole Hoffner, Yike Jiang, Clifford A Kapono, Irina Koester, Rob Knight, Christopher A Leber, Tiejun Ling, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Laura-Isobel McCall, Aaron Philip McGrath, Michael J Meehan, Jonathan K Merritt, Robert H Mills, Jamie Morton, Sonia Podvin, Ivan Protsyuk, Trevor Purdy, Kendall Satterfield, Stephen Searles, Sahil Shah, Sarah Shires, Dana Steffen, Margot White, Jelena Todoric, Robert Tuttle, Aneta Wojnicz, Valerie Sapp, Fernando Vargas, Jin Yang, Chao Zhang, Pieter C Dorrestein
The cars we drive, the homes we live in, the restaurants we visit, and the labs and offices we work in are all a part of the modern human habitat. Remarkably, little is known about the diversity of chemicals present in these environments and to what degree molecules from our bodies influence the built environment that surrounds us and vice versa. We therefore set out to visualize the chemical diversity of five built human habitats together with their occupants, to provide a snapshot of the various molecules to which humans are exposed on a daily basis...
October 12, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Embriette R Hyde, Jan S Suchodolski, Rob Knight
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune condition that is difficult to diagnose, and animal models of this disease have questionable human relevance(1). Here, we show that the dysbiosis network underlying IBD in dogs differs from that in humans, with some bacteria such as Fusobacterium switching roles between the two species (as Bacteroides fragilis switches roles between humans and mice)(2). For example, a dysbiosis index trained on humans fails when applied to dogs, but a dog-specific dysbiosis index achieves high correlations with the overall dog microbial community diversity patterns...
October 3, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Sena Bluemel, Brandon Williams, Rob Knight, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are a major health burden in industrialized countries. Although alcohol abuse and nutrition play a central role for disease pathogenesis, preclinical models support a contribution of the gut microbiota to ALD and NAFLD. This review describes changes in the intestinal microbiota compositions related to ALD and NAFLD. Findings from in vitro, animal and human studies are used to explain how intestinal pathology contributes to disease progression...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Vanessa L Hale, Chia L Tan, Kefeng Niu, Yeqin Yang, Duoying Cui, Hongxia Zhao, Rob Knight, Katherine R Amato
Gut microbiota can provide great insight into host health, and studies of the gut microbiota in wildlife are becoming more common. However, the effects of field conditions on gut microbial samples are unknown. This study addresses the following questions: 1) How do environmental factors such as sunlight and insect infestations affect fecal microbial DNA? 2) How does fecal microbial DNA change over time after defecation? 3) How does storage method affect microbial DNA? Fresh fecal samples were collected, pooled, and homogenized from a family group of 6 spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Clarisse Marotz, Rob Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature Microbiology
Michelle Beaumont, Julia K Goodrich, Matthew A Jackson, Idil Yet, Emily R Davenport, Sara Vieira-Silva, Justine Debelius, Tess Pallister, Massimo Mangino, Jeroen Raes, Rob Knight, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley, Tim D Spector, Jordana T Bell
BACKGROUND: Variation in the human fecal microbiota has previously been associated with body mass index (BMI). Although obesity is a global health burden, the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat is the specific cardio-metabolic disease risk factor. Here, we explore links between the fecal microbiota and abdominal adiposity using body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a large sample of twins from the TwinsUK cohort, comparing fecal 16S rRNA diversity profiles with six adiposity measures...
2016: Genome Biology
Daniel McDonald, Gail Ackermann, Ludmila Khailova, Christine Baird, Daren Heyland, Rosemary Kozar, Margot Lemieux, Karrie Derenski, Judy King, Christine Vis-Kampen, Rob Knight, Paul E Wischmeyer
Critical illness is hypothesized to associate with loss of "health-promoting" commensal microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis). This dysbiosis is believed to increase susceptibility to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure. A trial with prospective monitoring of the intensive care unit (ICU) patient microbiome using culture-independent techniques to confirm and characterize this dysbiosis is thus urgently needed. Characterizing ICU patient microbiome changes may provide first steps toward the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions using microbiome signatures...
July 2016: MSphere
Yan Guo, Shaneda Warren Andersen, Xiao-Ou Shu, Kyriaki Michailidou, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Roger L Milne, Marjanka K Schmidt, Jenny Chang-Claude, Allison Dunning, Stig E Bojesen, Habibul Ahsan, Kristiina Aittomäki, Irene L Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Volker Arndt, Matthias W Beckmann, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Javier Benitez, Natalia V Bogdanova, Bernardo Bonanni, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Judith Brand, Hiltrud Brauch, Hermann Brenner, Thomas Brüning, Barbara Burwinkel, Graham Casey, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Fergus J Couch, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Kamila Czene, Peter Devilee, Thilo Dörk, Martine Dumont, Peter A Fasching, Jonine Figueroa, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Olivia Fletcher, Henrik Flyger, Florentia Fostira, Marilie Gammon, Graham G Giles, Pascal Guénel, Christopher A Haiman, Ute Hamann, Maartje J Hooning, John L Hopper, Anna Jakubowska, Farzana Jasmine, Mark Jenkins, Esther M John, Nichola Johnson, Michael E Jones, Maria Kabisch, Muhammad Kibriya, Julia A Knight, Linetta B Koppert, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vessela Kristensen, Loic Le Marchand, Eunjung Lee, Jingmei Li, Annika Lindblom, Robert Luben, Jan Lubinski, Kathi E Malone, Arto Mannermaa, Sara Margolin, Frederik Marme, Catriona McLean, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Alfons Meindl, Susan L Neuhausen, Heli Nevanlinna, Patrick Neven, Janet E Olson, Jose I A Perez, Barbara Perkins, Paolo Peterlongo, Kelly-Anne Phillips, Katri Pylkäs, Anja Rudolph, Regina Santella, Elinor J Sawyer, Rita K Schmutzler, Caroline Seynaeve, Mitul Shah, Martha J Shrubsole, Melissa C Southey, Anthony J Swerdlow, Amanda E Toland, Ian Tomlinson, Diana Torres, Thérèse Truong, Giske Ursin, Rob B Van Der Luijt, Senno Verhoef, Alice S Whittemore, Robert Winqvist, Hui Zhao, Shilin Zhao, Per Hall, Jacques Simard, Peter Kraft, Paul Pharoah, David Hunter, Douglas F Easton, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia...
August 2016: PLoS Medicine
Pauline D Scanlan, Rob Knight, Se Jin Song, Gail Ackermann, Paul D Cotter
The human gut is host to a diversity of microorganisms including the single-celled microbial eukaryote Blastocystis. Although Blastocystis has a global distribution, there is dearth of information relating to its prevalence and diversity in many human populations. The mode of Blastocystis transmission to humans is also insufficiently characterised, however, it is speculated to vary between different populations. Here we investigated the incidence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in a US population and also the possibility of Blastocystis human-human transmission between healthy individuals using family units (N=50) living in Boulder, Colorado as our sample-set...
August 18, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Erikka Loftfield, Emily Vogtmann, Joshua N Sampson, Steven C Moore, Heidi Nelson, Rob Knight, Nicholas Chia, Rashmi Sinha
BACKGROUND: The gut metabolome may be associated with the incidence and progression of numerous diseases. The composition of the gut metabolome can be captured by measuring metabolite levels in the feces. However, there are little data describing the effect of fecal sample collection methods on metabolomic measures. METHODS: We collected fecal samples from 18 volunteers using four methods: no solution, 95% ethanol, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) cards, and fecal immunochemical test (FIT)...
August 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Adriana De Palma, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Marcelo A Aizen, Matthias Albrecht, Yves Basset, Adam Bates, Robin J Blake, Céline Boutin, Rob Bugter, Stuart Connop, Leopoldo Cruz-López, Saul A Cunningham, Ben Darvill, Tim Diekötter, Silvia Dorn, Nicola Downing, Martin H Entling, Nina Farwig, Antonio Felicioli, Steven J Fonte, Robert Fowler, Markus Franzén, Dave Goulson, Ingo Grass, Mick E Hanley, Stephen D Hendrix, Farina Herrmann, Felix Herzog, Andrea Holzschuh, Birgit Jauker, Michael Kessler, M E Knight, Andreas Kruess, Patrick Lavelle, Violette Le Féon, Pia Lentini, Louise A Malone, Jon Marshall, Eliana Martínez Pachón, Quinn S McFrederick, Carolina L Morales, Sonja Mudri-Stojnic, Guiomar Nates-Parra, Sven G Nilsson, Erik Öckinger, Lynne Osgathorpe, Alejandro Parra-H, Carlos A Peres, Anna S Persson, Theodora Petanidou, Katja Poveda, Eileen F Power, Marino Quaranta, Carolina Quintero, Romina Rader, Miriam H Richards, T'ai Roulston, Laurent Rousseau, Jonathan P Sadler, Ulrika Samnegård, Nancy A Schellhorn, Christof Schüepp, Oliver Schweiger, Allan H Smith-Pardo, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Jane C Stout, Rebecca K Tonietto, Teja Tscharntke, Jason M Tylianakis, Hans A F Verboven, Carlos H Vergara, Jort Verhulst, Catrin Westphal, Hyung Joo Yoon, Andy Purvis
Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Europe, overrepresenting bumblebees and raising concerns that model results may not be generalizable to other regions and taxa. To assess whether the geographic and taxonomic biases of data could undermine effectiveness of models for conservation policy, we have collated from the published literature a global dataset of bee diversity at sites facing land-use change and intensification, and assess whether bee responses to these pressures vary across 11 regions (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe; North, Central and South America; Australia and New Zealand; South East Asia; Middle and Southern Africa) and between bumblebees and other bees...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mingxun Wang, Jeremy J Carver, Vanessa V Phelan, Laura M Sanchez, Neha Garg, Yao Peng, Don Duy Nguyen, Jeramie Watrous, Clifford A Kapono, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Carla Porto, Amina Bouslimani, Alexey V Melnik, Michael J Meehan, Wei-Ting Liu, Max Crüsemann, Paul D Boudreau, Eduardo Esquenazi, Mario Sandoval-Calderón, Roland D Kersten, Laura A Pace, Robert A Quinn, Katherine R Duncan, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Dimitrios J Floros, Ronnie G Gavilan, Karin Kleigrewe, Trent Northen, Rachel J Dutton, Delphine Parrot, Erin E Carlson, Bertrand Aigle, Charlotte F Michelsen, Lars Jelsbak, Christian Sohlenkamp, Pavel Pevzner, Anna Edlund, Jeffrey McLean, Jörn Piel, Brian T Murphy, Lena Gerwick, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Yu-Liang Yang, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Maria Maansson, Robert A Keyzers, Amy C Sims, Andrew R Johnson, Ashley M Sidebottom, Brian E Sedio, Andreas Klitgaard, Charles B Larson, Cristopher A Boya P, Daniel Torres-Mendoza, David J Gonzalez, Denise B Silva, Lucas M Marques, Daniel P Demarque, Egle Pociute, Ellis C O'Neill, Enora Briand, Eric J N Helfrich, Eve A Granatosky, Evgenia Glukhov, Florian Ryffel, Hailey Houson, Hosein Mohimani, Jenan J Kharbush, Yi Zeng, Julia A Vorholt, Kenji L Kurita, Pep Charusanti, Kerry L McPhail, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Lisa Vuong, Maryam Elfeki, Matthew F Traxler, Niclas Engene, Nobuhiro Koyama, Oliver B Vining, Ralph Baric, Ricardo R Silva, Samantha J Mascuch, Sophie Tomasi, Stefan Jenkins, Venkat Macherla, Thomas Hoffman, Vinayak Agarwal, Philip G Williams, Jingqui Dai, Ram Neupane, Joshua Gurr, Andrés M C Rodríguez, Anne Lamsa, Chen Zhang, Kathleen Dorrestein, Brendan M Duggan, Jehad Almaliti, Pierre-Marie Allard, Prasad Phapale, Louis-Felix Nothias, Theodore Alexandrov, Marc Litaudon, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Jennifer E Kyle, Thomas O Metz, Tyler Peryea, Dac-Trung Nguyen, Danielle VanLeer, Paul Shinn, Ajit Jadhav, Rolf Müller, Katrina M Waters, Wenyuan Shi, Xueting Liu, Lixin Zhang, Rob Knight, Paul R Jensen, Bernhard Ø Palsson, Kit Pogliano, Roger G Linington, Marcelino Gutiérrez, Norberto P Lopes, William H Gerwick, Bradley S Moore, Pieter C Dorrestein, Nuno Bandeira
The potential of the diverse chemistries present in natural products (NP) for biotechnology and medicine remains untapped because NP databases are not searchable with raw data and the NP community has no way to share data other than in published papers. Although mass spectrometry (MS) techniques are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS; http://gnps...
August 9, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Christopher A Lowry, David G Smith, Philip H Siebler, Dominic Schmidt, Christopher E Stamper, James E Hassell, Paula S Yamashita, James H Fox, Stefan O Reber, Lisa A Brenner, Andrew J Hoisington, Teodor T Postolache, Kerry A Kinney, Dante Marciani, Mark Hernandez, Sian M J Hemmings, Stefanie Malan-Muller, Kenneth P Wright, Rob Knight, Charles L Raison, Graham A W Rook
The hygiene or "Old Friends" hypothesis proposes that the epidemic of inflammatory disease in modern urban societies stems at least in part from reduced exposure to microbes that normally prime mammalian immunoregulatory circuits and suppress inappropriate inflammation. Such diseases include but are not limited to allergies and asthma; we and others have proposed that the markedly reduced exposure to these Old Friends in modern urban societies may also increase vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders and stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and affective disorders, where data are emerging in support of inflammation as a risk factor...
September 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Luke R Thompson, Gareth J Williams, Mohamed F Haroon, Ahmed Shibl, Peter Larsen, Joshua Shorenstein, Rob Knight, Ulrich Stingl
Oceanic microbial diversity covaries with physicochemical parameters. Temperature, for example, explains approximately half of global variation in surface taxonomic abundance. It is unknown, however, whether covariation patterns hold over narrower parameter gradients and spatial scales, and extending to mesopelagic depths. We collected and sequenced 45 epipelagic and mesopelagic microbial metagenomes on a meridional transect through the eastern Red Sea. We asked which environmental parameters explain the most variation in relative abundances of taxonomic groups, gene ortholog groups, and pathways-at a spatial scale of <2000 km, along narrow but well-defined latitudinal and depth-dependent gradients...
July 15, 2016: ISME Journal
Jessica L Metcalf, David O Carter, Rob Knight
Metcalf et al., take a fresh look at the universal question "What happens when we die?"
July 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jack A Gilbert, Robert A Quinn, Justine Debelius, Zhenjiang Z Xu, James Morton, Neha Garg, Janet K Jansson, Pieter C Dorrestein, Rob Knight
Rapid advances in DNA sequencing, metabolomics, proteomics and computational tools are dramatically increasing access to the microbiome and identification of its links with disease. In particular, time-series studies and multiple molecular perspectives are facilitating microbiome-wide association studies, which are analogous to genome-wide association studies. Early findings point to actionable outcomes of microbiome-wide association studies, although their clinical application has yet to be approved. An appreciation of the complexity of interactions among the microbiome and the host's diet, chemistry and health, as well as determining the frequency of observations that are needed to capture and integrate this dynamic interface, is paramount for developing precision diagnostics and therapies that are based on the microbiome...
July 7, 2016: Nature
Iris I Levin, David M Zonana, Bailey K Fosdick, Se Jin Song, Rob Knight, Rebecca J Safran
Theory predicts that social interactions are dynamically linked to phenotype. Yet because social interactions are difficult to quantify, little is known about the precise details on how interactivity is linked to phenotype. Here, we deployed proximity loggers on North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) to examine intercorrelations among social interactions, morphology and features of the phenotype that are sensitive to the social context: stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and gut microbial diversity...
June 2016: Biology Letters
Paul E Wischmeyer, Daniel McDonald, Rob Knight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of 'health-promoting' microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis) in ICU is believed to contribute to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). This review discusses new understanding of ICU dysbiosis, new data for probiotics and fecal transplantation in ICU, and new data characterizing the ICU microbiome. RECENT FINDINGS: ICU dysbiosis results from many factors, including ubiquitous antibiotic use and overuse...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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