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Bile salt

Wandee Sirichokchatchawan, Puwiya Pupa, Prasert Praechansri, Nutthee Am-In, Somboon Tanasupawat, Piengchan Sonthayanon, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in pig health and performance that arises from their beneficial impacts on the balance of gastrointestinal microbes, ability to fight enteric pathogens, and capacity to support the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and safety aspects of five previously isolated autochthonous LAB strains, (Lactobacillus plantarum 22F, 25F and 31F, Pediococcus acidilactici 72N and Pediococcus pentosaceus 77F) from pig faeces as potential probiotics for a pig feed supplement...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yu-Chen Meng, Hong-Can Liu, Yu-Guang Zhou, Man Cai, Yingqian Kang
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, catalase- and oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, and motile bacterium, designated strain SZDIS-1T , was isolated from pigpen sawdust bedding in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Cells grew at 10-50 °C, pH 6.0-9.0, up to 12 % (w/v) NaCl, resisted vibriostatic agent O/129 and were negative for gelatin and alginate hydrolysis. No growth on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar medium. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis, this strain should be assigned to the genus Vibrio, with the closest relatives being Vibrio aphrogenes CA-1004T (97...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yi Yang, Tao Zheng, Jiefei Zhou, Huanlei Song, Wei Cai, Linxi Qian
Intestinal adaptation is important for the short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. Growing evidence has suggested that bile salt dependent lipase (BSDL) not only has the lipolytic activity, but also the immune-modulating and pro-proliferative activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BSDL on intestinal adaptive growth and gut barrier function in a rat model of SBS. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: sham group (rats underwent bowel transection and reanastomosis), SBS group (rats underwent 80 % bowel resection), SBS-BSDL group (SBS rats orally administered BSDL)...
April 18, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Gabriela P Martino, Martín Espariz, Gabriel Gallina Nizo, Luis Esteban, Víctor S Blancato, Christian Magni
The members of the Enterococcus genus are widely distributed in nature. Its strains have been extensively reported to be present in plant surfaces, soil, water and food. In an attempt to assess their potential application in food industry, four Enterococcus faecium group-strains recently isolated from Argentinean regional cheese products were evaluated using a combination of whole genome analyses and in vivo assays. In order to identify these microorganisms at species level, in silico analyses using their newly reported sequences were conducted...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Elaine F Enright, Brendan T Griffin, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Once regarded obscure and underappreciated, the gut microbiota (the microbial communities colonizing the gastrointestinal tract) is gaining recognition as an influencer of many aspects of human health. Also increasingly apparent is the breadth of interindividual variation in these co-evolved microbial-gut associations, presenting novel quests to explore implications for disease and therapeutic response. In this respect, the unearthing of the drug-metabolizing capacity of the microbiota has provided impetus for the integration of microbiological and pharmacological research...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Fang-Fang Jia, Hui-Qi Zheng, Si-Rui Sun, Xue-Hui Pang, Yu Liang, Jia-Cui Shang, Zong-Tao Zhu, Xiang-Chen Meng
Lactobacillus plantarum , a probiotic, has a high survival rate and high colonization ability in the gastrointestinal tract. Tolerance to the gastrointestinal environment and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells by some Lactobacillus species (excluding L. plantarum ) are related to luxS /AI-2. Here, the role of luxS in tolerance to simulated digestive juice (SDJ) and adhesion to Caco-2 cells by L. plantarum KLDS1.0391 (hereafter, KLDS1.0391) was investigated. The KLDS1.0391 luxS mutant strain was constructed by homologous recombination...
2018: BioMed Research International
Neshatul Haque, N Prakash Prabhu
The interfacial activity of pancreatic lipases (PL) depends on the presence of colipase and bile salt. The activity of PL is inhibited by micellar concentrations of bile salt which can be restored by the addition of colipase. Though the formation of 1:1:1 tertiary complex by lipase-colipase-bile salt micelle is well accepted, the residue-level interactions between lipase-colipase and bile salt are yet to be clearly understood. Molecular dynamic simulations of lipase-colipase complex, lipase and colipase were performed in the presence of a model bile salt, sodium taurocholate (NaTC), at its near-CMC and supra-micellar concentrations...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sophie-Clémentine Ribiere, Chloé Léandri, Marie-Anne Guillaumot, Catherine Brezault, Romain Coriat
Cancers of the bile ducts or cholangiocarcinomas are a rare entity whose incidence is increasing in France. Surgical resection of cholangiocarcinoma remains the only curative therapy. Adjuvant therapy with capecitabine at a fixed dose of 1250mg/m2 twice daily from day 1 to day 14 (21-day cycle) for a 6 months period is now the standard of care after curative surgery. At a metastatic stage, the reference treatment consists of the combination of a platinum salt in addition to gemcitabine. No biomarker has been identified to predict the response to chemotherapy...
April 2, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Zhenyan Hou, Lei Chen, Pingfei Fang, Hualin Cai, Huaibo Tang, Yongbo Peng, Yang Deng, Lingjuan Cao, Huande Li, Bikui Zhang, Miao Yan
Triptolide (TP), the main bioactive component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, can cause severe hepatotoxicity. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been reported to be able to protect against TP-induced liver injury, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This study aims to explore the role of nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and hepatic transporters in TP-induced hepatotoxicity and the reversal protective effect of ISL. TP treatment caused both cytotoxicity in L02 hepatocytes and acute liver injury in mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kelli Anderson, Chia-Yu Kuo, Ming-Wei Lu, Ido Bar, Abigail Elizur
The orange-spotted grouper (OG), Epinephelus coioides, is an ecologically and economically important species with strong market demand. However, larval rearing for this species is especially difficult, with mass mortality occurring at multiple stages including the period coinciding with metamorphic development. The aim of the present study was to characterise the molecular ontogenesis of genes that influence appetite, feeding, and digestion in OG larvae head and body tissue at 12, 18, and 50 days post hatch (dph), which coincides with the beginning and end of metamorphic development...
March 28, 2018: Gene
Bart Hens, Arjang Talattof, Paulo Paixão, Marival Bermejo, Yasuhiro Tsume, Raimar Löbenberg, Gordon L Amidon
For the last two decades, the application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models has grown exponentially in the field of oral absorption and in a regulatory context. Although these models are widely used, their predictive power should be validated and optimized in order to rely on these models and to know exactly what is going on "under the hood". In this study, an automated sensitivity analysis (ASA) was performed for 11 gastrointestinal (GI) variables that are integrated into the PBPK software program Simcyp®...
March 29, 2018: AAPS Journal
Martin Burdelski
Hepatology played an important role in ESPGAN from the beginning. In 1989, the Hepatology Committee was started. In the early 1990s H for hepatology was included in ESPGHAN. Hepatology Summer schools were held from 1995 and later monothematic conferences met the needs of many young ESPGHAN members. The role of ESPGHAN members in the progress of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in hepatitis B and C will be elucidated (Chapter 6.1) as well as the role of other ESPGHAN members in the understanding of immunological hepatic disorders of childhood (Chapter 6...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Virginia Blanco-Morales, Gabriel López-García, Antonio Cilla, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas, Reyes Barberá, María Jesús Lagarda, Luis Manuel Sánchez-Siles, Amparo Alegría
The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on sterol bioaccessibility in three plant sterol (PS)-enriched milk-based fruit beverages (without GOS addition (MfB) and with 2.5 g (MfB-G2) and 5.0 g (MfB-G5) GOS per 250 mL) was evaluated after micellar gastrointestinal digestion. Cholesterol bioaccessibility was very similar among beverages, though a slight significant increase (from 80% to 85%) was observed by the addition of 5.0 g GOS. The addition of GOS did not affect total PS bioaccessibility (≈37%)...
March 29, 2018: Food & Function
Juliana Cunha Amorim, Roberta Hilsdorf Piccoli, Whasley Ferreira Duarte
Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) is a tropical fruit rich in nutrients characterized by a pleasant taste and widely consumed in several countries. It is used to produce juice, jams and wine. In this work, 150 yeasts isolates were obtained from peel (18) and spontaneously fermented pineapple pulp (132). The probiotic potential of 50 isolates was studied. Survival at pH 2.0, pepsin 3.0 g/L, and tolerance of bile salts (0.1 and 1% (w/v) were determined as indicators of survival potential of the isolates during the passage through the human gastrointestinal tract in simulated conditions...
May 2018: Food Research International
Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Weronika Puzia, Joanna Żylińska, Jarosław Cieśla, Krzysztof A Gulewicz, Jacek K Bardowski, Roman K Górecki
The aim of this study was to characterize and compare selected Lactobacillus strains originating from different environments (cow milk and hen feces) with respect to their applicative potential to colonize gastrointestinal track of chickens before hatching from an egg. In vitro phenotypic characterization of lactobacilli strains included the investigation of the important prerequisites for persistence in gastrointestinal tract, such as a capability to survive in the presence of bile salts and at low pH, enzymatic and sugar metabolic profiles, adhesion abilities, and resistance to osmolytes, temperature, and antibiotics...
March 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Davor Slijepcevic, Reinout L P Roscam Abbing, Claudia D Fuchs, Lizette C M Haazen, Ulrich Beuers, Michael Trauner, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Stan F J van de Graaf
Accumulation of bile salts during cholestasis leads to hepatic and biliary injury, driving inflammatory and fibrotic processes. The Na+ -Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide (NTCP) is the major hepatic uptake transporter of bile salts, and can be specifically inhibited by myrcludex B. We hypothesized that inhibition of NTCP dampens cholestatic liver injury. Acute cholestasis was induced in mice by a 3.5-diethoxycarbonyl-1.4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet or by bile duct ligation (BDL). Chronic cholestasis was investigated in Atp8b1-G308V and Abcb4/Mdr2 deficient mice...
March 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Iqra Yasmin, Muhammad Saeed, Imran Pasha, Muhammad Anjum Zia
Bifidobacterium longum BL-05 encapsulated beads were developed by using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin (PE) as encapsulating material through extrusion/ionic gelation technique with the objective to improve survival of probiotics in harsh gastrointestinal conditions. B. longum BL-05 was grown in MRS (de man rogosa and sharpe) broth, centrifuged and mixed with polymeric gel solution. Bead formulations E4 (2.5% WPC + 1.5% PE) and E5 (2% PE) showed the highest value for encapsulation efficiency, size, and textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness) due to increasing PE concentration...
March 23, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Laureen Crouzet, Muriel Derrien, Claire Cherbuy, Sandra Plancade, Mélanie Foulon, Benjamin Chalin, Johan E T van Hylckama Vlieg, Gianfranco Grompone, Lionel Rigottier-Gois, Pascale Serror
Enterococci, in particular vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Promoting intestinal resistance against enterococci could reduce the risk of VRE infections. We investigated the effects of two Lactobacillus strains to prevent intestinal VRE. We used an intestinal colonisation mouse model based on an antibiotic-induced microbiota dysbiosis to mimic enterococci overgrowth and VRE persistence. Each Lactobacillus spp. was administered daily to mice starting one week before antibiotic treatment until two weeks after antibiotic and VRE inoculation...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karpagaraj Malarkani, Ivy Sarkar, Susithra Selvam
Protein denaturation is under intensive research, since it leads to neurological disorders of severe consequences. Avoiding denaturation and stabilizing the proteins in their native state is of great importance, especially when proteins are used as drug molecules or vaccines. It is preferred to add pharmaceutical excipients in protein formulations to avoid denaturation and thereby stabilize them. The present study aimed at using bile salts (BSs), a group of well-known drug delivery systems, for stabilization of proteins...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Yunyun Jiang, Jian Zhang, Xiao Zhao, Wen Zhao, Zhijian Yu, Chao Chen, Zhennai Yang
Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) K25 is a probiotic strain isolated from Tibetan kefir. Previous studies showed that this exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain was antimicrobial active and cold tolerant. These functional traits were evidenced by complete genome sequencing of strain K25 with a circular 3,175,846-bp chromosome and six circular plasmids, encoding 3365 CDSs, 16 rRNA genes and 70 tRNA genes. Genomic analysis of L. plantarum K25 illustrates that this strain contains the previous reported mechanisms of probiotic functionality and cold tolerance, involving plantaricins, lysozyme, bile salt hydrolase, chaperone proteins, osmoprotectant, oxidoreductase, EPSs and terpenes...
March 22, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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