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Bile salt

E B Hunt, A Sullivan, J Galvin, J MacSharry, D M Murphy
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of digestive enzymes such as pepsin and bile salts...
2018: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Thomas Saunders, Jian Wu, Robert C Williams, Haibo Huang, Monica A Ponder
Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Nam Su Oh, Jae Yeon Joung, Ji Young Lee, Younghoon Kim
A total of 22 Lactobacillus strains, which were isolated from infant feces were evaluated for their probiotic potential along with resistance to low pH and bile salts. Eight isolates (L. reuteri 3M02 and 3M03, L. gasseri 4M13, 4R22, 5R01, 5R02, and 5R13, and L. rhamnosus 4B15) with high tolerance to acid and bile salts, and ability to adhere to the intestine were screened from 22 strains. Further, functional properties of 8 Lactobacillus strains, such as anti-oxidation, inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, cholesterol-lowering, and anti-inflammation were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Olfa Ben Braïek, Stefano Morandi, Paola Cremonesi, Slim Smaoui, Khaled Hani, Taoufik Ghrairi
The aims of this study are to isolate new bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterial strains from white (Penaeus vannamei) and pink (Palaemon serratus) raw shrimps and evaluate their technological and probiotic potentialities. Seven strains were selected, among fifty active isolates, as producing interesting antimicrobial activity. Identified as Enterococcus lactis, these isolates were able to produce enterocins A, B and/or P. The safety aspect, assessed by microbiological and molecular tests, demonstrated that the strains were susceptible to relevant antibiotics such as vancomycin, negative for haemolysin and gelatinase activities, and did not harbour virulence and antibiotic resistance genes...
February 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Husna Yetti, Hisao Naito, Yuan Yuan, Xiaofang Jia, Yumi Hayashi, Hazuki Tamada, Kazuya Kitamori, Katsumi Ikeda, Yukio Yamori, Tamie Nakajima
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics...
2018: PloS One
J Li, G Guo, Z Z Zhang, W B Zhang
Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are important zoonotic diseases caused by the dog/fox tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which are distributed in almost whole the world. The diseases remarkably impact on the people's health and economic development of communities. Echinococcus tapeworms need two mammalian animals to complete their lifecycle. The worms undergo different developmental stages (adult, egg/oncosphere, cyst, and protoscolex). Each stage has its own distinct physiological characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Gerald Holtmann, Ayesha Shah, Mark Morrison
Background and Summary: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including functional dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are defined by more or less specific symptoms and the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that cause these symptoms. This concept is now considered to be outdated; if appropriate tests are applied, structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain or cause the symptoms may be found in many patients. Another feature of FGID are the highly prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
Johannes Eckstein, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Nikolaus Berndt
Alternative models exist explaining the biliary lipid secretion at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes: Successive lipid extraction by preformed bile salt micelles or budding of membrane fragments with formation of mixed micelles. To test the feasibility of the latter mechanism, we developed a mathematical model that describes the formation of lipid microdomains in the canalicular membrane. Bile salt monomers intercalate into the external hemileaflet of the canalicular membrane, to rim liquid disordered domain patches which then pinch off to form nanometer-scale mixed micelles...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Teng Liu, Ren-Xue Wang, Jun Han, Chen-Zhi Hao, Yi-Ling Qiu, Yan-Yan Yan, Li-Ting Li, Neng-Li Wang, Jing-Yu Gong, Yi Lu, Mei-Hong Zhang, Xin-Bao Xie, Jun-Cong Yang, Yi-Jie You, Jia-Qi Li, A S Knisely, Christoph H Borchers, Victor Ling, Jian-She Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic defects causing dysfunction in bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) lead to liver diseases. ABCB11 mutations alter the bile acid metabolome. We asked if profiling plasma bile acids could reveal compensatory mechanisms and track genetic and clinical status. METHODS: We compared plasma bile acids in 17 ABCB11-mutated patients, 35 healthy controls, and 12 genetically undiagnosed cholestatic patients by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MRM-MS)...
February 7, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Zahari Vinarov, G Gancheva, V Katev, S Tcholakova
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the physicochemical mechanisms governing the solubilization of albendazole in surfactant and phospholipid-surfactant solutions and, on this basis, to formulate clinically-relevant dose of albendazole in solution suitable for parenteral delivery. SIGNIFICANCE: (1) A new drug delivery system for parenteral delivery of albendazole is proposed, offering high drug solubility and low toxicity of the materials used; (2) New insights on the role of surface curvature on albendazole solubilization in surfactant and surfactant-phospholipid aggregates are provided...
February 7, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Robert Holz, Andreas E Kremer, Dieter Lütjohann, Hermann E Wasmuth, Frank Lammert, Marcin Krawczyk
Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is a peculiar familial disease caused by mutations of the genes encoding hepatocanalicular flippase for phosphatidylserine (ATP8B1; BRIC type 1) or the bile salt export pump (ABCB11; BRIC type 2). Here, we report on a patient with nasobiliary drainage-refractory BRIC type 2 who improved under plasma separation and anion absorption therapy. We also suggest that nasobiliary drainage might be an ineffective approach in carriers of severe loss-of-function mutations of the bile salt export pump ABCB11...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
Izildinha Moreno, Elza Teresinha Grael Marasca, Patrícia Blumer Zacarchenco Rodrigues de Sá, Josiane de Souza Moitinho, Miriam Gonçalves Marquezini, Márcia Regina Cucatti Alves, Renata Bromberg
In this study, the probiotic potential of five bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from meat products, was investigated. They were presumptively identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CTC 204 and CTC 483, L. lactis subsp. hordinae CTC 484, and Lactobacillus plantarum CTC 368 and CTC 469 according to morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. Analysis of genetic variability (random amplified polymorphic (RAPD)-PCR) and whole-cell proteins (SDS-PAGE) revealed similarity between Lactobacillus strains and variability among Lactococcus strains...
February 2, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Shashank Singh, Ruchika Bhatia, Ankit Singh, Paramdeep Singh, Ramandeep Kaur, Pragyanshu Khare, Ravi K Purama, Ravneet K Boparai, Praveen Rishi, Padma Ambalam, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Mahendra Bishnoi, Jaspreet Kaur, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi
Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are known to modulate gut associated immune responses. Not many studies have reported on the role of Weissella species in preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced proinflammatory stress in murine macrophages as well as in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Therefore, the present study was taken up to evaluate the probiotic attributes of four newly isolated Weissella strains (two each from fermented dosa batter and a human infant faecal sample); these attributes are cholesterol reduction, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucin and their ability to prevent LPS-induced nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα) production by the murine macrophages and IL-8 production by the human epithelial cells...
February 2, 2018: Food & Function
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Rebecca L Ball, Palak Bajaj, Kathryn A Whitehead
Oral delivery, a patient-friendly means of drug delivery, is preferred for local administration of intestinal therapeutics. Lipidoid nanoparticles, which have been previously shown to deliver siRNA to intestinal epithelial cells, have potential to treat intestinal disease. It is unknown, however, whether the oral delivery of these particles is possible. To better understand the fate of lipid nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, we studied delivery under deconstructed stomach and intestinal conditions in vitro...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nesrin Vurgun, Mark Nitz
Using covalent capture, a high yielding selective mono-functionalization of heptakis-[6-deoxy-6-(2-aminoethylsulfanyl)]-β-CD with a 5-mercaptopentyl functional group has been achieved. Here, we demonstrate the immobilization of the mono-thiol functionalized β-CD on PEGA resin via a disulphide bond, enabling solid-phase elaboration of the remaining six primary amines. To showcase the potential of this method, the amines were elaborated to tripeptides through standard Fmoc-peptide chemistry. A small library of CD-tripeptide conjugates was generated which, when reduced from the solid support, could be tagged at the released thiol with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore...
February 1, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fan Zhang, Yingting Duan, Lili Xi, Mengmeng Wei, Axi Shi, Yan Zhou, Yuhui Wei, Xinan Wu
Bile acids (BAs), the most important endogenous and signaling molecules regulate the target transporters and enzymes at transcriptional level, participate in a wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract to orchestrate homeostasis in vivo. BAs and their metabolism and transportation appear to follow the clear circadian rhythms, and they are recently proposed also as the potential chronobiological signals that can affect the molecular clock mechanism. Cholecystectomy are believed to affect the circadian rhythms of BAs and the relevant enterohepatic transporters and enzymes systems and their regulatory signaling pathways, for the reason that the circadian cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying play a pivotal role in controlling the flow of bile into the intestine and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs...
January 30, 2018: Chronobiology International
Abdul Ahad, Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea
The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate vesicles containing bile salt formulation of telmisartan for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Different vesicles containing bile salt formulations were developed by varying ratios of soybean phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate. Prepared formulations were characterized for their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology and entrapment efficiency. Further, the renoprotective outcome of optimized formulation was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy rat model...
January 26, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Shiau-Wei Chen, Jih-Tay Hsu, Yan-An Chou, Han-Tsung Wang
BACKGROUND: Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and frequently contaminates cereals used for food or animal feed. This study attempted to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with high esterase activity from the digestive tract, with the goal of using these bacteria for zearalenone (ZEA) detoxification. RESULTS: No ZEA activity related biotransformation products were observed in three isolates (B1, B2 and D10) during incubation in the presence of ZEA...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Diana E Aziz, Aly A Abdelbary, Abdelhalim I Elassasy
Skin is considered the most accessible organ of the body because of its underlying capillary network. However, stratum corneum (SC), the upper most layer of skin, represents major diffusional barrier for most drugs. Hence, the use of edge activators (EAs) in designing novel elastic vesicles is hypothesized to impart their lipid bilayer with ultra-flexibility to trespass SC by high self-optimizing deformability. To confirm this hypothesis, this work aimed at developing novel bilosomes by modulating conventional niosomal composition using different bile salts as EAs and investigating their superiority over niosomes for transdermal delivery of diacerein (DCN), as model drug...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Liposome Research
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