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Anthony G Schache, Yi-Chung Lin, Kay M Crossley, Marcus G Pandy
PURPOSE: Knowledge of hip biomechanics during locomotion is necessary for designing optimal rehabilitation programs for hip-related conditions. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine how lower-limb muscle contributions to hip joint contact forces (HCFs) differed between walking and running; and (2) compare both absolute and per-unit-distance (PUD) loads at the hip during walking and running. METHODS: Kinematic and ground reaction force data were captured from eight healthy participants during overground walking and running at various steady-state speeds (walking: 1...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
N de Cesare, C Trevisan, E Maghin, M Piccoli, P G Pavan
The diaphragm is a mammalian skeletal muscle that plays a fundamental role in the process of respiration. Alteration of its mechanical properties due to a diaphragmatic hernia contributes towards compromising its respiratory functions, leading to the need for surgical intervention to restore the physiological conditions by means of implants. This study aims to assess via numerical modeling biomechanical differences between a diaphragm in healthy conditions and a herniated diaphragm surgically repaired with a polymeric implant, in a mouse model...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ken D O'Halloran, David P Burns
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal neuromuscular disease associated with respiratory-related morbidity and mortality. Herein, we review recent work by our group exploring deficits and compensation in the respiratory control network governing respiratory homeostasis in a pre-clinical model of DMD, the mdx mouse. Deficits at multiple sites of the network provide considerable challenges to respiratory control. However, our work has also revealed evidence of compensatory neuroplasticity in the motor drive to breathe enhancing diaphragm muscle activity during increased chemical drive...
June 19, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Payam Mohassel, A Reghan Foley, Carsten G Bönnemann
Skeletal muscle function relies on the myofibrillar apparatus inside myofibers as well as an intact extracellular matrix surrounding each myofiber. Muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) plays several roles including but not limited to force transmission, regulation of growth factors and inflammatory responses, and influencing muscle stem cell (i.e. satellite cell) proliferation and differentiation. In most myopathies, muscle ECM undergoes remodeling and fibrotic changes that may be maladaptive for normal muscle function and recovery...
June 19, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
George Vasquez-Rios, Hani Alkhankan, Boutros Peter Sawaya, Javier A Neyra
INTRODUCTION: Methanol intoxication is an infrequent cause of poisoning in the United Sates. It can present with prominent stroke-like features and acute kidney injury. Despite the life-threatening nature of this condition, it is poorly identified by clinicians. We aim to present a case of rapidly progressive mental decline and renal involvement, discuss a diagnostic work-up and provide a critical review on therapeutic strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with acute encephalopathy and diffuse muscular rigidity...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Daniel Germano Maciel, Marianne Trajano da Silva, José Antônio Rodrigues, João Batista Viana Neto, Ingrid Martins de França, Ana Beatriz Medeiros Melo, Therence Yves Pereira Barros da Silva, Wouber Hérickson de Brito Vieira
This study aims to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined to a functional exercise program on treatment of FM. A double-blind and placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial composed of 22 women divided into two groups: placebo group (functional exercise program associated with placebo phototherapy n = 11) and laser group (same exercise program associated with active phototherapy; n = 11). Each session lasted from 40 to 60 min and was performed three times a week for 8 weeks...
June 21, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke Gam, Ole Hartvig Mortensen, Lea Hüche Larsen, Steen Seier Poulsen, Klaus Qvortrup, Elisabeth Reinhart Mathiesen, Peter Damm, Bjørn Quistorff
AIMS: Poor myometrial contractility has been demonstrated in women at term with diabetes and decreased muscular mitochondrial content and/or function has been extensively implicated in the progression of type 2 diabetes. Alterations of the uterine mitochondrial phenotype in pregnant women with diabetes have yet to be investigated as a causal link to decreased myometrial contractility. METHODS: Observational study of 18 women with diabetes (type 2 and gestational) scheduled for an elective Caesarean section at term with matching controls...
June 21, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
A Wallroth, T Dreher
OBJECTIVE: Combined bony and soft tissue correction of a mild foot and flexible rearfoot deformity in cavovarus foot. INDICATIONS: Drop foot during swing phase and muscular imbalance in the stance phase in cavovarus foot, flexible cavovarus foot, accompanying symptoms such as recurrent calluses and ulcerations, compliance. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Pes cavovarus of spastic genesis, mild deformities, fixed bony deformity, lack of compliance, florid inflammation in the foot area, severe peripheral artery disease (PAD), diabetes mellitus...
June 21, 2018: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Amin Kalaaji, Stine Dreyer, Line Vadseth, Ivana Maric, Vanja Jönsson, Trond H Haukebøe
Background: Use of gluteal augmentation with fat increased by 3267% from 2002 to 2015, and the rate of death is highest compared with other aesthetic procedures: 1 in 3448 patients dies, compared with 1 in 55,000. Objectives: To retrospectively investigate patients who underwent this procedure at Oslo Plastic Surgery Clinic, to review international data determine factors causing mortality, and to provide guidelines for safety. Methods: Patient data were searched for reason for the procedure, assessment of patients, techniques performed, and safety measures used...
June 20, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Christy L Ludlow, Rickie Domangue, Dinesh Sharma, H A Jinnah, Joel S Perlmutter, Gerald Berke, Christine Sapienza, Marshall E Smith, Joel H Blumin, Carrie E Kalata, Karen Blindauer, Michael Johns, Edie Hapner, Archie Harmon, Randal Paniello, Charles H Adler, Lisa Crujido, David G Lott, Stephen F Bansberg, Nicholas Barone, Teresa Drulia, Glenn Stebbins
Importance: A roadblock for research on adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), abductor SD (ABSD), voice tremor (VT), and muscular tension dysphonia (MTD) is the lack of criteria for selecting patients with these disorders. Objective: To determine the agreement among experts not using standard guidelines to classify patients with ABSD, ADSD, VT, and MTD, and develop expert consensus attributes for classifying patients for research. Design, Setting and Participants: From 2011 to 2016, a multicenter observational study examined agreement among blinded experts when classifying patients with ADSD, ABSD, VT or MTD (first study)...
June 21, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Thomas F Schwaha, Andreas Wanninger
Background: Myoanatomical studies of adult bryozoans employing fluorescent staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) have been chiefly conducted on freshwater bryozoans. The diversity of muscular systems in the marine bryozoans is currently not well known with only two species being studied in more detail. The aim of this study is to unravel the diversity of muscle systems of 15 ctenostome bryozoans by phalloidin-coupled fluorescence stainings combined with CLSM. Results: In general, the myoanatomy of the selected ctenostomes shows significant similarities and consists of 1) muscles associated with the body wall, 2) apertural muscles, 3) lophophoral muscles, 4) tentacle sheath muscles, 5) digestive tract muscles and 6) the prominent retractor muscles...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Jeong-Whun Kim, Seung Hoon Lee, Hong Joong Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee, Seung-No Hong
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to radiographically and histologically characterize the tongue base tissues removed after robotic surgery and to analyze their relationship with polysomnographic measurements in obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Medical records, radiographs and histologic specimen of the patients who underwent transoral robotic tongue base reduction surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Findings in computed tomography (CT) images, histopathological features of the removed tongue base tissues, and respiratory parameters in polysomnography were compared and analyzed...
June 18, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Michael J Conklin, Jeffrey M Pearson
Obesity is a common problem in children and adolescents with neuromuscular disease. The available literature on obesity in cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy as it relates to orthopedic treatment is reviewed, including the demographics and measurement of obesity as well as the mechanisms of obesity in these individuals. In addition, the effect of obesity on function, patient evaluation, and orthopedic treatment are reviewed.
July 2018: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Verena Surrey, Caren Zöller, Alicia Andrea Lork, Mehri Moradi, Stefanie Balk, Benjamin Dombert, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Michael Briese, Silke Appenzeller, Utz Fischer, Sibylle Jablonka
Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a fatal motoneuron disorder in children with unknown etiology. The disease is caused by mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene, encoding a Super Family 1 (SF1)-type RNA/DNA helicase. IGHMBP2 is a cytosolic protein that binds to ribosomes and polysomes, suggesting a role in mRNA metabolism. Here we performed morphological and functional analyses of isolated Ighmbp2 deficient motoneurons to address the question whether the SMARD1 phenotype results from de-regulation of protein biosynthesis...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Andrea Fisler, Tobias Breidthardt, Nadine Schmidlin, Helmut Hopfer, Michael Dickenmann, Katrin König, Patricia Hirt-Minkowski
Renal dysfunction in the setting of cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial but most often due to decreased kidney perfusion from intravascular volume depletion, acute tubular injury/necrosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity may be associated with a cholestatic injury pattern. We report a case of a 56-year-old man with a diagnosis of bile cast nephropathy, as a complication of drug-induced severe hyperbilirubinemia due to the abuse of intramuscular anabolic steroids bought on the internet to increase muscular mass for bodybuilding training...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Benjamin Gollasch, Oskar Wischnewski, Birgit Rudolph, Yoland-Marie Anistan, Friedrich C Luft, Maik Gollasch
We present a 42-year-old man with a BMI of 32, who was referred because of proteinuria and decreased renal function. We were impressed by his markedly muscular physique. A renal biopsy was performed, which showed focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Is this patient merely an obese person with FSGS or is something else going on here? We performed extensive clinical and laboratory examinations, genetic testing, and anthropometric data monitoring over time. We transferred our methodology for routine FSGS mutation screening (Sanger sequencing) to the Ion Torrent PGM platform with a new custom-targeted NGS gene panel (Ion Ampliseq FSGS panel) and tested the performance of the system in two cohorts of patients with FSGS...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Ricardo Schultz Martins, Patrick Girouard, Evan Elliott, Said Mekary
Martins, RS, Girouard, P, Elliott, E, and Mekary, S. Physiological responses of a jaw repositioning custom-made mouthguard on airway and their effects on athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Advanced dental techniques such as jaw-repositioning have shown to increase lower body muscular power such as vertical jump, but its effects on acceleration and speed have not been studied. Similarly, jaw repositioning is commonly used to increase airways volume and ventilation in a special population (i...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Baoguo He, Zhiqiang Qu, Zibin Tian, Kun Zhao, Liangzhou Wei, Li Ma
Although 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a synthetic agonist specific for TrkB, has been reported to promote intestinal dynamics, the molecular mechanisms behind its effects are not well known. In this study, we explored how 7,8-DHF affected the carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction of rat gastric muscle by way of measuring the contractile tension of muscular strips. We found that although 7,8-DHF did not directly cause contraction of gastric muscle, it enhanced the CCh-induced contractions, but not substance P- or high K+ -induced contractions...
June 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Harsh V Jain, Jessica F Boehler, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Serge L Beaucage
A synthetic 8-mer, amphipathic, trans-acting poly-2'-O-methyluridylic thiophosphate triester RNA element (2'-OMeUtaPS) can be prepared using solid-phase synthesis protocols. 2'-OMeUtaPS efficiently mediates the delivery of uncharged polyA-tailed phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) sequences in HeLa pLuc 705 cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry measurements. In this cell line, 2'-OMeUtaPS-mediated transfection of an antisense polyA-tailed PMO sequence induces alternative splicing of an aberrant luciferase pre-mRNA splice site, leading to restoration of functional luciferase, as quantitatively measured using a typical luciferase assay...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Ava Y Lin, Leo H Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To construct a framework to understand the different molecular interventions for muscular dystrophy. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent approval of antisense oligonucleotides treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy and current clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus for the treatment of those diseases suggests that we are at a tipping point where we are able to treat and potentially cure muscular dystrophies...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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