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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637313/trajectories-of-alcohol-use-disorders-and-their-differential-impact-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-goa-india
#1
Abhijit Nadkarni, Helen A Weiss, Bhargav Bhat, Vikram Patel
Aims: The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) over a 6 year period and compare the bio-psycho-social correlates between these trajectories. Methods: Community-based cohort of 1899 adult men were interviewed in 2006-2008 and 2012-2014. AUD were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and potential correlates including psycho-social problems, morbidity and physiological parameters were measured at follow-up...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637219/preventing-occupational-injury-among-police-officers-does-motivation-matter
#2
D K C Chan, D Webb, R M Ryan, T C W Tang, S X Yang, N Ntoumanis, M S Hagger
Background: Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. Aims: To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Methods: Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours...
June 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637093/intra-abdominal-cooling-system-limits-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-during-robot-assisted-renal-transplantation
#3
Raphael P H Meier, Vincent Piller, Monika E Hagen, Charles Joliat, Jean-Bernard Buchs, Antonio Nastasi, Raphael Ruttimann, Nicolas C Buchs, Solange Moll, Jean-Paul Vallée, François Lazeyras, Philippe Morel, Leo Bühler
Robot-assisted kidney transplantation is feasible; however, concerns have been raised about possible increases in warm ischemia times. We describe a novel intra-abdominal cooling system to continuously cool the kidney during the procedure. Porcine kidneys were procured by standard open technique. Groups were as follow: Robotic renal transplantation with (n=11) and without (n=6) continuous intra-abdominal cooling and conventional open technique with intermittent 4°C saline cooling (n=6). Renal cortex temperature, magnetic resonance imaging and histology were analyzed...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637049/protecting-oligodendrocytes-by-targeting-non-glutamate-receptors-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-for-ischemic-stroke
#4
Pan Luo, Dong Liu, Lianjun Guo
Ischemic stroke has many devastating effects within the brain. At the cellular level, excitotoxicity has been a popular pharmacological target for therapeutics. To date, many clinical trials have been performed with drugs that target excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, such as NMDA receptor agonists. The results, however, have been lackluster. Most efforts to understand the impacts of excitotoxicity on the brain have focused primarily on neurons, and to a lesser degree, on gliocytes as cellular targets. Recent evidence suggests that oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system, are damaged by ischemia in a manner completely different from that in neurons...
June 21, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636830/attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-by-purple-sweet-potato-color-is-associated-with-blocking-src-erk-c-ebp%C3%AE-signalling-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#5
Xin Wang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Gui-Hong Zheng, Ai-Min Wang, Chun-Hui Sun, Su-Ping Qin, Juan Zhuang, Jun Lu, Dai-Fu Ma, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Our previous work showed that purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved hepatic glucose metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice. This study investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and the signalling events associated with these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD+PSPC group and PSPC group. PSPC was administered daily for 20 weeks at oral doses of 700 mg/kg/day. Our results showed that PSPC significantly improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, as well as liver injury in HFD-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636548/ilomastat-a-synthetic-inhibitor-of-mmps-prevents-lung-injury-induced-by-%C3%AE-ray-irradiation-in-mice
#6
Xiaoman Li, Dehui Ma, Xiaodan Zha, Dongqin Quan, Dong Pan, Manji Sun, Burong Hu, Baoquan Zhao
Lung injury is one of the pathological features in human or animal after radiation and the main side effect for patient after lung cancer radiotherapy. The efficient protective strategy still needs to exploit and the underlying mechanisms remain to be investigated. We found that the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) significantly increased at the early stage of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). Pretreatment with Ilomastat, a synthetic inhibitor of MMPs, decreased the expression and activity of MMPs and significantly alleviated the lung inflammation and fibrosis in the irradiated mice, as well as enhanced the survival of irradiated mice...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636532/a-novel-pan-nox-inhibitor-apx-115-protects-kidney-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-possible-role-of-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#7
Guideock Kwon, Md Jamal Uddin, Gayoung Lee, Songling Jiang, Ahreum Cho, Jung Hwa Lee, Sae Rom Lee, Yun Soo Bae, Sung Hwan Moon, Soo Jin Lee, Dae Ryong Cha, Hunjoo Ha
NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly recognized as a key factor in inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic kidney disease. APX-115 (3-phenyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-propyl-1-5-hydroxypyrazol HCl) is a novel orally active pan-Nox inhibitor. The objective of this study was to compare the protective effect of APX-115 with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (losartan), the standard treatment against kidney injury in diabetic patients, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636290/sulforaphane-protection-against-the-development-of-doxorubicin-induced-chronic-heart-failure-is-associated-with-nrf2-upregulation
#8
Yang Bai, Qiang Chen, Yun-Peng Sun, Xuan Wang, Li Lv, Li-Ping Zhang, Jin-Sha Liu, Song Zhao, Xiao-Lu Wang
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline anti-tumor drug. However, its clinical use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity, and even progresses to chronic heart failure (CHF). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether the Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane (SFN), can prevent DOX-induced CHF. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats who received treatment for six weeks were divided into four groups (n=30 per group): control, SFN, DOX, and DOX plus SFN group. RESULTS: Results revealed that DOX induced progressive cardiac damage as indicated by increased cardiac injury markers, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress...
June 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#9
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635637/a-short-term-biological-indicator-for-long-term-kidney-damage-after-radionuclide-therapy-in-mice
#10
Giovanni Pellegrini, Klaudia Siwowska, Stephanie Haller, Daniel J Antoine, Roger Schibli, Anja Kipar, Cristina Müller
Folate receptor (FR)-targeted radionuclide therapy using folate radioconjugates is of interest due to the expression of the FR in a variety of tumor types. The high renal accumulation of radiofolates presents, however, a risk of radionephropathy. A potential option to address this challenge would be to use radioprotectants, such as amifostine. Methods for early detection of kidney damage that-in this case-cannot be predicted based on dose estimations, would facilitate the development of novel therapies. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess potentially changing levels of plasma and urine biomarkers and to determine DNA damage at an early stage after radiofolate application...
June 21, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635609/gastroprotective-effect-of-ghrelin-against-indomethacin-induced-gastric-injury-in-rats-possible-role-of-heme-oxygenase-1-pathway
#11
Mona M Allam, Ola A El-Gohary
Ghrelin has been shown to ameliorate gastric injury by several mechanisms in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats and the role of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) pathway as a novel mechanism underlying the gastroprotective effect of ghrelin. In all groups studied, ulcer score (U.S), ulcer index (U.I) and preventive index (P.I) were evaluated and the gastric inflammatory biomarkers including levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), HO-1 and bilirubin as an indicator of heme oxygenase activity were measured...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634495/choking-hazards-are-current-product-testing-methods-for-small-parts-adequate
#12
Athena Neofotistos, Nancy Cowles, Ragini Sharma
Choking on small parts remains one of the leading causes of death and injury in infants and toddlers. The current method of testing for small parts, created by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has become outdated and has yet to be changed despite the many deaths and injuries of children. The method uses a device called the small parts test fixture (SPTF) that is supposed to mimic the size of a fully expanded throat of a toddler. If a product does not fit inside the cavity of the SPTF, then it is deemed safe to play with because it "will not fit" in the esophagus of a child...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634463/protective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-amide-on-blast-induced-increase-in-intracranial-pressure-in-rats
#13
Usmah Kawoos, Richard M McCarron, Mikulas Chavko
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is associated with acute and possibly chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). The outcome after TBI is dependent on the progression of complex processes which are mediated by oxidative stress. So far, no effective pharmacological protection against TBI exists. In this study, rats were exposed to a single or repetitive blast overpressure (BOP) at moderate intensities of 72 or 110 kPa in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The degree and duration of the increase in ICP were proportional to the intensity and frequency of the blast exposure(s)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634089/wedelolactone-a-plant-coumarin-prevents-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-injury-induced-neointimal-hyperplasia-through-akt-and-ampk-signaling
#14
Lu Peng, Xuefeng Huang, Xin Jin, Zuo Jing, Lichao Yang, Yu Zhou, Jie Ren, Yun Zhao
Wedelolactone (WDL) is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbal medicine Eclipta prostrate L, and has been reported to exhibit various effects potentially beneficial for human health. However, the possible preventive effects of WDL toward vascular remodeling and mechanisms involved have not been investigated to date. In this study, we investigated the effects of WDL on proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and on neointimal hyperplasia resulted from balloon injury in rats...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633927/dencichine-ameliorates-kidney-injury-in-induced-type-ii-diabetic-nephropathy-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signalling-pathway
#15
Li Jie, Qiu Pengcheng, He Qiaoyan, Bi Linlin, Zhang Meng, Wang Fang, Jia Min, Yan Li, Zhang Ya, Yang Qian, Wang Siwang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a common complication associated with both type I and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), is a major cause of chronic nephropathy and a common cause of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) throughout the world. This study is aimed to determine whether dencichine (De) can ameliorate renal damage in high-glucose-and-fat diet combined STZ (streptozocin) induced DN in type II DM rats and to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms. Markers of metabolism, diabetes, and renal function, and levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen I (Col I), collagen IV (Col IV), fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), and of proteins in the TGF-β/Smad pathway were analysed through RT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633926/synergic-stimulation-of-serotonin-5-ht1a-receptor-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-for-neuropathic-pain-relief-preclinical-effects-of-2-substituted-imidazoline-derivatives
#16
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Carla Ghelardini, Laura Micheli, Fabio Del Bello, Mario Giannella, Alessandro Piergentili, Wilma Quaglia
Neuropathic pain affects millions of people causing disability and impairing quality of life. Commonly used analgesics are generally characterized by limited therapeutic outcomes. The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and the α2 adrenergic receptors are involved in central nociceptive mechanisms with a pivotal role in the inhibitory descending pain pathway. Since their stimulation may modulate the nervous signaling altered by neuropathies, the purpose of the present research is the study of the combined activation of 5-HT1A and α2 receptors by rationally designed imidazoline ligands ((S)-1 and 2-5) in a rat model of neuropathic pain (chronic constriction injury - CCI)...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633873/elental%C3%A2-amino-acid-component-has-protective-effects-on-primary-cultured-hepatocytes-and-a-rat-model-of-acute-liver-injury
#17
Hirokazu Miki, Katsuji Tokuhara, Masaharu Oishi, Yoshito Tanaka, Richi Nakatake, Yosuke Ueyama, Masaki Kaibori, Mikio Nishizawa, Tadayoshi Okumura, Masanori Kon
Amino acids can exert protective effects on the liver either when administered as a medication or following an operation. In this study, we examined the protective effects of amino acids on the liver using in vitro and in vivo models by studying their influence on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide production as a liver injury marker in cultured hepatocytes and liver-protective effects in d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-treated rats, respectively. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with interleukin (IL)-1β in the presence or absence of Elental® amino acid component (EleAA; 17 amino acids)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633000/nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-patients-with-cancer
#18
Kristen Lach, Sarah J Peterson
Oncology patients often experience the classic signs of malnutrition-weight loss as well as fat and muscle wasting, which have been associated with poor tolerance to treatment and increased morbidity and mortality. Nutrition status may be an important factor in determining tolerance to treatment and outcomes associated with it. Thus, identification of those with preexisting malnutrition or who are at risk for developing malnutrition is crucial not only at time of cancer diagnosis but also throughout the treatment course so that nutrition interventions may be implemented to prevent development or worsening of malnutrition in this high-risk population...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632969/vegf-is-neuroprotective-against-ischemic-brain-injury-by-inhibiting-scavenger-receptor-a-expression-on-microglia
#19
Zheng Xu, Kaiwei Han, Jigang Chen, Chunhui Wang, Yan Dong, Mingkun Yu, Rulin Bai, Chenguang Huang, Lijun Hou
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secreted mitogen associated with angiogenesis. VEGF has long been thought to be a potent neurotrophic factor for the survival of spinal cord neuron. However, the role of VEGF in the regulation of ischemic brain injury remains unclear. In the study rats were subjected to MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) followed by intraperitoneal injection of VEGF165 (10 mg/kg) immediately after surgery and once daily till the day 10, and the expression of target genes was assayed using qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence, and the role of VEGF165 in regulating ischemic brain injury was assayed...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632658/the-retrograde-antegrade-retrograde-technique-for-successful-placement-of-a-retrograde-superior-ramus-screw
#20
David J Weatherby, Milton L Chip Routt, Jonathan G Eastman
Stabilization of pelvic ring injuries and certain acetabular fractures using percutaneous techniques is becoming increasingly more common. Intramedullary superior ramus screw fixation is beneficial in both injury types. While implants can be placed in an antegrade or retrograde direction, parasymphyseal ramus fractures benefit from retrograde implant insertion. In some patients, the parabolic osseous anatomy or obstructing soft tissues of the anterior pelvis or thigh can prevent appropriate hand and instrumentation positioning for appropriate retrograde ramus screw insertion through the entire osseous fixation pathway...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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