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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471461/gendered-pathways-to-burnout-results-from-the-salveo-study
#1
Nancy Beauregard, Alain Marchand, Jaunathan Bilodeau, Pierre Durand, Andrée Demers, Victor Y Haines
Aim: Burnout is a pervasive mental health problem in the workforce, with mounting evidence suggesting ties with occupational and safety outcomes such as work injuries, critical events and musculoskeletal disorders. While environmental [work and non-work, work-to-family conflict (WFC)] and individual (personality) pathways to burnout are well documented, little is known about how gender comes to influence such associative patterns. The aim of the study consisted in examining gendered pathways to burnout...
February 19, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471158/road-traffic-injuries-cross-sectional-cluster-randomized-countrywide-population-data-from-4-low-income-countries
#2
Syed Nabeel Zafar, Joseph K Canner, Neeraja Nagarajan, Adam L Kushner
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The burden is highest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and is increasing. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of RTIs in 4 low-income countries using nationally representative survey data. METHODS: The Surgeons Overseas Assessment of Surgical Needs (SOSAS) survey tool was administered in four countries: Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Nepal and Uganda. We performed nationally representative cross-sectional, cluster randomized surveys in each country...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470660/the-effect-of-inhalant-organic-dust-on-bone-health
#3
REVIEW
Joseph M Carrington, Jill A Poole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Agriculture remains a major economic sector globally, and workers experience high rates of chronic inflammatory lung and musculoskeletal diseases. Whereas obstructive pulmonary diseases are known risk factors for bone loss, the underlying relationship between lung inflammation and bone health is not well known. RECENT FINDINGS: An agriculture organic dust extract inhalation animal model has recently linked lung injury-induced inflammation to systemic bone loss...
February 22, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470503/sevoflurane-posttreatment-prevents-oxidative-and-inflammatory-injury-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#4
Julie Wagner, Karl M Strosing, Sashko G Spassov, Ziwei Lin, Helen Engelstaedter, Sabine Tacke, Alexander Hoetzel, Simone Faller
Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving clinical treatment but it can induce or aggravate lung injury. New therapeutic strategies, aimed at reducing the negative effects of mechanical ventilation such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and transmigration as well as activation of neutrophil cells, are needed to improve the clinical outcome of ventilated patients. Though the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane is known to exert organ-protective effects, little is known about the potential of sevoflurane therapy in ventilator-induced lung injury...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470360/oral-supplementation-with-bovine-colostrum-prevents-septic-shock-and-brain-barrier-disruption-during-bloodstream-infection-in-preterm-newborn-pigs
#5
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470316/protecting-the-brain-with-xenon-anesthesia-for-neurosurgical-procedures
#6
Anna Rylova, Mervyn Maze
Xenon possesses some, but not all, of the clinical features of an ideal anesthetic agent. Besides well-known advantages of rapid awakening, stable hemodynamics and lack of biotransformation, preclinical data lead to the expectation of xenon's advantageous use for settings of acute ongoing brain injury; a single randomized clinical trial using an imaging biomarker for assessing brain injury corroborated xenon's preclinical efficacy in protecting the brain from further injury. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and hence the putative applications of xenon for brain protection in neurosurgery...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470292/rectal-picking-masquerading-as-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#7
Parisa Salehi, Dale Lee, Lusine Ambartsumyan, Natalie Sikka, Ann O Scheimann
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic syndrome in which individuals have multisystem medical challenges. Gastroenterological difficulties in the syndrome include decreased vomiting, constipation, delayed gastric emptying, delayed colonic transit, dysphagia, increased choking, and increased risk of gastric dilation and rupture. In addition, self-injurious behavior such as rectal picking may be present and severe enough to lead to rectal ulceration and bleeding. Many patients have extensive gastroenterological workup and treatment before their ultimate diagnosis of severe rectal picking...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470236/is-the-lesser-trochanter-profile-a-reliable-means-of-restoring-anatomic-rotation-after-femur-fracture-fixation
#8
Lucas S Marchand, Dane C Todd, Patrick Kellam, Temitope F Adeyemi, David L Rothberg, Travis G Maak
BACKGROUND: Restoring normal femoral rotation is an important consideration when managing femur fractures. Femoral malrotation after fixation is common and several preventive techniques have been described. Use of the lesser trochanter profile is a simple method to prevent malrotation, because the profile changes with femoral rotation, but the accuracy of this method is unclear. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purposes of this study were (1) to report the rotational profiles of uninjured femora in an adult population; and (2) to determine if the lesser trochanter profile was associated with variability in femoral rotation...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470190/blood-transfusion-management-in-the-severely-bleeding-military-patient
#9
Jennifer M Gurney, Philip C Spinella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemorrhage remains the primary cause of preventable death on the battlefield and in civilian trauma. Hemorrhage control is multifactorial and starts with point-of-injury care. Surgical hemorrhage control and time from injury to surgery is paramount; however, interventions in the prehospital environment and perioperative period affect outcomes. The purpose of this review is to understand concepts and strategies for successful management of the bleeding military patient...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469223/mitoprotective-therapy-preserves-chondrocyte-viability-and-prevents-cartilage-degeneration-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-posttraumatic-osteoarthritis
#10
Michelle L Delco, Edward D Bonnevie, Hazel S Szeto, Lawrence J Bonassar, Lisa A Fortier
No disease-modifying osteoarthritis (OA) drugs are available to prevent posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Mitochondria (MT) mediate the pathogenesis of many degenerative diseases, and recent evidence indicates that MT dysfunction is a peracute (within minutes to hours) response of cartilage to mechanical injury. The goal of this study was to investigate cardiolipin-targeted mitoprotection as a new strategy to prevent chondrocyte death and cartilage degeneration after injury. Cartilage was harvested from bovine knee joints and subjected to a single, rapid impact injury (24...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469035/antifibrotic-mechanism-of-pinocembrin-impact-on-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-inhibition-in-rats
#11
Marwa M Said, Samar S Azab, Noha M Saeed, Ebtehal El-Demerdash
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effects of pinocembrin (PIN), a flavanone found abundantly in honey and propolis, by studying its effect on different oxidative stress, inflammatory and fibrosis markers in an experimental model of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PIN (20 mg/kg) was given orally 3 times/week for 6 consecutive weeks alternating with CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg, 1:1 mixture with corn oil, i. p.) twice weekly...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468948/preventing-musculoskeletal-disorders-in-factory-workers-evaluating-a-new-eight-minute-stretching-program
#12
Omotolu Olaitan Aje, Betty Smith-Campbell, Carol Bett
A preshift stretching program was implemented to evaluate its effectiveness in preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). Workers in a Midwestern factory were assessed for WMSDs before and after the new 8-min stretching program was implemented. Aggregate WMSD data were evaluated and sick days used from the start of the new program were compared with the same 60-day period the previous year. Potential cost savings were also assessed. The researchers found a significant decline in injury rates and time-off requests...
February 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468595/an-in-vitro-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Ellaine Salvador, Malgorzata Burek, Carola Y Förster
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant problem causing high mortality globally. Methods to increase possibilities for treatment and prevention of secondary injuries resulting from the initial physical insult are thus much needed. TBI affects the central nervous system (CNS) and the neurovascular unit as a whole in numerous ways but one of the primarily compromised components is the blood-brain barrier (BBB).In this chapter, we present a detailed procedure on how stretch injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) are applied to brain microvascular endothelial cells of the BBB in order to replicate the actual impact they receive during TBI...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468175/rapamycin-prevents-cerebral-stroke-by-modulating-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-penumbra-in-rats
#14
Meiling Wu, Huadan Zhang, Jiejing Kai, Feng Zhu, Jingyin Dong, Ziwei Xu, Michael Wong, Ling-Hui Zeng
Objective: Whether activation or inhibition of the mTOR pathway is beneficial to ischemic injury remains controversial. It may result from the different reaction of ischemic penumbra and core to modulation of mTOR pathway after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Longa's middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was conducted to induce the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Western blot analysis was used to examine the protein expression involving mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and autophagy-related proteins...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467677/ginsenoside-rg1-ameliorates-rat-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-modulating-energy-metabolism-pathways
#15
Lin Li, Chun-Shui Pan, Li Yan, Yuan-Chen Cui, Yu-Ying Liu, Hong-Na Mu, Ke He, Bai-He Hu, Xin Chang, Kai Sun, Jing-Yu Fan, Li Huang, Jing-Yan Han
As a major ingredient of Radix ginseng , ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has been increasingly recognized to benefit the heart condition, however, the rationale behind the role is not fully understood. In vitro study in H9c2 cardiomyocytes has shown the potential of Rg1 to increase ATP content in the cells. We thus speculated that the protective effect of Rg1 on heart ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury implicates energy metabolism regulation. The present study was designed to verify this speculation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of occlusion of left coronary anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion for 90 min...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467212/intravital-multiphoton-microscopy-with-fluorescent-bile-salts-in-rats-as-an-in-vivo-biomarker-for-hepatobiliary-transport-inhibition
#16
Jennifer Ryan, Ryan E Morgan, Yuan Chen, Laurie Volak, Robert T Dunn, Kenneth W Dunn
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is expressed at the canalicular domain of hepatocytes, where it mediates the elimination of monovalent bile salts into the bile. Inhibition of BSEP is considered a susceptibility factor for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) that often goes undetected during non-clinical testing. Although in vitro assays exist for screening BSEP inhibition, a reliable and specific method for confirming Bsep inhibition in vivo would be a valuable follow-up to a BSEP screening strategy, helping to put a translatable context around in vitro inhibition data, incorporating processes such as metabolism, protein binding, and other exposure properties that are lacking in most in vitro BSEP models...
February 21, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467037/strategies-for-successful-trauma-registry-implementation-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#17
Tiffany Paradis, Etienne St-Louis, Tara Landry, Dan Poenaru
BACKGROUND: The benefits of trauma registries have been well described. The crucial data they provide may guide injury prevention strategies, inform resource allocation, and support advocacy and policy. This has been shown to reduce trauma-related mortality in various settings. Trauma remains a leading cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the implementation of trauma registries in LMICs can be challenging due to lack of funding, specialized personnel, and infrastructure...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467008/interventions-to-prevent-hemodynamic-instability-during-renal-replacement-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review
#18
Adrianna Douvris, Gurpreet Malhi, Swapnil Hiremath, Lauralyn McIntyre, Samuel A Silver, Sean M Bagshaw, Ron Wald, Claudio Ronco, Lindsey Sikora, Catherine Weber, Edward G Clark
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic instability related to renal replacement therapy (HIRRT) may increase the risk of death and limit renal recovery. Studies in end-stage renal disease populations on maintenance hemodialysis suggest that some renal replacement therapy (RRT)-related interventions (e.g., cool dialysate) may reduce the occurrence of HIRRT, but less is known about interventions to prevent HIRRT in critically ill patients receiving RRT for acute kidney injury (AKI). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of RRT-related interventions for reducing HIRRT in such patients across RRT modalities...
February 22, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466975/the-impact-of-alcohol-among-injury-patients-in-moshi-tanzania-a-nested-case-crossover-study
#19
Catherine A Staton, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Nicole Toomey, Jihad Abdelgadir, Patricia Chou, Michael Haglund, Blandina T Mmbaga, Mark Mvungi, Monica Swahn
BACKGROUND: Globally, alcohol is responsible for 3.3 million deaths annually and contributes to 5.9% of the overall global burden of disease. In Sub-Saharan Africa, alcohol is the leading avoidable risk factor accounting for a substantial portion of death and disability. This project aimed to determine the proportion of injuries related to alcohol and the increased risk of injury due to alcohol among injury patients seeking care at the emergency department (ED) of Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Moshi, Tanzania...
February 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466698/erk1-2-mtor-stat3-pathway-mediated-autophagy-alleviates-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-acute-lung-injury
#20
Xiupeng Xu, Tongle Zhi, Zhongyuan Bao, Kuan Jiang, Yinlong Liu, Honglu Chao, Liang Fan, Dong Wang, Zheng Li, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of several complications in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Autophagy is a primary homeostatic process that promotes cell survival under stress. Accumulating evidence implicates autophagy in the pathogenesis of ALI under various conditions. However, the role of autophagy in TBI-induced ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study was to adjust autophagy with pharmacological agents to determine its functional significance in TBI-induced ALI. Rats were preconditioned with autophagy promoter rapamycin or inhibitor 3-methyladenine before they were challenged with TBI...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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