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Mohamed F Sallam, Chelsea Fizer, Andrew N Pilant, Pai-Yei Whung
Asian tiger and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti) are global nuisances and are competent vectors for viruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DV), and Zika (ZIKV). This review aims to analyze available spatiotemporal distribution models of Aedes mosquitoes and their influential factors. A combination of five sets of 3-5 keywords were used to retrieve all relevant published models. Five electronic search databases were used: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar through 17 May 2017...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jiajing Wu, Chenyan Zhao, Qiang Liu, Weijin Huang, Youchun Wang
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that is transmitted to humans primarily via the bite of an infected mosquito. Infection of humans by CHIKV can cause chikungunya fever which is an acute febrile illness associated with severe, often debilitating polyarthralgias. Since a re-emergence of CHIKV in 2004, the virus has spread into novel locations in nearly 40 countries including non-endemic regions and has led to millions of cases of disease throughout countries. Handling of CHIKV is restricted to the high-containment Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) facilities, which greatly impede the research progress of this virus...
October 11, 2017: Vaccine
Donald F Dariano, Chris R Taitt, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Umaru Bangura, Alfred S Bockarie, Moses J Bockarie, Joseph Lahai, Joseph M Lamin, Tomasz A Leski, Chadwick Yasuda, David A Stenger, Rashid Ansumana
Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in West Africa, but the contribution of other vector-borne infections (VBIs) to the burden of disease has been understudied. We used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for three VBIs to test blood samples from 1,795 febrile residents of Bo City, Sierra Leone, over a 1-year period in 2012-2013. In total, 24% of the tests were positive for malaria, fewer than 5% were positive for markers of dengue virus infection, and 39% were positive for IgM directed against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) or a related alphavirus...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kartika Sari, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Ayu Rai Andayani, Putu Dwi Adi, Rama Dhenni, Aditya Perkasa, Chairin Nisa Ma'roef, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Dewi Megawati, Ann M Powers, Ungke Anton Jaya
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been reported sporadically within the last 5 years in several areas of Indonesia including Bali. Most of the reports, however, have lacked laboratory confirmation. Method: A recent fever outbreak in a village in the North Bali area was investigated using extensive viral diagnostic testing including both molecular and serological approaches. Results and conclusions: Ten out of 15 acute febrile illness samples were confirmed to have CHIKV infection by real-time PCR or CHIKV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 5, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Verônica França Diniz Rocha, Adriano Hasler Principe de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Bandeira, Silvia Ines Sardi, Rodrigo Freaza Garcia, Samuel de Araújo Magalhães, Camila Alves Sampaio, Gubio Campos Soares
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The clinical manifestations include fever, arthralgia, rash, and other atypical clinical findings including ocular lesions. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with meningoencephalitis and anterior uveitis due to CHIKV. The patient had developed bilateral anterior uveitis with iris atrophy and a cotton wool spot on the left eye, and his serum, urine, saliva, and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for CHIKV by RT-PCR. The spectrum of the ophthalmologic manifestations and its pathophysiology in cases of CHIKV infections needs to be better understood...
October 11, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Gillian Eastwood, Rosemary C Sang, Matilde Guerbois, Evans L N Taracha, Scott C Weaver
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally emerging pathogen causing debilitating arthralgia and fever in humans. First identified in Tanzania (1953), this mosquito-borne alphavirus received little further attention until a 2004 re-emergence in Kenya from an unknown source. This outbreak subsequently spread to the Indian Ocean, with adaptation for transmission by a new urban vector. Under the hypothesis that sylvatic progenitor cycles of CHIKV exist in Kenya (as reported in West Africa, between nonhuman primates (NHPs) and arboreal Aedes spp...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
R Tedjo Sasmono, Aditya Perkasa, Benediktus Yohan, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Frilasita A Yudhaputri, Rahma F Hayati, Chairin Nisa Ma'roef, Jeremy P Ledermann, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Ann M Powers
Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an acute viral infection caused by infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The disease affects people in areas where certain Aedes species mosquito vectors are present, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Indonesia has witnessed CHIK disease since the early 1970s with sporadic outbreaks occurring throughout the year. The CHIK clinical manifestation, characterized by fever, headache, and joint pain, is similar to that of dengue (DEN) disease. During a molecular study of a DEN outbreak in Jambi, Sumatra, in the early 2015, DEN-negative samples were evaluated for evidence of CHIKV infection...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
C Hua, B Combe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has become increasingly prevalent in the last decade not only across the southern hemisphere but also, because of a recently documented viral mutation, in southern Europe and the USA. With the global spread of CHIKV infection, practitioners should know its epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical features. RECENT FINDINGS: The acute phase of CHIKV disease is characterised by a fever-arthralgia-rash syndrome...
October 5, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Varsovia Cevallos, Patricio Ponce, Jesse J Waggoner, Benjamin A Pinsky, Josefina Coloma, Cristina Quiroga, Diego Morales, Maria José Cárdenas
The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L...
October 2, 2017: Acta Tropica
Kuan-Chieh Ching, Lisa F P Ng, Christina L L Chai
Alphaviruses were amongst the first arboviruses to be isolated, characterized and assigned a taxonomic status. They are globally widespread, infecting a large variety of terrestrial animals, birds, insects and even fish. Moreover, they are capable of surviving and circulating in both sylvatic and urban environments, causing considerable human morbidity and mortality. The re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in almost every part of the world has caused alarm to many health agencies throughout the world...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Si-Qing Liu, Xiao Li, Cheng-Lin Deng, Zhi-Ming Yuan, Bo Zhang
Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens and mosquito-borne arboviruses, which have resembling history, common vectors, circulating regions, and indistinguishable clinical symptoms. Wide geographical range that is suitable for ZIKV and CHIKV transmission underlines the concern about the impact of epidemic and endemic infections on burden of public health. In the present study, a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed and evaluated for simultaneous detection and quantification of ZIKV and CHIKV...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Isabelle Ribeiro Barbosa, Alessandre de Medeiros Tavares, Úrsula Priscila da Silva Torres, Carlos André do Nascimento, Márcia Cristina Bernardo de Melo Moura, Valderi Barbosa Vieira, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo, Renata Antonacci Gama
OBJECTIVE: to report the vigi@dengue experience, held in the municipality of Natal-RN, Brazil, from October/2015 to May/2016. METHODS: entomological indicators were obtained from the oviposition traps, epidemiological indicators from notifications on the online Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sinan-dengue), active search for cases and viral RNA detection (RTq-PCR) in arthropods and human serum samples; risk levels have been created based on these indicators; categories of interventions for each risk level have been established...
July 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Suwipa Ramphan, Sarawut Khongwichit, Chonticha Saisawang, Duangnapa Kovanich, Albert J Ketterman, Sukathida Ubol, Prasert Auewarakul, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Duncan R Smith, Atichat Kuadkitkan
PURPOSE: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. The CHIKV nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) is a multifunctional protein that additionally modulates the host cell to dampen the innate immune response and inhibit other cellular processes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To further investigate the interactions of nsP2 with host cells, the protease domain of CHIKV nsP2 (nsP2-pro) was transfected into Hela cells, and differential protein expression was detected by 2-dimension (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
October 4, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Duschinka R D Guedes, Elisete T B Gomes, Marcelo H S Paiva, Maria A V de Melo-Santos, Joana Alves, Lara F Gómez, Constância F J Ayres
Arthropod-borne viruses, such as Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika (ZIKV), pose a challenge to public health, due to their worldwide distribution and large-scale outbreaks. Dengue fever is currently one of the most important diseases and it is caused by four serotypes of DENV and is mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that 50-100 million cases are reported every year worldwide. More recently, CHIKV and ZIKV, which are also transmitted by Ae. aegypti, have caused epidemics in countries in the Caribbean region, the Pacific region, and Americas...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Liming Zhao, Barry W Alto, Chelsea T Smartt, Dongyoung Shin
Aedes aegypti (L.) is a vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses. These viruses encounter a variety of induced defense responses from the innate immune system of the mosquito. We cloned defensin A from Ae. aegypti using laboratory populations originating from Key West and Orlando, Florida. To characterize inducible immune defensin peptides, we examined the defensin A (DefA) and defensin C (DefC) expression through time course studies using quantitative real-time PCR. We observed that ingestion of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infected blood triggered early upregulated expression of DefA and DefC at 3 h after blood feeding...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Na Zhang, Leiliang Zhang
The infection of CHIKV is associated with cellular membranes; however whether early secretory pathways are involved in CHIKV replication remains unclear. In the present study, we have provided initial evidences that CHIKV requires both COPI and COPII for its replication. Small interfering RNAs against COPI components, including coatomer, ARFs or GBF1, suppress CHIKV replication. Moreover, CHIKV infection is abolished by the presence of ARF1 inhibitor brefeldin A or GBF1 inhibitor golgicide A. In addition, perturbation of COPII by silencing key components of COPII pathways leads to a reduction in CHIKV replication...
September 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shengzhang Dong, Velmurugan Balaraman, Asher M Kantor, Jingyi Lin, DeAna G Grant, Nicole L Held, Alexander W E Franz
In the mosquito, the midgut epithelium is the initial tissue to become infected with an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that has been acquired from a vertebrate host along with a viremic bloodmeal. Following its replication in midgut epithelial cells, the virus needs to exit the midgut and infect secondary tissues including the salivary glands before it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The viral exit mechanism from the midgut, the midgut escape barrier (MEB), is poorly understood although it is an important determinant of mosquito vector competence for arboviruses...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rachy Abraham, Sneha Singh, Sreeja R Nair, Neha Vijay Hulyalkar, Arun Surendran, Abdul Jaleel, Easwaran Sreekumar
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, can cause neurological complications by infecting the major parenchymal cells of the brain such as neurons and astrocytes. A proteomic analysis of CHIKV-infected human astrocytic cell line U-87 MG revealed tight functional associations among the modulated proteins. The predominant cellular pathways involved were of transcription-translation machinery, cytoskeletol reorganization, apoptosis, ubiquitination, and metabolism. In the proteome, we could also identify a few proteins that are reported to be involved in host-virus interactions...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Rana Abdelnabi, Dirk Jochmans, Erik Verbeken, Johan Neyts, Leen Delang
Favipiravir (T-705) is a broad spectrum antiviral which has been approved in Japan for the treatment of severe influenza virus infections. We reported earlier that favipiravir inhibits the in vitro replication of CHIKV and protects against disease progression in CHIKV-infected immunodeficient mice. We here explored whether favipiravir is also able to inhibit CHIKV replication in the joints of mice either when treatment is initiated during the acute or during the chronic phase of the infection. To this end, C57BL/6J mice were infected with CHIKV in the left hind footpad and treatment with favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day, orally) was either given from day 0 to day 3 post-infection (p...
September 25, 2017: Antiviral Research
Pedro J Dávila, Allison Toledo, Jan P Ulloa-Padilla, Natalio J Izquierdo, Andrés Emanuelli
PURPOSE: To report 3 cases of unilateral neuroretinitis associated with the chikungunya fever (CHIKV). METHODS: Retrospective noncomparative case series. RESULTS: Three female patients with similar complains of blurry vision and decreased visual acuity that started several weeks after experiencing symptoms of the CHIKV. All patients had decreased best-corrected visual acuity and distortion on the Amsler grid in the affected eye. Evidence of unilateral optic nerve swelling and macular exudates was noted in all patients...
September 25, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
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