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Bile salt

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054875/a-novel-steroid-coenzyme-a-ligase-from-novosphingobium-sp-strain-chol11-is-essential-for-an-alternative-degradation-pathway-for-bile-salts
#1
Onur Yücel, Johannes Holert, Kevin Christopher Ludwig, Sven Thierbach, Bodo Philipp
Bile salts such as cholate are steroid compounds with a C5 carboxylic side chain and occur ubiquitously in vertebrates. Upon their excretion into soils and waters bile salts can serve as growth substrates for diverse bacteria. Novosphingobium sp. strain Chol11 degrades 7-hydroxy bile salts via 3-keto-7-deoxy-Δ(4,6) metabolites by dehydration of the 7-hydroxyl group catalyzed by the 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydratase Hsh2. This reaction has not been observed in the well-studied 9-10-seco degradation pathway used by other steroid-degrading bacteria indicating that strain Chol11 uses an alternative pathway...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046150/complex-interplay-between-solubilization-digestion-supersaturation-and-absorption-of-poorly-soluble-drugs-with-lipid-based-formulations
#2
Vincent Jannin
Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) can be effective oral drug delivery systems for poorly water-soluble chemical entities, provided they are designed with careful selection of the excipients, based on their role in the delivery system and in relation to the drug properties [1]. LBFs comprise four types of formulations (type I, II, III A and B, IV) containing mixture of oils, surfactants and hydrophilic cosolvents, some of which are able to self-emulsify in contact with the gastrointestinal medium [2]. Key considerations in the selection step must be the series of mechanisms underpinning oral bioavailability enhancement...
October 18, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043249/interactions-between-bacteria-and-bile-salts-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-hepatobiliary-tracts
#3
REVIEW
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037249/a-novel-self-micro-emulsifying-delivery-system-smeds-formulation-significantly-improves-the-fasting-absorption-of-epa-and-dha-from-a-single-dose-of-an-omega-3-ethyl-ester-concentrate
#4
Yan Qin, Hilde Nyheim, Else Marie Haram, Joseph M Moritz, Svein Olaf Hustvedt
BACKGROUND: Absorption of EPA and DHA from Omega-3-acid ethyl ester (EE) concentrate supplements occurs most efficiently when taken in context of a fatty meal; adequate fat intake is required to release bile salts that emulsify and pancreatic enzymes that digest omega-3-containing lipids in the intestine. Current guidelines recommend reduction in fat intake and therefore there is a need to optimize the absorption of Omega-3 in those consuming low-fat or no-fat meals. To this end, BASF has developed an Absorption Acceleration Technology, a novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation of highly concentrated Omega-3-acid EE which enables rapid emulsification and microdroplet formation upon entering the aqueous environment of the gut therefore enhances the absorption...
October 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031956/the-solubility-permeability-trade-off-of-progesterone-with-cyclodextrins-under-physiological-conditions-experimental-observations-and-computer-simulations
#5
Le Sun, Bing Zhang, Jin Sun
This study intended to evaluate the effect of cyclodextrins on the apparent solubility and permeability of lipophilic drugs under physiological conditions and establish in silico model to choose the optimal amount of cyclodextrins for cyclodextrin-containing oral formulations. In order to study the effect of cyclodextrins under physiological conditions, bile salts and lecithin were added into the rat intestinal perfusion solution to simulate the fasted intestinal fluid. In addition, the in vivo oral absorption performances of cyclodextrin-containing formulations were simulated by gastrointestinal simulation technology based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model (ACAT)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030666/lc-pda-apciitms-identification-of-algal-carotenoid-and-oxysterol-precursors-to-fatty-acid-esters-in-hydrolyzed-extracts-of-the-freshwater-mussel-dreissena-bugensis
#6
Maxime C Bridoux, Monika Sobiechowska, Alicia Pérez-Fuentetaja, Katherine T Alben
Carotenyl fatty acid esters (carotenyl-FAEs) were extracted in acetone from freeze-dried Dreissena bugensis (Lakes Erie and Ontario) and hydrolyzed to identify the carotenoid precursors. Analysis by liquid chromatography (LC) with photodiode array (PDA) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (APCIitMS) revealed the major hydrolysis products: fucoxanthinol (FOH) from fucoxanthin (FX, diatoms); mactraxanthin (MX) from violaxanthin (VX, chlorophytes); 4-fold higher levels of an unknown, tentatively identified as an adduct of two closely eluting C27H46O3 and C27H48O3 steryl triols...
October 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029700/lipid-components-of-bile-increase-the-protective-effect-of-conjugated-bile-salts-against-antifungal-drugs
#7
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Matthias Brock
Fungi and bacteria can persist in the human gall bladder. Previous studies have shown that bile protects Candida albicans in this cryptic host niche from antifungals, providing a reservoir for intestinal re-colonization after discontinuation of antifungal therapy. Bile and conjugated bile salts trap antifungals in micelles, thereby reducing their bioavailability and possibly promoting the development of drug resistance. Here we show that the protective effect of bile and conjugated bile salts is not limited to C...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028506/sodium-deoxycholate-mediated-enhanced-solubilization-and-stability-of-hydrophobic-drug-clozapine-in-pluronic-micelles
#8
Pankaj Singla, Onkar Singh, Shruti Chabba, V K Aswal, Rakesh Kumar Mahajan
In this report, the solubilization behaviour of a hydrophobic drug Clozapine (CLZ) in micellar suspensions of pluronics having different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) ratios viz. P84, F127 and F108 in the absence and presence of bile salt sodium deoxycholate (SDC) has been studied. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been exploited to determine the solubilization capacity of the investigated micellar systems in terms of drug loading efficiency, average number of drug molecules solubilized per micelle (ns), partition coefficient (P) and standard free energy of solubilization (∆G(°))...
October 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024779/kinetic-characterization-of-bile-salt-transport-by-human-ntcp-slc10a1
#9
Márton Jani, Erzsébet Beéry, Teresa Heslop, Beáta Tóth, Bhavana Jagota, Emese Kis, B Kevin Park, Peter Krajcsi, Richard J Weaver
The transport of bile acids facilitated by NTCP is an important factor in establishing bile flow. In this study, we examine the kinetics associated with human NTCP-dependent transport of two quantitatively important bile acids comprising the human bile acid pool, chenodeoxycholic acid and glycine-chenodeoxycholate, and secondary bile salt, 3-sulfo-glycolithocholate of potential toxicological significance. The study employed human NTCP overexpressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells and results compared with taurocholate, a prototypical bile salt commonly used in transporter studies...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023714/in-vitro-assessment-of-bioactivities-of-lactobacillus-strains-as-potential-probiotics-for-humans-and-chickens
#10
P Shokryazdan, M F Jahromi, J B Liang, C C Sieo, R Kalavathy, Z Idrus, Y W Ho
Twelve previously isolated Lactobacillus strains were investigated for their in vitro bioactivities, including bile salt hydrolase (BSH), cholesterol-reducing and antioxidant activities, cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, enzyme activity, and biogenic amine production. Among them, only 4 strains showed relatively high BSH activity, whereas the rest exhibited low BSH activity. All 12 strains showed cholesterol-reducing and antioxidant activities, especially in their intact cells, which in most of the cases, the isolated strains were stronger in these activities than the tested commercial reference strains...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018422/novel-aggregation-promoting-factor-agge-contributes-to-the-probiotic-properties-of-enterococcus-faecium-bggo9-28
#11
Katarina Veljović, Nikola Popović, Marija Miljković, Maja Tolinački, Amarela Terzić-Vidojević, Milan Kojić
The understanding of mechanisms of interactions between various bacterial cell surface proteins and host receptors has become imperative for the study of the health promoting features of probiotic enterococci. This study, for the first time, describes a novel enterococcal aggregation protein, AggE, from Enterococcus faecium BGGO9-28, selected from a laboratory collection of enterococcal isolates with auto-aggregation phenotypes. Among them, En. faecium BGGO9-28 showed the strongest auto-aggregation, adhesion to components of ECM and biofilm formation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017628/effects-of-microencapsulated-lactobacillus-plantarum-lip-1-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-hyperlipidaemic-rats
#12
Jiao J Song, Wen J Tian, Lai-Yu Kwok, Ya L Wang, Yi N Shang, Bilige Menghe, Jun G Wang
The in vivo effects of administering free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 cells (2·0×109 colony-forming units/d) were evaluated in high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Results from real-time quantitative PCR targeting to LIP-1 cells showed a higher colon colonisation count of LIP-1 in the rats receiving microencapsulated cells compared with free cells (P<0·05). Moreover, the microencapsulated LIP-1 treatment resulted in a more obvious lipid-lowering effect (P<0·05). Meanwhile, their faecal samples had significantly less lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria (especially Bilophila, Sutterella and Oscillibacter) and mucosa-damaging bacteria (Bilophila and Akkermansia muciniphila), whereas significantly more SCFA-producing bacteria (P<0·05) (namely Lactobacillus, Alloprevotella, Coprococcus, Eubacterium and Ruminococcus) and bacteria that potentially possessed bile salt hydrolase activity (Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus), and other beneficial bacteria (Alistipes and Turicibacter)...
October 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993659/comparative-genomics-of-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-zw3-and-related-members-of-lactobacillus-spp-reveal-adaptations-to-dairy-and-gut-environments
#13
Zhuqing Xing, Weitao Geng, Chao Li, Ye Sun, Yanping Wang
It is important for probiotics that are currently utilized in the dairy industry to have clear genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genetic characteristics of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 were studied by undertaking a comparative genomics study, and key genes for adaptation to different environments were investigated and validated in vitro. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer resulting in strong self-defense mechanisms was detected in the ZW3 genome. We identified a series of genes relevant for dairy environments and the intestinal tract, particularly for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993159/prevention-of-cholesterol-gallstone-disease-by-schaftoside-in-lithogenic-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mouse-model
#14
Meijing Liu, Changhui Liu, Hao Chen, Xiaotao Huang, Xiaohui Zeng, Juncheng Zhou, Suiqing Mi
Schaftoside (SS) is a bioactive compound present in the Herba Desmodii Styracifolii (DS), a herb that has been used to treat cholelithiasis and urolithiasis in Chinese medicine. Whether SS inhibits cholesterol (Ch) gallstone formation has not been investigated. This study examined the effects of oral intake of SS on Ch gallstone formation in C57BL/6 mice fed a lithogenic diet. The rate of gallstone formation was recorded. Levels of Ch, triglycerides (TG) and bile salts (BS) were measured in the bile and serum...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989854/identification-and-characterization-of-probiotic-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-traditional-persian-pickled-vegetables
#15
M M Soltan Dallal, S Zamaniahari, A Davoodabadi, M Hosseini, Z Rajabi
Background: The pickle, a traditional fermented product, is popular among Iranians. Much research has been conducted worldwide on this food group. Due to a lack of related data in Iran, this study was conducted to isolate and identify dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pickles and salted pickles. Materials and methods: Seventy samples were collected from different regions of Iran. The isolated bacteria were identified as LAB by Gram staining and catalase by using MRS agar. Then, those strains were identified at the species level by physiological tests (e...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987539/statistical-investigation-of-the-full-concentration-range-of-fasted-and-fed-simulated-intestinal-fluid-on-the-equilibrium-solubility-of-oral-drugs
#16
Jeremy Perrier, Zhou Zhou, Claire Dunn, Ibrahim Khadra, Clive G Wilson, Gavin Halbert
Upon oral administration the solubility of a drug in intestinal fluid is a key property influencing bioavailability. It is also recognised that simple aqueous solubility does not reflect intestinal solubility and to optimise in vitro investigations simulated intestinal media systems have been developed. Simulated intestinal media which can mimic either the fasted or fed state consists of multiple components each of which either singly or in combination may influence drug solubility, a property that can be investigated by a statistical design of experiment technique...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986196/effect-of-composition-of-simulated-intestinal-media-on-the-solubility-of-poorly-soluble-compounds-investigated-by-design-of-experiments
#17
Cecilie Maria Madsen, Kung-I Feng, Andrew Leithead, Nicole Canfield, Søren Astrup Jørgensen, Anette Müllertz, Thomas Rades
The composition of the human intestinal fluids varies both intra- and inter-individually. This will influence the solubility of orally administered drug compounds, and hence, the absorption and efficacy of compounds displaying solubility limited absorption. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) composition on the solubility of poorly soluble compounds. Using a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach, a set of 24 SIF was defined within the known compositions of human fasted state intestinal fluid...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979243/phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-responses-of-campylobacter-jejuni-suspended-in-an-artificial-freshwater-medium
#18
Hana Trigui, Kristen Lee, Alexandre Thibodeau, Simon Lévesque, Nilmini Mendis, Philippe Fravalo, Ann Letellier, Sébastien P Faucher
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of campylobacteriosis in the developed world. Although most cases are caused by consumption of contaminated meat, a significant proportion is linked to ingestion of contaminated water. The differences between C. jejuni strains originating from food products and those isolated from water are poorly understood. Working under the hypothesis that water-borne C. jejuni strains are better equipped at surviving the nutrient-poor aquatic environment than food-borne strains, the present study aims to characterize these differences using outbreak strains 81116 and 81-176...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966306/study-on-micelle-formation-of-bile-salt-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#19
Keisuke Matsuoka, Atsushi Yamamoto
(1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) measurements can identify the specific protons that contribute to interactions between molecules. Using this technique, micelles formed by four bile salts: sodium taurocholate (NaTC), taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), taurochenodeoxycholate (NaTCDC), and tauroursodeoxycholate (NaTUDC) were measured and compared in viewpoint of molecular interactions. Rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect and exchange spectroscopy (ROESY) analysis of the four bile salts showed differences with respect to the type of micelle formation...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965597/new-insights-into-the-metal-partitioning-in-different-microphases-of-human-gallstones
#20
Annika Parviainen, Manuel Jesús Roman-Alpiste, Claudio Marchesi, Juan Manuel Suárez-Grau, Rafael Pérez-López
Chronic metal exposure, e.g. from metal mining, may cause accumulation of metals in soft and hard tissues, and in developing biomineralizations in the human body. Gallstones are biomineralizations formed in the gallbladder which are able to trap trace elements from the bile. Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to analyze gallstone cross-sections to trace the elemental abundances and correlate them with the principal phases constituting gallstones, namely cholesterol, Ca bilirubinate salts, Ca carbonate, and Ca phosphate...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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