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bone mineral density adolescent

C Tsentidis, D Gourgiotis, L Kossiva, A Marmarinos, A Doulgeraki, K Karavanaki
: Higher levels of Dickkopf-1, which is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin bone metabolic pathway, could be indicative of downregulated Wnt system, with possible lower osteoblast activation and higher osteoclast signaling in type 1 diabetes mellitus children and adolescents. Dickkopf-1 could significantly contribute to diabetes osteopathy. INTRODUCTION: Increased fracture risk and elevated Dickkopf-1 levels, which is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin bone metabolic pathway, have been documented in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), while no relevant data exist on childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
October 20, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Aditya H Gaur, Hilda Kizito, Wasana Prasitsueubsai, Natella Rakhmanina, Mohammed Rassool, Rana Chakraborty, Jagmohan Batra, Pope Kosalaraksa, Wicharn Luesomboon, Danielle Porter, Yongwu Shao, Michael Myers, Lillian Ting, Devi SenGupta, Erin Quirk, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prodrug tenofovir alafenamide is associated with improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of this single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adolescents. METHODS: We did a 48 week, single-arm, open-label trial in treatment-naive adolescents with HIV from ten hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA...
October 17, 2016: Lancet HIV
Ki Jin Jung, Soon-Sun Kwon, Chin Youb Chung, Kyoung Min Lee, Ki Hyuk Sung, Byung Chae Cho, Myoung Ki Chung, Seung Jun Moon, Jaeyoung Kim, Moon Seok Park
The present study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to critically analyze the effects of a variety of factors, particularly the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities questionnaire, and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), on BMD. Fifty patients with CP who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. Collected data included the extent of involvement, muscle tone, demographic data, factors determined through chart review, and laboratory results...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
E Z Movassagh, S Kontulainen, A D G Baxter-Jones, S Whiting, M Szafron, M Papadimitropoulos, H Vatanparast
: We investigated the impact of food group intake during adolescence on bone structure and strength during adulthood. In females, we found a beneficial effect of adolescent milk and alternatives and fruit and vegetable intake on adult radius shaft and distal tibia bone structure, respectively. No association was observed in males. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with high intake of milk and alternatives (M&A) or fruit and vegetables (F&V) had better adult bone structure and strength compared to those with low intake levels...
October 3, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Alexis J Feuer, Ashley Thai, Ryan T Demmer, Maria Vogiatzi
Importance: Murine studies reveal that sympathetic nervous system activation leads to decreased bone mass. Stimulant medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increase sympathetic tone and may affect bone remodeling. Because bone mass accrual is completed by young adulthood, assessing stimulant effects on bone density in growing children is of critical importance. Objective: To investigate associations between stimulant use and bone mass in children and adolescents...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Wagner Luis Ripka, Jhomyr Dias Modesto, Leandra Ulbricht, Pedro Miguel Gewehr
OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. METHODOLOGY: A total of 318 males adolescents (12-17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determined by body fat (%BF) percentage; comparison of groups was scrutinized by analysis of variance; and the association of variables was performed using Pearson's test...
2016: PloS One
Laura K Bachrach, Catherine M Gordon
Concerns about bone health and potential fragility in children and adolescents have led to a high interest in bone densitometry. Pediatric patients with genetic and acquired chronic diseases, immobility, and inadequate nutrition may fail to achieve expected gains in bone size, mass, and strength, leaving them vulnerable to fracture. In older adults, bone densitometry has been shown to predict fracture risk and reflect response to therapy. The role of densitometry in the management of children at risk of bone fragility is less clear...
September 26, 2016: Pediatrics
André Brännström, Ji-Guo Yu, Per Jonsson, Torbjörn Åkerfeldt, Mats Stridsberg, Michael Svensson
The present work investigated serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) status in relation to bone and muscle qualities and functions in 19 female soccer players (13-16 years) resident at northern latitude with very low sun exposure (∼32-36 h/month) during winter season (late January to early March). Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers osteocalcin (OC) and beta carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (β-Ctx), as well as body composition and muscle performance were examined. Hormones were tested using routine laboratory methods...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Alan R Barker, Craig A Williams, Sigurbjörn A Arngrímsson, Karen M Knapp, Brad S Metcalf, Ioannis G Fatouros, Luis A Moreno, Luis Gracia-Marco
PURPOSE: Exercise is an effective approach for developing bone mass and adolescence is a key period to optimize bone health. However, sports specific training may have different effects on bone outcomes. This study examined the differences on bone outcomes between osteogenic (football) and non-osteogenic (swimming and cycling) sports and a control group in adolescent males. METHODS: One hundred twenty one males (13.1±0.1 years) were measured: 41 swimmers, 37 footballers, 29 cyclists and 14 controls...
September 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Marcelo R Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Kyle R Lynch, Ricardo R Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Igor H Ito, Rafael Luiz-de-Marco, Mario A Rodrigues-Junior, Rômulo A Fernandes
BACKGROUND: The practice of swimming in "hypogravity" conditions has potential to decrease bone formation because it decreases the time engaged in weight-bearing activities usually observed in the daily activities of adolescents. Therefore, adolescents competing in national levels would be more exposed to these deleterious effects, because they are engaged in long routines of training during most part of the year. To analyze the effect of swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) gain among adolescents engaged in national level competitions during a 9-month period...
August 2016: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Jason M Nagata, Neville H Golden, Rebecka Peebles, Jin Long, Mary B Leonard, Audrey O Chang, Jennifer L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare sex differences in bone deficits among adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to identify other correlates of bone health. METHOD: Electronic medical records of all patients 9-20 years of age with a DSM-5 diagnosis of AN who were evaluated by the eating disorders program at Stanford with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) between March 1997 and February 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Whole body bone mineral content Z-scores and bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores at multiple sites were recorded using the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS) reference data...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Jonathan A Mitchell, Diana L Cousminer, Babette S Zemel, Struan F A Grant, Alessandra Chesi
Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic forms of disability in postmenopausal women and represents a major health burden around the world. Bone fragility is affected by bone mineral density (BMD), and, one of the most important factors in preventing osteoporosis is optimizing peak bone mass, which is achieved during growth in childhood and adolescence. BMD is a complex trait resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have discovered robust genetic signals influencing BMD in adults, and similar studies have also been conducted to investigate the genetics of BMD in the pediatric setting...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Michael P Whyte, Deborah Wenkert, Fan Zhang
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism that features deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Resultant extracellular accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate, a TNSALP substrate and potent inhibitor of mineralization, typically leads to tooth loss and sometimes to rickets or osteomalacia. HPP's remarkably broad-ranging severity is largely explained by autosomal dominant versus autosomal recessive transmission from among several hundred usually missense mutations positioned throughout the gene that encodes TNSALP...
August 27, 2016: Bone
Gabriela Wiesława Jagielska, Jerzy Przedlacki, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz, Ewa Racicka
Anorexia nervosa (AN) most often has its onset in adolescence, which is a crucial period to achieve peak bone mass. The hormonal abnormalities (hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, decreased secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor) and malnutrition are associated with profound bone mineralization disorders. Densitomertic bone mineral density (BMD) values for osteopenia and osteoporosis were found respectively in 35-98% and 13-50% of women with AN. Prospective studies indicate a further decline in BMD at the beginning of treatment and a crucial importance of weight gain and return of spontaneous menses for its growth...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
Jennifer E Cohen, Claire E Wakefield, Richard J Cohn
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Benito Lourenço, Katia T Kozu, Gabriela N Leal, Marco F Silva, Elisabeth G C Fernandes, Camila M P França, Fernando H C Souza, Clovis A Silva
Contraception is an important issue and should be a matter of concern in every medical visit of adolescent and young patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. This narrative review discusses contraception methods in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Barrier methods are safe and their use should be encouraged for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are strictly prohibited for JSLE and APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies...
July 16, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Laya Ekhlaspour, Charumathi Baskaran, Karen Joanie Campoverde, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Ann M Neumeyer, Madhusmita Misra
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for fracture, and peri-pubertal boys with ASD have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than controls. Data are lacking regarding BMD in older adolescents with ASD. We compared BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 9 adolescents/young adults with ASD against 9 typically developing matched controls. Patients with ASD and controls were excluded if they had other underlying conditions that may affect bone. Compared to controls, patients with ASD had (i) lower femoral neck and hip BMD Z-scores, and (ii) lower spine, femoral neck and hip height adjusted BMD Z-scores even after controlling for BMI...
November 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Ali Ghassemi, Abdollah Banihashem, Nosrate Ghaemi, Saghi Elmi, Reza Erfani Sayyar, Sam Elmi, Habibollah Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are the most common malignancies in children and adolescents. Therapies such as corticosteroids, cytotoxic and radiotherapy will have harmful effect on bone mineral density (BMD) which can lead to increased possibility of osteoporosis and pathological fractures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This 3-year cross-sectional study was performed in 50 children with ALL (n=25) and NHL (n=25) at Dr. Sheikh Children's Hospital in Mashhad...
July 1, 2016: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
W K Cho, M B Ahn, J-W Lee, N-G Chung, M H Jung, B Cho, B-K Suh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
T Sudjaritruk, T Bunupuradah, L Aurpibul, P Kosalaraksa, N Kurniati, W Prasitsuebsai, J Sophonphan, A H Sohn, J Ananworanich, T Puthanakit
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of low bone mass and assess its relationship with abnormal bone turnover among HIV-infected Asian adolescents. METHODS: A multicentre, cross-sectional study was conducted at four paediatric HIV centres in Thailand and Indonesia. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-18 years receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with virological suppression (HIV RNA < 400 copies/mL) were enrolled. Study assessments included lumbar spine (L2-L4) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and measurement of bone turnover markers...
August 1, 2016: HIV Medicine
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