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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437058/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-antipsychotic-drugs
#1
Sarah D Holder, Alaina L Edmunds, Sherri Morgan
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422826/idiopathic-hypoparathyroidism-with-extensive-intracranial-calcification-in-children-first-report-from-saudi-arabia
#2
Naglaa M Kamal, Hamed A Alghamdi, Abdulrahman A Halabi, Ayman A Bakkar, Ali Algarni, Abdullah Alharbi, Abdulla A Alharthi, Rawan A Alharbi, Laila M Sherief
RATIONALE: Pediatric idiopathic hypoparathyroidism with extensive intracranial calcifications outside the basal ganglia (BG) is extremely rare with less than 10 cases worldwide. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-year-old Saudi male child presented with tetany with otherwise normal neurological and other body system examination diagnoses severe hypocalcemia for differential diagnosis. INTERVENTIONS: Further investigations revealed hyperphosphatemia and undetectable serum intact parathyroid hormone...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415443/3-month-parenteral-plga-microsphere-formulations-of-risperidone-fabrication-characterization-and-neuropharmacological-assessments
#3
Sundeep Chaurasia, Kuchukuntla Mounika, Vasudha Bakshi, Vure Prasad
The study aims at formulation and characterization of three months parenteral risperidone loaded polymeric microspheres (p-RLPMs) as a sustained delivery system and established their in vitro and in vivo assessments. The p-RLPMs formulations were prepared by solvent extraction and diffusion method. The optimized p-RLPMs (batch RPLGA-1) formulation demonstrated favorable different physicochemical properties such as mean particle size (104±5.34μm), percent porosity (44.56±3.11%) and percent drug loading (38...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412910/aripiprazole-a-drug-that-displays-partial-agonism-and-functional-selectivity
#4
Erin W Tuplin, Matthew R Holahan
The treatment of schizophrenia is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms (positive, negative, cognitive) associated with the disease. Typical antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors are effective in treating positive symptoms, but extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) are a common occurrence. Atypical antipsychotics targeting 5-TH2A and D2 receptors are more effective at treating cognitive and negative symptoms compared to typical antipsychotics, but these drugs also result in side-effects such as metabolic syndromes...
April 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411331/glutaric-acidemia-type-1-a-case-of-infantile-stroke
#5
Gül Demet Kaya Ozcora, Songul Gokay, Mehmet Canpolat, Fatih Kardaş, Mustafa Kendirci, Sefer Kumandaş
BACKGROUND: Glutaric acidemia Type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder which is associated with GCDH gene mutations which alters the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme playing role in the catabolic pathways of the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. Clinical findings are often encephalopathic crises, dystonia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. CASE REPORT: A 9-month-old male infant referred to our department with focal tonic-clonic seizures during rotavirus infection and acute infarcts in MRI...
April 15, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407198/chlorpromazine-dose-for-people-with-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Katharine Dudley, Xiaomeng Liu, Saskia De Haan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential Medicines lists chlorpromazine as one of its five medicines used in psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine chlorpromazine dose response and dose side-effect relationships for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (December 2008; 2 October 2014; 19 December 2016)...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405133/risperidone-induced-adverse-drug-reactions-and-role-of-drd2-141-c-ins-del-and-5htr2c-759-c-t-genetic-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Charanraj Goud Alladi, Anbarasan Mohan, Deepak Gopal Shewade, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Surendiran Adithan, Karthick Subramanian
OBJECTIVE: To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of risperidone and their association with dopamine (DRD2 - 141 C Ins/Del/rs1799732) and serotonin receptor (5HTR2C -759 C>T/rs3813929) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted among 289 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and were on treatment with risperidone (4-8 mg/day)-based therapy for a minimum of 4 weeks. Genotyping was carried by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386684/extrapyramidal-symptoms-after-exposure-to-calcium-channel-blocker-flunarizine-or-cinnarizine
#8
Kai-Ming Jhang, Jing-Yang Huang, Oswald Ndi Nfor, Yu-Chun Tung, Wen-Yuan Ku, Chun-Te Lee, Yung-Po Liaw
PURPOSE: Flunarizine (fz) and cinnarizine (cz) have well-known extrapyramidal side effects (EPSEs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and occurrence time of cz- and fz-related EPSEs. METHOD: Patients who took fz or cz for more than 1 month were identified from the longitudinal health insurance database 2005 and 2010. Excluded were patients with any of the underlying diseases that may cause parkinsonism. Drug-induced EPSEs were defined as the new diagnosis of parkinsonism, dyskinesia, or secondary dystonia during drug use or within 3 months after discontinuing the medication...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382615/a-case-of-multiple-system-atrophy-with-preexisting-alzheimer-s-disease-and-predating-the-hot-cross-bun-sign
#9
Chi-Wei Lin, Chi-Yu Tseng, Chung-Ping Lo, Min-Chien Tu
PURPOSE: Synucleinopathy, tauopathy and amyloidopathy were classified as distinct clinical and pathological entities in traditional classification systems, and their interactions have been studied on neuropathology and molecular genetics recently. CASE REPORT: In this report, we present a 69-year-old male patient who had been diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia due to progressive forgetfulness in February 2013. His Mini- Mental State Examination score was 21/30, and his Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument score was 78/100, resulted from profound deficits in recent memory and abstract thinking domains...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378511/dissociation-of-reward-and-effort-sensitivity-in-methcathinone-induced-parkinsonism
#10
Trevor T-J Chong, Valerie Bonnelle, Kai-Riin Veromann, Julius Juurmaa, Pille Taba, Olivia Plant, Masud Husain
Methcathinone-induced Parkinsonism is a recently described extrapyramidal syndrome characterized by globus pallidus and substantia nigra lesions, which provides a unique model of basal ganglia dysfunction. We assessed motivated behaviour in this condition using a novel cost-benefit decision-making task, in which participants decided whether it was worth investing effort for reward. Patients showed a dissociation between reward and effort sensitivity, such that pallidonigral complex dysfunction caused them to become less sensitive to rewards, while normal sensitivity to effort costs was maintained...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374697/-a-differential-approach-to-the-improvement-of-prevention-and-correction-of-neuroleptic-side-extrapyramidal-disorders-with-pantogam-activ-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
A S Tiganov, G P Panteleeva, L I Abramova, P V Bologov, P S Kananovich, M A Omel'chenko, I Yu Nikiforova
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of pantogam active (PA) in prevention and correction of neurological side-effects during the course neuroleptic treatment of acute endogenous psychoses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty schizophrenic patients (mean age 33 years) with acute psychosis were examined. All patients received 28-day course treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics. Two equal groups were studied: patients of the first group were treated with trihexyphenidyl (THP) in dose of 0,002-0,012 mg and patients of the second group received in addition PA in dose 0,9 mg/day...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368577/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-aripiprazole
#12
Austen B Casey, Clinton E Canal
Aripiprazole was the first antipsychotic developed to possess agonist properties at dopamine D2 autoreceptors, a groundbreaking strategy that presented a new vista for schizophrenia drug discovery. The dopamine D2 receptor is the crucial target of all extant antipsychotics, and all developed prior to aripiprazole were D2 receptor antagonists. Extensive blockade of these receptors, however, typically produces extrapyramidal (movement) side effects, which plagued first-generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350145/-clotiapine-in-the-treatment-of-acutely-agitated-patients-hardly-any-evidence
#13
J Claeys, C Bervoets, J De Fruyt
In Flemish emergency psychiatry, clotiapine is still one of the options available for the treatment of agitation. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the efficacy of this practice.<br/> AIM: To find out whether there is sufficient evidence to justify the continued use of clotiapine in the treatment of agitation.<br/> METHOD: On searching the literature systematically, we identified controlled trials of clotiapine.<br/> RESULTS: The efficacy and safety of clotiapine were studied in two randomised controlled trials...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347393/brain-volume-changes-over-the-first-year-of-treatment-in-schizophrenia-relationships-to-antipsychotic-treatment
#14
R Emsley, L Asmal, S du Plessis, B Chiliza, L Phahladira, S Kilian
BACKGROUND: Progressive brain volume reductions have been described in schizophrenia, and an association with antipsychotic exposure has been reported. METHODS: We compared percentage changes in grey and white matter volume from baseline to month 12 in 23 previously antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder who were treated with the lowest effective dose of flupenthixol decanoate depot formulation, with 53 matched healthy individuals...
March 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344764/atypical-antipsychotics-recent-research-findings-and-applications-to-clinical-practice-proceedings-of-a-symposium-presented-at-the-29th-annual-european-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-congress-19-september-2016-vienna-austria
#15
REVIEW
Robin Murray, Christoph U Correll, Gavin P Reynolds, David Taylor
Available evidence suggests that second-generation atypical antipsychotics are broadly similar to first-generation agents in terms of their efficacy, but may have a more favourable tolerability profile, primarily by being less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. However, atypical antipsychotics are variably associated with disturbances in the cardiometabolic arena, including increased body weight and the development of metabolic syndrome, which may reflect differences in their receptor binding profiles...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343051/tolerability-of-cariprazine-in-the-treatment-of-acute-bipolar-i-mania-a-pooled-post-hoc-analysis-of-3-phase-ii-iii-studies
#16
Willie Earley, Suresh Durgam, Kaifeng Lu, Marc Debelle, István Laszlovszky, Eduard Vieta, Lakshmi N Yatham
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics have broad-spectrum efficacy against core symptoms of acute mania/mixed states in bipolar disorder; however, they are associated with clinically significant adverse effects (AEs). METHODS: This post hoc analysis evaluated the safety and tolerability of the atypical antipsychotic cariprazine in the treatment of adult patients with acute manic/mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder. Data were taken from three 3-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trials of cariprazine 3-12mg/d...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334978/therapeutic-window-of-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-occupancy-to-treat-psychosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Suzanne Reeves, Emma McLachlan, Julie Bertrand, Fabrizia D Antonio, Stuart Brownings, Akshay Nair, Suki Greaves, Alan Smith, David Taylor, Joel Dunn, Paul Marsden, Robert Kessler, Robert Howard
See Caravaggio and Graff-Guerrero (doi:10.1093/awx023) for a scientific commentary on this article.Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331332/clinical-role-of-brexpiprazole-in-depression-and-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Nishant B Parikh, Diana M Robinson, Anita H Clayton
Brexpiprazole, a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, is the second D2 partial agonist to come to market and has been approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and as an adjunctive treatment in major depressive disorder. With less intrinsic activity than aripiprazole at the D2 receptor and higher potency at 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, and α1B receptors, the pharmacological properties of brexpiprazole suggest a more tolerable side effect profile with regard to akathisia, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and sedation. While no head-to-head data are currently available, double-blind placebo-controlled studies show favorable results, with the number needed to treat (NNT) vs placebo of 6-15 for response in acute schizophrenia treatment and 4 for maintenance...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329449/behavioural-and-neurochemical-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-associated-with-omega-3-in-tardive-dyskinesia-induced-by-chronic-haloperidol-in-rats
#19
Dayane Pessoa Araújo, Thaisa Camboim, Ana Silva, Caio Fonseca, Rebeca Sousa, Mabson Barbosa, Lucidio Oliveira, José Cavalcanti, Eudes Lucena, Fausto Guzen
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega 3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of supplementation with of LA (100mg/Kg) and ω-3 (1g/Kg) in the treatment of TD-induced by chronic use haloperidol (HAL) (1mg/Kg) in rats...
March 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320181/ataxic-form-of-autosomal-recessive-pex10-related-peroxisome-biogenesis-disorders-with-a-novel-compound-heterozygous-gene-mutation-and-characteristic-clinical-phenotype
#20
Toru Yamashita, Jun Mitsui, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Shigeo Takashima, Hiroshi Umemura, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Takashi Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Yoshimura, Koichiro Doi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Koji Abe
Peroxisome biogenesis factor 10 (PEX10) is involved in the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins, and the mutation of this gene causes 3 subtypes of peroxisome biogenesis disorders, namely Zellweger syndrome (severe), neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (moderate) and an ataxic form (mild). Here, we report 3 siblings of the ataxic form with cerebellar ataxia, mild mental retardation, and 3 additional characteristic features: mydriasis, hyperreflexia and involuntary head movement. All 3 siblings are compound heterozygous for a previously reported mutation, c...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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