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Stomach infection

Ran B Luo, Shanglei Liu, Jonathan C DeLong, Garth R Jacobsen, Bryan J Sandler, Santiago Horgan
INTRODUCTION: Gastropleural fistula (GPF) is a complex pathology that can present as a result of surgery, trauma, peptic ulcer disease, malignancies, radiation, or chemotherapy. Management typically includes endoscopic or surgical intervention along with intraabdominal or intrathoracic drainage of pre-existing infection. Traditionally, surgical approaches have been through exploratory laparotomy or thoracotomy, subjecting already ill patients to additional morbidity. CASE REPORT: We describe and demonstrate a laparoscopic minimally invasive approach to the management of a GPF with a wedge resection of the stomach, along with a review of the current literature regarding GPF treatment...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Hardip Malhi
Enteral tube feeding is the delivery of nutritionally complete feed via a tube into the gut. It is used for patients who are unable to meet their nutritional needs orally. Enteral feeding can be given through a variety of different tubes that access the gastrointestinal tract either via the stomach or the small bowel. The contamination of enteral feed can often be overlooked as a source of bacterial infection. Enteral feeds can become contaminated in a variety of different ways. Most often infections result in extended lengths of stay in hospital and patients also need additional therapies and treatments in order to resolve these infections...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Xiaoyan Liao, Sharon L Reed, Grace Y Lin
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals but may cause serious complications in immunocompromised patients. We investigated the clinicopathological correlation of CMV in gastrointestinal (GI) biopsies at our institute between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. METHODS: A total of 105 non-neoplastic GI biopsies tested positive for CMV by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The IHC results were stratified as "true positive" if > 2 cells stained, or "rare positive" if only 1 - 2 cells stained...
December 2016: Gastroenterology Research
Michael Naumann, Olga Sokolova, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa in the human stomach and represents a major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex impact of H. pylori on manipulating host signalling networks, that is, by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-encoded type IV secretion system (T4SS). We show that H. pylori infections reflect a paradigm for interspecies contact-dependent molecular communication, which includes the disruption of cell-cell junctions and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as well as proinflammatory, cell cycle-related, proliferative, antiapoptotic, and DNA damage responses...
January 2, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
Sherif T S Hassan, Miroslava Šudomová
Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes severe gastroduodenal diseases in a large number of patients worldwide. The H. pylori infection breaks up in early childhood, persists lifelong if not treated, and is associated with chronic gastritis and an increased risk of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In recent years, the problem of drug-resistant strains has become a global concern that makes the treatment more complicated and the infection persistent at higher levels when the antibiotic treatment is stopped...
January 4, 2017: Children
Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey
INTRODUCTION: Peroral extrusion of peritoneal part of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt (VPS) catheter is an extremely rare complication following VPS implantation. AIM: To review the options available for the management of peroral extrusion of VPS catheter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Medline, PMC (PubMed Central), Embase, Google scholar databases search was performed to retrieve the published/available data relating to the peroral extrusion of VPS catheter...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Martin Koethe, Carolin Schade, Karsten Fehlhaber, Martina Ludewig
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important food-related pathogens worldwide. Besides contact to oocysts or ingestion of tissue cysts mainly by consumption of raw or undercooked meat from infected animals, raw milk is considered to be a risk factor and possible route of transmission for tachyzoites. This stage of the parasite is usually very sensitive to acidic pH and, therefore, considered unlikely to survive stomach passage. However, tachyzoites were shown to survive for several days in milk and there are also reports on transmission of toxoplasmosis via milk...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Candelario Rodríguez, Louise Rollins-Smith, Roberto Ibáñez, Armando A Durant-Archibold, Marcelino Gutiérrez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers. OVERARCHING OBJECTIVE: In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kun Li, Yanfang Lan, Houqiang Luo, Muhammad Shahzad, Hui Zhang, Lei Wang, Lihong Zhang, Dongyu Liu, Xinyu Liu, Yanan Hao, Suolang Sizhu, Jiakui Li
Parasitic nematodes of Oesophagostomum spp., commonly known as 'nodular worms' are one of the most widely distributed and prevalent emerging zoonotic nematodes. However, little is known about the prevalence and gene characteristics of those parasites in Tibetan pigs. Therefore, a study was carried out to investigate the prevalence, isolation and identification of Oesophagostomum spp from Tibetan pigs by genetic markers of nad1,cox3 and ITS1 for the first time. The results revealed that the infection rate of O...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
Caroline Blaecher, Eva Bauwens, Alfred Tay, Fanny Peters, Sylvia Dobbs, John Dobbs, André Charlett, Richard Ducatelle, Freddy Haesebrouck, Annemieke Smet
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter suis is a very fastidious microorganism associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. In vitro isolation of this agent from human patients has so far been unsuccessful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A probe-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for the rapid detection of H. suis in gastric biopsies was developed. Secondly, a mouse-passage-based protocol was optimized for isolation of low numbers of viable H...
December 28, 2016: Helicobacter
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Guillermo Perez-Perez
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gastric human pathogen associated with acute and chronic gastritis, 70% of all gastric ulcers, 85% of all duodenal ulcers, and both forms of stomach cancer, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Recently, attention has focused on possible relationship between presence of certain virulence factor and H. pylori-associated diseases. Some contradictory data between this bacterium and related disorders has been observed since not all the colonized individuals develop to severe disease...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xiu-Zhen Shi, Xiao-Wu Feng, Jie-Jie Sun, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Jin-Xing Wang
Leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif exists in many immune receptors of animals and plants. Most LRR containing (LRRC) proteins are involved in protein-ligand and protein-protein interaction, but the exact functions of most LRRC proteins were not well-studied. In this study, an LRRC protein was identified from kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus, and named as MjLRRC1. MjLRRC1 was consistently expressed in different tissues of normal shrimp with higher expression in gills and stomach. At the transcriptional level, there were no significant changes of MjLRRC1 after injection of Vibrio anguillarum or Staphylococcus aureus in gills and hepatopancreas...
December 25, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chan-Hyeok Jeon, Jeung-Wan Do, U-Hwa Nam, Wi-Sik Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim
We developed a PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of Kudoa iwatai (Multivalvulida: Myxozoa) and investigated the prevalence of infection in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus, which is commercially an important aquaculture species in Korea, with this assay. Detection limit of the PCR assay was 2.5 fg/μl with plasmid DNA and 8.6 × 10(3) spores/ml with purified spores, respectively. This PCR assay did not amplify DNA of other Kudoa species (Kudoa septempunctata, Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) tested. Sliced muscles of whole body from 318 rock bream (wild and cultured) were examined by this PCR assay and also with the naked eyes...
December 23, 2016: Parasitology Research
Vladimir Bespalov, Alexander Sherbakov, Viktor Novik, Valentin Kalinovsky, Kamran Shamsi, Vagif Soultanov
Objectives. Helicobacter pylori infection is common and can lead to precancerous gastric lesions. Standard antibiotic therapy has a failure rate of more than 25% from antibiotic resistance. The primary aim of this observational pilot study was to test the feasibility of a large-scale clinical trial of Conifer Green Needle Complex (CGNC) to treat precancerous gastric lesions. Secondary aims were to investigate H. pylori infection, stomach function, and histopathology of the gastric mucosa. Methods. A tablet form of CGNC (extracted from Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies (L) Karst) was prescribed to 26 patients with precancerous gastric lesions (two tablets, 100 mg CGNC/tablet, three times per day for six months)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Rekha Loganathan, Mehnaz Nazeer, Vaishnavi Goda, Panneer Devaraju, Mohammed Ali, Premkumar Karunakaran, Megala Jayaraman
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a class of molecular pattern recognition receptors, elicits a strong inflammatory immune response against pathogens. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a gram negative flagellate colonizes the human stomach, is responsible for the development of chronic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. The higher incidence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer in South Indian Tamils demands a genetic study to unravel the influence of TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphisms associated with chronic H. pylori infection...
December 16, 2016: Human Immunology
Amy C Engevik, Rui Feng, Eunyoung Choi, Shana White, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Jing Li, Maxime M Mahe, Eitaro Aihara, Li Yang, Betsy DiPasquale, Sunghee Oh, Kristen A Engevik, Andrew S Giraud, Marshall H Montrose, Mario Medvedovic, Michael A Helmrath, James R Goldenring, Yana Zavros
BACKGROUND & AIMS: During aging, physiological changes in the stomach result in more tenuous gastric tissue that is less capable of repairing injury, leading to increased susceptibility to chronic ulceration. Spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor 2-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is known to emerge after parietal cell loss and during Helicobacter pylori infection, however, its role in gastric ulcer repair is unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate if SPEM plays a role in epithelial regeneration...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jonathan Smart, Aurélien Fouillen, Bastien Casu, Antonio Nanci, Christian Baron
Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of gastric pathologies and persistent infection can lead to stomach cancer. Virulent H. pylori strains encode a type IV secretion system responsible for translocation of the oncogenic CagA protein into cells of the gastric mucosa. Gene HP0522 encodes the essential component Cagδ (Cag3), and we show by gel filtration and cross-linking that purified Cagδ forms high molecular mass complexes. In contrast, its interaction partner CagT is mostly monomeric, but co-fractionates after gel filtration...
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Carlos Eduardo Carvalho, Thaís Messias McCormick, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Juliana DE Saldanha DA Gama Fischer, Priscila Ferreira DE Aquino, Guilherme Pinto Bravo, Maria DA Glória DA Costa Carvalho
The frequency of molecular studies aimed to analyze promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes and global proteomics in gastric carcinogenesis is increasing. Nonetheless, only a few considered the different types of stomach cells, the tumor location and the influence of Helicobacter pylori and Epstein Barr virus infection (EBV). Molecular differences relating to anatomical and histological tumor areas were also recently described. The authors propose a molecular classification of gastric cancer, dividing it into four subtypes: tumors positive for EBV; microsatellite unstable tumors; genomically stable tumors and tumors with chromosomal instability...
September 2016: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Tao Mao, Yan Wang, Fan Yin, Qingxi Zhao, Lin Yang, Xueli Ding, Zibin Tian
The aim of this study is to identify and consolidate reliable endoscopic features associated with H. pylori infection in gastric mucosa, which is one of the major causes of gastric cancer. A total of 256 Chinese patients with symptomatic stomach disturbances were enrolled. Pathological examination was conducted using a light microscope and biopsy specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Endoscopic examination was performed using a high resolution video endoscope. The association between endoscopic features and pathological H...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Emma C Skoog, Samuel L Deck, Hasan D Entwistle, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick
Helicobacter pylori commonly infects the epithelial layer of the human stomach and in some individuals causes peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma or gastric lymphoma. Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse species, and the most important bacterial virulence factor that increases the risk of developing disease, versus asymptomatic colonization, is the cytotoxin associated gene pathogenicity island (cagPAI). Socially housed rhesus macaques are often naturally infected with H. pylori similar to that which colonizes humans, but little is known about the cagPAI...
December 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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