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Bile salt

Simon F Müller, Alexander König, Barbara Döring, Dieter Glebe, Joachim Geyer
The hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP in man, Ntcp in animals) is the high-affinity receptor for the hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) viruses. Species barriers for human HBV/HDV within the order Primates were previously attributed to Ntcp sequence variations that disable virus-receptor interaction. However, only a limited number of primate Ntcps have been analysed so far. In the present study, a total of 11 Ntcps from apes, Old and New World monkeys were cloned and expressed in vitro to characterise their interaction with HBV and HDV...
2018: PloS One
Jiajia Dong, Olajide E Olaleye, Rongrong Jiang, Jing Li, Chuang Lu, Feifei Du, Fang Xu, Junling Yang, Fengqing Wang, Weiwei Jia, Chuan Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intravenous glycyrrhizin, having anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, is incorporated into the management of liver diseases in China. This investigation was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying hepatobiliary excretion of glycyrrhizin and to investigate its potential for drug-drug interactions on organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human hepatic transporters were characterized for glycyrrhizin at the cellular and vesicular levels and compared with rat hepatic transporters...
June 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Likang Lyu, Haishen Wen, Yun Li, Jifang Li, Ji Zhao, Simin Zhang, Min Song, Xiaojie Wang
In the present study, we conducted an RNA-Seq analysis to characterize the genes and pathways involved in acute thermal and cold stress responses in the liver of black rockfish, a viviparous teleost that has the ability to cope with a wide range of temperature changes. A total of 584 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in all three comparisons (HT vs NT, HT vs LT and LT vs NT). Based on an enrichment analysis, DEGs with a potential role in stress accommodation were classified into several categories, including protein folding, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, molecule transport, membrane, and cell proliferation/apoptosis...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Riethorst Danny, Brouwers Joachim, Motmans Jens, Augustijns Patrick
Intestinal permeability assessment is an important aspect of drug development, which strongly depends on the solvent system used in the intestinal donor compartment. For this purpose, human intestinal fluids (HIF) can be considered as the golden standard. A recent study demonstrated a reduced apparent permeation across rat intestinal tissue from fed versus fasted state HIF for 9 out of 16 compounds tested. Commercially available fed and fasted state simulated fluids (FeSSIF and FaSSIF) reproduced this food effect for only 3 out of 16 compounds...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nur Syakila Rohawi, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, Siong Meng Lim
A quantitative assay using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed to investigate bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in Pediococcus pentosaceus LAB6 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 probiotic bacteria isolated from Malaysian fermented food. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were cultured in de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth containing 1 mmol/L of sodium-based glyco- and tauro-conjugated bile salts for 24 h. The cultures were centrifuged and the resultant cell free supernatant was subjected to chromatographic separation on a HPTLC plate...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
X R Peng, Y Lu, M H Zhang, L T Li, X B Xie, J Y Gong, J S Wang
Objective: To explore the relationship between genotype and phenotype of ABCB11 deficiency. Methods: Clinical data of two siblings with ABCB11 deficiency were retrospectively analyzed. Related literature from PubMed, CNKI and Wangfang databases was reviewed to date (up to August 2017) with 'ABCB11 gene' or 'bile salt export pump', 'cholestasis' and 'child' as key words. Results: The patients were siblings. Both of them presented as jaundice, pruritus and hepatosplenomegaly since 3 days after birth. Significant laboratory findings on admission of the older sister included high total bilirubin, 170 µmol/L;conjugated bilirubin, 115...
June 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Abir Ben Bacha, Mona Awad Alonazi, Mohamed Solman Elshikh, Aida Karray
A novel non-toxic phospholipase A2 was purified to homogeneity in a single chromatography step from the venom of Walterinnesia aegyptia, a monotypic elapid snake caught in Saudi Arabia, and its antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were evaluated as well. This enzyme, namely WaPLA2 , is a homodimer with an estimated molecular mass of 30 kDa, and its NH2 -terminal sequence exhibits a significant degree of similarity with PLA2 group-I. At optimal pH (8.5) and temperature (45 °C), the purified PLA2 exhibited a specific activity of 2100 U/mg, and it requires bile salts and Ca2+ for its activity...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mohammad Ali Khosravi Zanjani, Mohammad Reza Ehsani, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi, Anousheh Sharifan
Microencapsulation with hydrocolloids as a modern technique has been used to prolong the survival of probiotics during exposure to harsh conditions. In this study, alginate-Hylon starch microcapsules with genipin cross-linked chitosan and poly-L-lysine coatings were developed to encapsulate four strains of probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392), Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469), and Bifidobacterium adolescentis (ATCC 15703). The viability of probiotics was investigated under heat treatment (72, 85, and 90 °C, 0...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Elvira Román, Blanca Huertas, Daniel Prieto, Rosalía Díez-Orejas, Jesús Pla
AIM: To investigate the role of Candida albicans TUP1-mediated filamentation in the colonization of the mice gut. MATERIALS & METHODS: We used molecular genetics to generate a strain where filamentation is regulated by altering the expression of the TUP1 gene with tetracyclines. RESULTS: The colonization rates reached with the TUP1REP -RFPREP strain were lower compared with wild-type strain and completely absent after induction of filamentation...
June 7, 2018: Future Microbiology
Glen M DeLoid, Ikjot Singh Sohal, Laura R Lorente, Ramon M Molina, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Ana Stevanovic, Ruojie Zhang, David Julian McClements, Nicholas K Geitner, Douglas W Bousfield, Kee Woei Ng, Say Chye Joachim Loo, David C Bell, Joseph Brain, Philip Demokritou
Engineered nanomaterials are increasingly added to foods to improve quality, safety, or nutrition. Here we report the ability of ingested nanocellulose (NC) materials to reduce digestion and absorption of ingested fat. In the small intestinal phase of an acellular simulated gastrointestinal tract, the hydrolysis of free fatty acids (FFA) from triglycerides (TG) in a high-fat food model was reduced by 48.4% when NC was added at 0.75% w/w to the food, as quantified by pH stat titration, and by 40.1% as assessed by fluorometric FFA assay...
June 6, 2018: ACS Nano
Amelia Torcello-Gómez, Chloé Boudard, Alan R Mackie
Calcium plays an important dual role in lipid digestion: promoting removal of long-chain fatty acids from the oil‒water interface by forming insoluble calcium soaps, while also limiting their bioaccessibility. This becomes more significant in food containing high calcium concentration, such as dairy products. Nevertheless, scarce attention has been paid to the effect of calcium on the interfacial properties during lipid digestion, despite this being largely an interfacial reaction. This study focussed on the dynamics of the formation of calcium soaps at the oil‒water interface during lipolysis by pancreatic lipase in the absence and presence of the two primary human bile salts (sodium glycocholate or sodium glycochenodeoxycholate)...
June 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ya-Xiong Yi, Yue Ding, Yong Zhang, Ning-Hui Ma, Feng Shi, Ping Kang, Zhen-Zhen Cai, Tong Zhang
Yinchenhao Decoction (YCHD), a famous traditional Chinese formula, has been used for treating cholestasis for 1000s of years. The cholagogic effect of YCHD has been widely reported, but its pharmacodynamic material and underlying therapeutic mechanism remain unclear. By using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 11 original active components and eight phase II metabolites were detected in rats after oral administration of YCHD, including three new phase II metabolites...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Inès Belhaj, Sawsan Amara, Goetz Parsiegla, Priscila Sutto-Ortiz, Moulay Sahaka, Hafedh Belghith, Audric Rousset, Dominique Lafont, Frédéric Carrière
Talaromyces thermophilus lipase (TTL) was found to hydrolyze monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG) substrates presented in various forms to the enzyme. Different assay techniques were used for each substrate: pHstat with dioctanoyl galactolipid-bile salt mixed micelles, barostat with dilauroyl galactolipid monomolecular films spread at the air-water interface, and UV absorption using a novel MGDG substrate containing α-eleostearic acid as chromophore and coated on microtiter plates...
May 30, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kun-Ming Chan, Chih-Hsien Cheng, Tsung-Han Wu, Chen-Fang Lee, Ting-Jung Wu, Hong-Shiue Chou, Wei-Chen Lee
Background: Clinically severe infection-related inflammation after major liver resection may cause hyperbilirubinemia. This study aims to clarify the impact of bacterial infection and endotoxins on the hepatobiliary transporter system and to explore possible mechanisms of endotoxin-related postoperative hyperbilirubinemia. Method: Mice that underwent major hepatectomy with removal of at least 70% of liver volume were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at different dosages...
2018: BioMed Research International
Sarah O'Flaherty, Alexandra Briner Crawley, Casey M Theriot, Rodolphe Barrangou
Various Lactobacillus species have been reported to deconjugate bile acids in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through the action of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) proteins. This function contributes to altering the gut microbiota composition and bile metabolism and detoxification and to lowering cholesterol levels. Here, we investigated the Lactobacillus BSH repertoire across 170 sequenced species. We used hidden Markov models to distinguish between BSH and closely related penicillin-V acylase (PVA) proteins. Even though BSH and PVA proteins have very different target substrates, they share high sequence similarity and are often misannotated...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Jiang Yeow, Kang Wei Tan, Daniel A Holdbrook, Zhi-Soon Chong, Jan K Marzinek, Peter J Bond, Shu-Sin Chng
A distinctive feature of the Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope is the asymmetric outer membrane (OM), where lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and phospholipids (PLs) reside in the outer and inner leaflets, respectively. This unique lipid asymmetry renders the OM impermeable to external insults, including antibiotics and bile salts. In Escherichia coli , the complex comprising osmoporin OmpC and the OM lipoprotein MlaA is believed to maintain lipid asymmetry by removing mislocalized PLs from the outer leaflet of the OM...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jyoti Choudhary, R C Dubey, Gyanendra Sengar, Shrivardhan Dheeman
Lactic acid bacteria isolated from indigenous milk of different animals were investigated for their efficacy, safety, and probiotic potential. The most potential isolate MMP4 was screened from mare's milk, which was further identified as Lactobacillus pentosus by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogeny. The probiotic potential of strain MMP4 was assessed by its ability to survive under acidic environment and in presence of bile salts along with the ability to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi...
May 30, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Martijn Zwama, Akihito Yamaguchi
The over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps belonging to the Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) superfamily is one of the main causes of multidrug-resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. AcrB is the most thoroughly studied RND transporter and has functioned as a model for our understanding of efflux-mediated MDR. This multidrug-exporter can recognize and transport a wide range of structurally unrelated compounds (including antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents), while it shows a strict inhibitor specificity...
May 25, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Oscar Brunser
The mammary gland and maternal milk are the product of millions of years of evolution that resul ted in an optimal composition that sustains the growth and development of newborns and infants. Maternal milk supports the growth, adaptation and survival of this immature organism. Recent studies have detected 1606 different proteins in human milk, most of them synthesized in the acini of the glandular tissue while others originate from distant organs such as the lymphoid tissue and the digestive tract. Maternal milk enzymes modify its proteins and liberate peptides with antimicrobial, antihypertensive or stimulatory activities...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Mayra L González-Félix, Delbert M Gatlin, Martin Perez-Velazquez, Ken Webb, Armando García-Ortega, Michael Hume
Sciaenops ocellatus has a long history in aquaculture and many difficulties associated with its commercial culture have been addressed and successfully resolved; nevertheless, further research in lipid nutrition could address more comprehensive questions on the way these nutrients are utilized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate S. ocellatus growth and lipase gene expression in response to increasing dietary lipid supplementation. Four experimental diets were formulated to provide 3, 10, 16, or 23% lipid using menhaden fish oil...
May 22, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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