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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452442/simplifying-arterial-coupling-in-microsurgery-a-preclinical-assessment-of-an-everter-device-to-aid-with-arterial-anastomosis
#1
Ian C Sando, Jeffrey S Plott, Brendan M McCracken, Mohamad H Tiba, Kevin R Ward, Jeffrey H Kozlow, Paul S Cederna, Adeyiza O Momoh
BACKGROUND: A novel arterial everter device was engineered to simplify microvascular coupling of arteries by reliably securing the stiff, muscular wall of arteries over coupler pins. We compare microvascular coupling with the everter device to manual suturing for arterial anastomoses in a live large animal model. METHODS: In this preliminary study, bilateral external femoral arteries of five male swine were exposed and sharply divided. Arteries were anastomosed using either interrupted sutures ( n = 5) or the everter device and Synovis Coupler ( n = 5)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452135/evidence-based-exercise-recommendations-to-reduce-hepatic-fat-content-in-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
María Medrano, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Idoia Labayen
The main purposes of this study were to elucidate the effects of supervised-exercise training (ET) interventions on hepatic fat content and on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence in children and adolescents and to provide information about the optimal ET prescription (type, intensity, volume, and frequency) needed to reduce hepatic fat content in youths. Supervised-ET interventions performed in children and adolescents (6-19 years) that provided results of exercise effects on hepatic fat content or NAFLD prevalence were included...
February 13, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451848/mr-imaging-of-atraumatic-muscle-disorders
#3
Edward Smitaman, Dyan V Flores, Catalina Mejía Gómez, Mini N Pathria
Atraumatic disorders of skeletal muscles include congenital variants; inherited myopathies; acquired inflammatory, infectious, or ischemic disorders; neoplastic diseases; and conditions leading to muscle atrophy. These have overlapping appearances at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and are challenging for the radiologist to differentiate. The authors organize muscle disorders into four MR imaging patterns: (a) abnormal anatomy with normal signal intensity, (b) edema/inflammation, (c) mass, and (d) atrophy, highlighting each of their key clinical and imaging findings...
February 16, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451373/regional-structural-and-functional-specialisations-in-the-urethra-of-the-female-rat-evidence-for-complex-physiological-control-systems
#4
Monica Eggermont, Stefan De Wachter, Jane Eastham, James Gillespie
The present study characterises the complex structural and functional elements of the female rat urethra that may be involved in controlling urethral closure and continence. Urethras were dissected from female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) euthanized by pentobarbital overdose. Tissues were fixed (4% paraformaldehyde), frozen and sectioned (8μm) for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies were used to detect immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene related peptide, nitric oxide synthase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451371/young-s-modulus-and-load-complexity-modeling-their-effects-on-proximal-femur-strain
#5
Adam D Sylvester, Patricia A Kramer
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a powerful tool for evaluating questions of functional morphology, but the application of FEA to extant or extinct creatures is a non-trivial task. Three categories of input data are needed to appropriately implement FEA: geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions. Geometric data are relatively easily obtained from imaging techniques, but often material properties and boundary conditions must be estimated. Here we conduct sensitivity analyses of the effect of the choice of Young's Modulus for elements representing trabecular bone and muscle loading complexity on the proximal femur using a finite element mesh of a modern human femur...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451037/esophageal-hiatal-hernia-risk-diagnosis-and-management
#6
Hai-Xiang Yu, Chun-Shan Han, Jin-Ru Xue, Zhi-Feng Han, Hua Xin
Esophageal hiatal hernia involves abnormal abdominal entry into thoracic cavity. It is classified based on orientation between esophageal junction and diaphragm. Sliding hiatal hernia (Type-I) comprises the most frequent category, emanating from right crus of diaphragm. Type-II esophageal hernia engages both left and right muscular crura. Type-III and IV additionally include the left crus. Age and increased body mass index are key risk factors, and congenital skeletal aberrations trigger pathogenesis through intestinal malrotations...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450782/-is-the-refusal-of-invasive-or-noninvasive-ventilation-in-a-child-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-ethically-justified
#7
Martina Radner, Annette Henry
We report about an infant who was diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (Werdnig-Hoffmann) at the age of 7 weeks. In a detailed discussion with the physicians the parents decided against mechanical ventilation in the event of either acute or chronical respiratory failure. During care at home all palliative actions were taken to optimize the quality of life for the child. The boy died at the age of 7 months at home. Whether continuous mechanical ventilation in a child with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 should be the individual decision of the parents or whether it should never be offered by the physicians is discussed controversially in the present medical literature...
February 15, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449084/paralabral-cysts-of-the-shoulder-treated-with-isolated-labral-repair-effect-on-pain-and-radiologic-findings
#8
Cecilie P Schrøder, Kirsten Lundgreen, Rune Kvakestad
BACKGROUND: Paralabral cysts emanating from posterosuperior labral tears may compress the suprascapular nerve and induce neuropathy. This study prospectively assessed patients with labral tears and symptomatic paralabral cysts treated with isolated labral repair. Pain relief, time to cyst resolution, reversibility of muscular edema, atrophy, fatty infiltration, and bone erosion were evaluated. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with symptomatic posterosuperior paralabral cysts were treated with isolated labral repair...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449002/shoulder-joint-kinetics-and-dynamics-during-underwater-forward-arm-elevation
#9
Jessy Lauer, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Hélène Rouard
Aquatic exercises are widely implemented into rehabilitation programs. However, both evaluating their mechanical demands on the musculoskeletal system and designing protocols to provide progressive loading are difficult tasks. This study reports for the first time shoulder joint kinetics and dynamics during underwater forward arm elevation performed at speeds ranging from 22.5 to 90°/s. Net joint moments projected onto anatomical axes of rotation, joint power, and joint work were calculated in 18 participants through a novel approach coupling numerical fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448921/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-perforated-peptic-ulcer
#10
Kazuki Yamamoto, Osamu Takahashi, Hiroko Arioka, Daiki Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction factors for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). METHODS: At St. Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, a case control study was performed between August 2004 and March 2016. All patients diagnosed with PPU were included. As control subjects, patients with age, sex and date of CT scan corresponding to those of the PPU subjects were included in the study at a proportion of 2 controls for every PPU subject...
February 15, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447964/botulinum-toxin-type-a-relieves-sternocleidomastoid-muscle-fibrosis-in-congenital-muscular-torticollis
#11
Banghong Jiang, Wenxuan Zu, Jing Xu, Zhuyou Xiong, Yichao Zhang, Song Gao, Shuxing Ge, Li Zhang
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a neck deformity that involves shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) characterized by muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. To investigate wheatear Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) has anti-fibrotic effects in CMT, we established acquired muscular torticollis that mimetics CMT in rabbit by intra-SCM injection of anhydrous alcohol. The treatment groups received BTA (2.5 units or 5 units) injection into the fibrotic SCM. The shortening and thickening of SCM were recorded by B-mode ultrasound...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447936/inducing-hypertrophic-effects-of-type-i-skeletal-muscle-fibers-a-hypothetical-role-of-time-under-load-in-resistance-training-aimed-at-muscular-hypertrophy
#12
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447293/the-enzymatic-processing-of-%C3%AE-dystroglycan-by-mmp-2-is-controlled-by-two-anchoring-sites-distinct-from-the-active-site
#13
Magda Gioia, Giovanni Francesco Fasciglione, Diego Sbardella, Francesca Sciandra, MariaLuisa Casella, Serena Camerini, Marco Crescenzi, Alessandro Gori, Umberto Tarantino, Paola Cozza, Andrea Brancaccio, Massimo Coletta, Manuela Bozzi
Dystroglycan (DG) is a membrane receptor, belonging to the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) and formed by two subunits, α-dystroglycan (α-DG) and β-dystroglycan (β -DG). The C-terminal domain of α-DG and the N-terminal extracellular domain of β -DG are connected, providing a link between the extracellular matrix and the cytosol. Under pathological conditions, such as cancer and muscular dystrophies, DG may be the target of metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, contributing to disease progression. Previously, we reported that the C-terminal domain α-DG (483-628) domain is particularly susceptible to the catalytic activity of MMP-2; here we show that the α-DG 621-628 region is required to carry out its complete digestion, suggesting that this portion may represent a MMP-2 anchoring site...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447092/evolution-of-muscular-fatigue-in-periscapular-and-rotator-cuff-muscles-during-isokinetic-shoulder-rotations
#14
Sylvain Gaudet, Jonathan Tremblay, Fabien Dal Maso
To this day, how shoulder muscles react to a strong fatigue stimulus during dynamic shoulder rotations remains unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of repeated maximal internal-external isokinetic shoulder rotations on shoulder strength and muscle activity. Twenty-four individuals completed a 50-repetition fatiguing isokinetic protocol while electromyography was recorded on eleven muscles of the shoulder girdle. Time-frequency transformation and an ANOVA model using statistical parametric mapping methods were used to analyze shifts in instantaneous median frequency (MDF) between each 10-repetition Blocks...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446568/making-a-cautious-case-for-expanding-reproductive-genetic-carrier-screens-australian-researchers-report-success-and-caveats-with-a-simultaneous-panel-of-cystic-fibrosis-fragile-x-syndrome-and-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446170/magnetic-resonance-elastography-of-the-lumbar-back-muscles-a-preliminary-study
#16
Maud Creze, Soubeyrand Marc, Jin Long Yue, Olivier Gagey, Xavier Maître, Bellin Marie-France
INTRODUCTION: Back pain is associated with increased lumbar paraspinal muscle (LPM) stiffness identified by manual palpation and strain elastography. Recently, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has allowed the stiffness of muscle to be characterized noninvasively in vivo, providing quantitative 3D stiffness maps (elastograms). The aim of this study was to characterize the stiffness (shear modulus, SM) of the LPM (multifidus and erector spinae) using MRE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRE of the lumbar region was performed on seven adults in supine position...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445465/the-physiotherapeutic-variable-approach-technique-an-example-of-neuromotor-adaptation-conveyed-by-the-neuromuscular-spindle
#17
Maria Russo, Giuseppe Cultrera
The subcortical systems control the proper functioning of the automatic substrate required for movement. Such a substrate is often underestimated to give attention to voluntary movement. By applying Variable Approach technique, it is possible to communicate with automatic systems through muscular spindles to achieve a more functional volunteer movement.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445330/non-neural-muscle-weakness-has-limited-influence-on-complexity-of-motor-control-during-gait
#18
Marije Goudriaan, Benjamin R Shuman, Katherine M Steele, Marleen Van den Hauwe, Nathalie Goemans, Guy Molenaers, Kaat Desloovere
Cerebral palsy (CP) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness. Weakness in CP has neural and non-neural components, whereas in DMD, weakness can be considered as a predominantly non-neural problem. Despite the different underlying causes, weakness is a constraint for the central nervous system when controlling gait. CP demonstrates decreased complexity of motor control during gait from muscle synergy analysis, which is reflected by a higher total variance accounted for by one synergy (tVAF 1 )...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444539/relationships-between-maximal-strength-of-lower-limb-anthropometric-characteristics-and-fundamental-explosive-performance-in-handball-players
#19
Souhail Hermassi, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly, Herbert Wagner, Georg Fieseler, Stephan Schulze, Karl-Stefan Delank, Roy J Shephard, René Schwesig
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between lower body muscular strength, anthropometric characteristics and several measures of explosive performance in elite team-handball players. METHODS: 22 male elite team-handball players (age: 19.1 ± 1.7 years) were studied during the competitive season. Standard anthropometric and body composition measures included body mass index, lower limb and thigh muscle volume, and body fat percentage...
February 14, 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443664/nusinersen-versus-sham-control-in-later-onset-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#20
Eugenio Mercuri, Basil T Darras, Claudia A Chiriboga, John W Day, Craig Campbell, Anne M Connolly, Susan T Iannaccone, Janbernd Kirschner, Nancy L Kuntz, Kayoko Saito, Perry B Shieh, Már Tulinius, Elena S Mazzone, Jacqueline Montes, Kathie M Bishop, Qingqing Yang, Richard Foster, Sarah Gheuens, C Frank Bennett, Wildon Farwell, Eugene Schneider, Darryl C De Vivo, Richard S Finkel
BACKGROUND: Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide drug that modulates pre-messenger RNA splicing of the survival motor neuron 2 ( SMN2) gene. It has been developed for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 trial of nusinersen in 126 children with SMA who had symptom onset after 6 months of age. The children were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo intrathecal administration of nusinersen at a dose of 12 mg (nusinersen group) or a sham procedure (control group) on days 1, 29, 85, and 274...
February 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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