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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936482/intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-icp-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
V Keitel, C Dröge, S Stepanow, T Fehm, E Mayatepek, K Köhrer, D Häussinger
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) represents the most common pregnancy-related liver disease in women. Women frequently present in the third trimester with pruritus and elevated serum bile acid and/or alanine transaminase levels. Clinical symptoms quickly resolve after delivery; however, recurrence in subsequent pregnancies has to be expected. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is associated with increased perinatal complications, such as premature delivery, meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, respiratory distress, low Apgar scores, and even stillbirth...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936281/interindividual-and-interethnic-variability-in-drug-disposition-mt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-polymorphisms-in-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-1b1-oatp1b1-slco1b1
#2
REVIEW
Hannah H Lee, Richard H Ho
OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) is predominantly expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and is critically important for the hepatic uptake and clearance of numerous drug substrates and endogenous compounds. In general, the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP; SLCO) represent a superfamily of uptake transporters that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a diverse range of amphipathic organic compounds including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic peptides, numerous drugs and other xenobiotic substances...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934920/functional-human-induced-hepatocytes-hiheps-with-bile-acid-synthesis-and-transport-capacities-a-novel-in-vitro-cholestatic-model
#3
Xuan Ni, Yimeng Gao, Zhitao Wu, Leilei Ma, Chen Chen, Le Wang, Yunfei Lin, Lijian Hui, Guoyu Pan
Drug-induced cholestasis is a leading cause of drug withdrawal. However, the use of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), the gold standard for predicting cholestasis in vitro, is limited by their high cost and batch-to-batch variability. Mature hepatocyte characteristics have been observed in human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) derived from human fibroblast transdifferentiation. Here, we evaluated whether hiHeps could biosynthesize and excrete bile acids (BAs) and their potential as PHH alternatives for cholestasis investigations...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934534/partitioning-into-colloidal-structures-of-fasted-state-intestinal-fluid-studied-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#4
Michael Holmboe, Per Larsson, Jamshed Anwar, Christel A S Bergström
We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain insights into the structure and molecular interactions of colloidal structures present in fasted state intestinal fluid. Drug partitioning and interaction were studied with a mixed system of the bile salt taurocholate (TCH) and 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLiPC). Spontaneous aggregation of TCH and DLiPC from unconstrained MD simulations at the united-atom level using the Berger/Gromos54A7 force fields demonstrated that intermolecular hydrogen bonding between TCH molecules was an important factor in determining the overall TCH and DLiPC configuration...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932556/orally-administered-berberine-modulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-by-altering-microbial-bile-acid-metabolism-and-the-intestinal-fxr-signaling-pathway
#5
Runbin Sun, Na Yang, Bo Kong, Bei Cao, Dong Feng, Xiaoyi Yu, Chun Ge, Jingqiu Huang, Jianliang Shen, Pei Wang, Siqi Feng, Fei Fei, Jiahua Guo, Jun He, Nan Aa, Qiang Chen, Yang Pan, Justin D Schumacher, Chung S Yang, Grace L Guo, Jiye Aa, Guangji Wang
Previous studies suggest that the lipid-lowering effect of BBR involves actions on the LDL receptor and the AMPK signaling pathways. However, the implication of these mechanisms is unclear because of the low bioavailability of BBR. Because the main action site of BBR is the gut and intestinal FXR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that the effects of BBR on intestinal FXR signaling pathway might account for its pharmacological effectiveness. Using wild type (WT) and intestine-specific FXR knockout (FXRint-/-) mice, we found that BBR prevented the development of high-fat-diet induced obesity and ameliorated triglyceride accumulation in livers of WT, but not FXRint-/- mice...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932171/recurrence-of-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-type-2-phenotype-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#6
K Masahata, S Uehara, S Ibuka, K Nakahata, Y Hasegawa, H Kondou, R Kubitz, T Ueno
BACKGROUND: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis 2 (PFIC2) is the result of mutations in the ABCB11, which encodes for bile salt export pump (BSEP). An absence of BSEP in the canalicular membrane causes cholestasis and leads to the development of end-stage liver disease in the first decade of life. Liver transplantation (LT) has been considered curative for BSEP disease. However, patients with PFIC2 having undergone LT have recently been reported to develop recurrence of cholestasis together with the clinical and histological features of primary BSEP disease...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928121/resistant-maltodextrin-decreases-micellar-solubility-of-lipids-and-diffusion-of-bile-salt-micelles-and-suppresses-incorporation-of-micellar-fatty-acids-into-caco-2-cells
#7
Ikuo Ikeda, Kyouhei Tamakuni, Tomomi Sakuma, Ran Ozawa, Nao Inoue, Yuka Kishimoto
Several studies have suggested that resistant maltodextrin (RMD) suppresses intestinal lipid absorption in experimental animals and humans. However, possible mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, effects of RMD on processes of the absorption of various lipids were investigated in vitro. RMD dose-dependently suppressed the solubility of various lipid components, including 1-mono-oleoylglycerol, oleic acid, and phosphatidylcholine in bile salt micelles in vitro. When the diffusion rate of bile salt micelles through a filter membrane was investigated in vitro, bile salt micelles containing RMD diffused more slowly than those without RMD...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927684/in-vitro-patterning-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestine-recapitulates-in-vivo-human-development
#8
Yu-Hwai Tsai, Roy Nattiv, Priya H Dedhia, Melinda S Nagy, Alana M Chin, Matthew Thomson, Ophir Klein, Jason Spence
The intestine plays a central role in digestion, nutrient absorption and metabolism, with individual regions of the intestine having distinct functional roles. For example, the most proximal region of the small intestine, the duodenum, is associated with absorption of micronutrients such as iron and folate, whereas the more distal ileum is responsible for recycling bile salts. Many examples of region-specific gene expression in the adult intestine are known, but how intestinal regional identity is established during development is a largely open question...
December 7, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911360/development-of-a-more-sensitive-and-specific-chromogenic-agar-medium-for-the-detection-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-other-vibrio-species
#9
Marie Yeung, Trevor Thorsen
Foodborne infections in the US caused by Vibrio species have shown an upward trend. In the genus Vibrio, V. parahaemolyticus is responsible for the majority of Vibrio-associated infections. Thus, accurate differentiation among Vibrio spp. and detection of V. parahaemolyticus is critically important to ensure the safety of our food supply. Although molecular techniques are increasingly common, culture-depending methods are still routinely done and they are considered standard methods in certain circumstances...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909744/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-probiotic-attributes-of-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-xl10-isolated-from-tibetan-kefir-grain
#10
Zhuqing Xing, Wei Tang, Weitao Geng, Yongna Zheng, Yanping Wang
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens XL10, with a high yield of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), is isolated from Tibetan kefir grain and benefits the health of human beings and has been considered to exhibit probiotic potential in vitro and in vivo. The probiotic function of the strain was studied extensively, viz., acid and bile salt tolerances, cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation, the modulation of gut microbiota, and the distribution and colonization of XL10 in the mouse intestinal tract after oral administration...
December 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#11
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899320/preparation-characterization-and-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-study-of-pvp-modified-oleanolic-acid-liposomes
#12
Yan Liu, Xiao Luo, Xiaochao Xu, Nannan Gao, Xiaohong Liu
The primary purpose of the present study was to design and optimize a liposomal formulation of the poorly water-soluble drug oleanolic acid (OA) to improve its oral bioavailability, and prolong the duration of therapeutic drug level. Liposomes containing a soybean lecithin and cholesterol lipid bilayer, a protective hydrophilic polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) coating, and a protective bile salt, sodium deoxycholate, were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method coupled with sonication. Several properties of the PVP-modified OA liposomes (PVPOALs), including surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency were extensively characterized...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895469/comparison-of-bile-salt-phosphatidylcholine-mixed-micelles-in-solubilization-to-sterols-and-stability
#13
Qin Guo, Jie Cai, Pengyu Li, Dongling Xu, Xiaomin Ni, Hui Wen, Dan Liu, Suizhen Lin, Haiyan Hu
Androst-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol) is a promising neuroprotective agent, but its poor solubility restricts its development into parenteral preparations. In this study, Triol is significantly solubilized by bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles (BS/PC-MM). All BS/PC-MM systems are tested to remarkably improve the drug solubility with various stabilities after drug loading. Among them, the sodium glycocholate (SGC)/egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) system with 2:1 ratio in weight and the total concentration of SGC and EPC of 100 mg/mL is proved to produce stable mixed micelles with high drug loading...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889145/potential-probiotic-pichia-kudriavzevii-strains-and-their-ability-to-enhance-folate-content-of-traditional-cereal-based-african-fermented-food
#14
Anna Greppi, Fabien Saubade, Cristian Botta, Christèle Humblot, Jean-Pierre Guyot, Luca Cocolin
With the aim of selecting starter cultures with interesting probiotic potential and with the ability to produce folate in a food matrix, yeast strains isolated from fermented cereal-based African foods were investigated. A total of 93 yeast strains were screened for their tolerance to pH 2 and 0.3% of bile salts. Pichia kudriavzevii isolates gave the best results. Selected P. kudriavzevii strains were tested for survival to the simulated human digestion and for adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Moreover, presence of folate biosynthesis genes was verified and production of extra and intra-cellular folate determined during growth in culture medium...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882152/clinical-and-molecular-study-of-a-pediatric-patient-with-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-deficiency
#15
Mei Deng, Man Mao, Li Guo, Feng-Ping Chen, Wang-Rong Wen, Yuan-Zong Song
The human solute carrier family 10 member 1 (SLC10A1) gene encodes sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), the principal transporter of conjugated bile salts from the plasma into hepatocytes. Although the function of NTCP has been studied extensively and a number of SLC10A1 variations have been identified in humans, information regarding NTCP deficiency is limited. To date, only one patient with NTCP deficiency has been described; however, in the present study a pediatric patient who experienced intractable and striking hypercholanemia is presented...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880979/low-dose-lipopolysaccharide-causes-biliary-injury-by-blood-biliary-barrier-impairment-in-a-rat-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#16
J Reiling, K R Bridle, M Gijbels, F G Schaap, L Jaskowski, N Santrampurwala, L J Britton, C M Campbell, S W M Olde Damink, D H G Crawford, C H C Dejong, J Fawcett
INTRODUCTION: This study explored whether bacterial endotoxins, in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), could have an injurious effect on the biliary tract in conjunction with ischemia. METHOD: Sixty-four rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham operation (sham), 1mg/kg LPS i.p. (LPS), hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR), and IR combined with LPS (IR+LPS). Following 1 or 6 hours of reperfusion, serum liver tests, bile duct histology, immunofluorescence microscopy (zonula occludens-1), bile composition (bile salts, phospholipids, lactate dehydrogenase), hepatic gene expression (bile salt transporters and inflammatory mediators) as well as serum and biliary cytokine concentrations were quantified and compared between the study groups...
November 23, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867770/soymilk-residue-okara-as-a-natural-immobilization-carrier-for-lactobacillus-plantarum-cells-enhances-soymilk-fermentation-glucosidic-isoflavone-bioconversion-and-cell-survival-under-simulated-gastric-and-intestinal-conditions
#17
Xia Xiudong, Wang Ying, Liu Xiaoli, Li Ying, Zhou Jianzhong
Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863989/the-gut-in-the-beaker-missing-the-surfactants
#18
REVIEW
Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert, Jenifer Mains
Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863685/the-gut-in-the-beaker-missing-the-surfactants
#19
REVIEW
Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert, Jenifer Mains
Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863346/a-diet-induced-sprague-dawley-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-related-cirrhosis
#20
Mayuko Ichimura, Miki Masuzumi, Miku Kawase, Mika Sakaki, Shizuka Tamaru, Yasuo Nagata, Kazunari Tanaka, Kazuhito Suruga, Koichi Tsuneyama, Satoru Matsuda, Katsuhisa Omagari
Certain modified diets containing saturated fatty acids, cholesterol or fructose lead to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related fibrosis in rodents; however, progression to cirrhosis is rare. Experimental liver cirrhosis models have relied on genetic manipulation or administration of hepatotoxins. This study aimed to establish a reliable dietary model of NASH-related cirrhosis in a relatively short period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9 weeks of age) were randomly assigned to normal, high-fat (HF), or two types (1...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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