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Stomach infection

Mahmoud Zardast, Kokab Namakin, Jamil Esmaelian Kaho, Sarira Sadat Hashemi
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Guangzhi Zhang, Richard Ducatelle, Belgacem Mihi, Annemieke Smet, Bram Flahou, Freddy Haesebrouck
The stomach of pigs at slaughter age is often colonized by Helicobacter (H.) suis, which is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and other gastric pathological changes in both hosts. Parietal cells are highly specialized, terminally differentiated epithelial cells responsible for gastric acid secretion and regulation. Dysfunction of these cells is closely associated with gastric pathology and disease...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
Shigeki Kobayashi, Mayumi Ogura, Naohisa Suzawa, Noriyuki Horiki, Masaki Katsurahara, Toru Ogura, Hajime Sakuma
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the value of (18)F-FDG uptake on screening PET/CT images for the prediction of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. METHODS: Among subjects who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT for cancer screening from April 2005 to November 2015, PET/CT images were analyzed in 88 subjects who had gastrointestinal fiberscopy within 6 months. The volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the fornix, corpus and antrum of the stomach to determine maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Imaging
Wimonrat Panpetch, Jennifer K Spinler, James Versalovic, Somying Tumwasorn
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-8 is the key agent for initiating an inflammatory response to infection with Helicobacter pylori. Some strains of Lactobacillus spp. are known to colonize the stomach and suppress inflammation caused by H. pylori. In this study, we characterized two gastric-derived lactobacilli, Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) strains B37 and B60, capable of inhibiting H. pylori-induced IL-8 production by gastric epithelial cells. RESULTS: Conditioned media from LS-B37 and LS-B60 suppressed H...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Kyung Hee Kim, Chan Gyoo Kim, Young-Woo Kim, Hae Moon, Jee Eun Choi, Soo-Jeong Cho, Jong Yeul Lee, Il Ju Choi
Phlegmonous gastritis is a rare and rapidly progressive bacterial infection of the stomach wall, with a high mortality rate. Antibiotics with or without surgical treatment are required for treatment. We present a case in which phlegmonous gastritis occurred during the diagnostic evaluation of early gastric cancer. The patient showed improvement after antibiotic treatment, but attempted endoscopic submucosal dissection failed because of submucosal pus. We immediately applied argon plasma coagulation since surgical resection was also considered a high-risk procedure because of the submucosal pus and multiple comorbidities...
September 2016: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Daniel Konstantinou, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Yana Zavros
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Nancy Roxana Machaca Quea, Fabian Emura, Fernando Barreda Bolaños, Yuliana Salvador Arias, Fernando Antonio Arévalo Suárez, Alejandro Piscoya Rivera
Background and study aims: In the Western world, gastric cancer (GC) usually presents at an advanced stage, carrying a high mortality rate. Studies have reported that 14 % to 26 % of GCs are missed at endoscopy up to 3 years before diagnosis. Systematic Alphanumeric Coded Endoscopy (SACE) has been proposed to improve quality of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) by facilitating a complete examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This prospective cross-sectional study was designed to determine the frequency of gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) by using the SACE approach in cohort of patients from low socioeconomic level...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Chun Chieh Lin, Jan Willem W Coebergh, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: In the U.S., people of different races/ethnicities have differences in cancer incidence, mortality, survival, stage at diagnosis, and receipt of treatment, resulting in variances in cancer burden. The burden of cancer in 2011 was assessed by race/ethnicity for 24 cancers using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: In 2014-2015, DALYs and their two components were estimated (years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability) by race/ethnicity using population-based cancer registry data collected in 2013, vital statistics, and literature reviews...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Chih-Ho Lai, Ju-Chun Huang, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Ju-Pi Li, Lii-Tzu Wu, Hua-Shan Wu, Yu-Chen Sun, Mei-Ling Lin, Ju-Fang Lee, Hwai-Jeng Lin
Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Lars Agréus, Per M Hellström, Nicholas J Talley, Bengt Wallner, Anna Forsberg, Michael Vieth, Lothar Veits, Karin Björkegren, Lars Engstrand, Anna Andreasson
BACKGROUND: In Western countries the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may be declining but there is a lack of recent longitudinal population studies. We evaluated the changing epidemiology over a 23-year period in Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 1989, the validated Abdominal Symptom Questionnaire (ASQ) was mailed to a random sample of inhabitants (ages 22-80 years) in a Swedish community, and 1097 (87%) responded. H. pylori serology was analysed in a representative subsample (n = 145)...
October 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Ri-Xing Bai, Wen-Mao Yan, You-Guo Li, Jun Xu, Zhi-Qiang Zhong, Ming Yan
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS: Seventy-seven patients received side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum by utilization of linear stapler in LRYGB from April 2012 to July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: All patients were successfully completed laparoscopic gastric bypass with the side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xiao Jiao Cheng, Jia Cheng Lin, Shui Ping Tu
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. SUMMARY: Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer...
September 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Ju Yup Lee, Nayoung Kim, Yoon Jeong Choi, Ryoung Hee Nam, Yoon Jin Choi, Seonmin Lee, Daeun Choi, Hye Seung Lee, Jin-Wook Kim, Dong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) treatment followed by chronic Helicobacter pylori SS1 and H. felis colonization on the stomachs of C57BL/6 mice. The role of MNU and Helicobacter species in gastric carcinogenesis was also elucidated. METHODS: A total of 69 C57BL/6 mice at 4 weeks of age were divided into 6 groups according to MNU treatment and H. pylori SS1 or H. felis infection. The mice were sacrificed at 21 and 50 weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Rinaldo Pellicano, Davide G Ribaldone, Sharmila Fagoonee, Marco Astegiano, Giorgio M Saracco, Francis Mégraud
The discovery that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) lives in the stomach has rendered out-of-date the concept of inhospitality of the gastric environment. H. pylori is able to survive in this organ through mechanisms of acid resistance and colonization factors. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies depending on age, socioeconomic class, and country. Currently, in the context of a decreased trend in H. pylori prevalence, it is estimated that about 50% of the world's human population are carriers of the microorganism, with a higher rate in developing countries than in developed countries...
December 2016: Panminerva Medica
Yannan Jiang, Yingyan Yu
Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Rajesh Krishna, Lilly East, Patrick Larson, Tara Siringhaus, Lisa Herpok, Crystal Bethel-Brown, Helen Manthos, John Brejda, Michael Gartner
Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently marketed at a dose of 400 mg twice daily (BID). Raltegravir for once daily regimen (QD) at a dose of 1200 mg (2 x 600 mg) is under development and offers a new treatment option for HIV-1 infected treatment-naive subjects. Since raltegravir is eliminated mainly by metabolism via an UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1-mediated glucuronidation pathway, co-administration of UGT1A1 inducers may alter plasma levels of raltegravir...
October 5, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Thomas G Blanchard, Steven J Czinn
Establishment of Helicobacter pylori infection as an etiologic agent of peptic ulcer disease and other gastric pathologies marked a revolution in gastroenterology which spurred an enormous interest in gastric physiology and immunology research. The association was soon also demonstrated in children as well. Application of antimicrobial therapies have proven remarkably efficacious in eradicating H. pylori and curing pediatric patients of duodenal ulcers as well as gastritis, negating a lifetime of ineffective therapy and life-threatening disease...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
Kazuya Kato, Yoshiaki Iwasaki, Kazuhiko Onodera, Minoru Matsuda, Mineko Higuchi, Kimitaka Kato, Yurina Kato, Masahiko Taniguchi, Hiroyuki Furukawa
PURPOSE: Despite the widespread use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes, their placement may be associated with a variety of complications, including gastrocolic fistula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, seven high-risk individuals diagnosed using computed tomography (CT)-gastrocolonography (GC) underwent laparoscopic-assisted PEG (LAPEG) placement. Study endpoints included the success of LAPEG under local anesthetic and intravenous sedation, inability to thread the PEG tube, the eventual tube location, the number of tube adjustments needed, adverse events, the operating time, and PEG tube-related infection...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Yalda Khosravi, Mun Fai Loke, Khean Lee Goh, Jamuna Vadivelu
Helicobacter pylori is the dominant species of the human gastric microbiota and is present in the stomach of more than half of the human population worldwide. Colonization by H. pylori causes persistent inflammatory response and H. pylori-induced gastritis is the strongest singular risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop malignancy. Besides H. pylori, other microbial species have also been shown to be related to gastritis. We previously reported that interspecies microbial interaction between H...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexa J McDermott, Cara L Field, Lisa A Hoopes, Tonya M Clauss
An adult, female, reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) was evaluated for abnormal swimming and coelomic distention after colliding with a floating dock in an exhibit. Initial clinical signs included abnormal posture and swimming. Clinical signs progressed to include muscle wasting, poor body condition, and coelomic distention. Further diagnostics revealed excessive exhibit substrate within the gastrointestinal tract, gastric ulcers, free coelomic fluid, possible spinal lesion, possible uterine abnormality, and hematologic changes...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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