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Incidental coronary calcium

Daniel Bos, Maarten J G Leening
Non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in order to obtain the coronary artery calcium score has become an established diagnostic procedure in the clinical setting, and is commonly employed in clinical and population-based research. This state-of-the-art review paper highlights the potential gain in information that can be obtained from the non-contrast coronary calcium scans without any necessary modifications to the scan protocol. This includes markers of cardio-metabolic health, such as the amount of epicardial fat and liver fat, but also markers of general health including bone density and lung density...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
Roberto Cardarelli, Alexandria Hall, Wade Rankin
BACKGROUND: Although incidental coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been established as a surrogate measure for atherosclerotic plaque burden, little is known about its progression and the associated risks. This study looks at the association of select cardiovascular risk factors with the progression of CAC over a 2-year period and the relationship between CAC progression and experiencing a composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) event. METHODS: Repeated CAC measurements were obtained for 311 asymptomatic participants aged >44 years, who were recruited from a collaborative network of primary care clinics...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Angela J Ryan, Andrew D Choi, Brian G Choi, Jannet F Lewis
Breast arterial calcification (BAC) is a type of medial artery calcification that can be seen incidentally on mammography. Studies have suggested association of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently published studies have also suggested a modest correlation of BAC with coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. Roughly 40 million mammograms are already performed annually in the United States with overlap in patients that undergo CAD screening via CAC scoring...
September 2017: Clinical Cardiology
Michelle S Park, Corrilynn O Hileman, Abdus Sattar, Robert Gilkeson, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Chest imaging is performed for a variety of reasons in HIV-infected adults. There are limited data on the prevalence of incidental findings, progression of these findings over time and the relationship with inflammation in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected adults. METHODS: This study utilized data from a randomized clinical trial of rosuvastatin in HIV-infected adults on ART. Incidental findings were reported from chest computed tomography (CT) scans obtained for coronary artery calcium score at entry, week 48 and 96...
2017: Antiviral Therapy
Swapnesh Parikh, Matthew J Budoff
Although recent advances in noninvasive imaging technologies have potentially improved diagnostic efficiency and clinical outcomes of patients with acute chest pain, controversy remains regarding much of the accumulated evidence. This article reviews the role of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in the assessment of coronary risk, and its usefulness in the emergency department in facilitating appropriate disposition decisions. Also discussed is coronary artery calcification incidentally found on CT scans when done for indications such as evaluation of pulmonary embolism or lung cancer...
January 2016: Heart Failure Clinics
Baskar Sekar, Mark Payne, Azad Hanna, Abdul Azzu, Martin Pike, Michael Rees
462 patients presenting with chest pain to a rural district general hospital underwent calcium scoring and pretest clinical risk assessment in order to stratify subsequent investigations and treatment was retrospectively reviewed. The patients were followed up for two years and further investigations and outcomes recorded. Of the 206 patients with zero calcium score, 132 patients were immediately discharged from cardiac follow-up with no further investigation on the basis of their calcium score, low pretest risk of coronary artery disease, and no significant incidental findings...
2015: BioMed Research International
Tin Nguyen, Charles Phillips, Assad Movahed
Calcification of the pericardium is a relatively rare finding and often has an uncertain etiology. Incidental findings of pericardial calcification may increase due to widespread application of cardiac computed tomography for the assessment of coronary atherosclerosis in the appropriate clinical setting using coronary artery calcium scoring and/or coronary angiography. Pericardial calcification alone is asymptomatic and is neither necessary nor sufficient for the diagnosis of pericardial constriction. Its presence may suggest of diffused pericardial scarring and consequently, its pathological involvement with pericardial constriction...
September 16, 2014: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Swapnesh Parikh, Matthew J Budoff
Although recent advances in noninvasive imaging technologies have potentially improved diagnostic efficiency and clinical outcomes of patients with acute chest pain, controversy remains regarding much of the accumulated evidence. This article reviews the role of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in the assessment of coronary risk, and its usefulness in the emergency department in facilitating appropriate disposition decisions. Also discussed is coronary artery calcification incidentally found on CT scans when done for indications such as evaluation of pulmonary embolism or lung cancer...
August 2014: Cardiology Clinics
Anna Espinoza, Kendra Malone, Elizabeth Balyakina, Kimberly G Fulda, Roberto Cardarelli
BACKGROUND: Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population...
May 2014: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Olga Możeńska, Sławomir Sypuła, Małgorzata Celińska-Spoder, Jerzy Walecki, Dariusz A Kosior
BACKGROUND: Caseous calcification of mitral annulus is rather rare echocardiographic finding with prevalence of 0.6% in pts. with proven mitral annular calcification and 0.06% to 0.07% in large series of subjects in all ages. Echocardiographic images of caseous calcification are often heterogenous due to calcium and lipid deposits, and the masses show hyperechogenic and hypoechogenic areas. However the appearance of caseous calcification can imitate that of abscess, tumors and cysts, surgical treatment may not be needed when there is no obstruction...
2014: Polish Journal of Radiology
Tamar S Polonsky, Philip Greenland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2013: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Onno M Mets, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Martijn J Gondrie, Max A Viergever, Matthijs Oudkerk, Harry J de Koning, Willem P Th M Mali, Mathias Prokop, Rob J van Klaveren, Yolanda van der Graaf, Constantinus F M Buckens, Pieter Zanen, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Harry J M Groen, Ivana Isgum, Pim A de Jong
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to derivate and validate a prediction model for cardiovascular events based on quantification of coronary and aortic calcium volume in lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). BACKGROUND: CT-based lung cancer screening in heavy smokers is a very timely topic. Given that the heavily smoking screening population is also at risk for cardiovascular disease, CT-based screening may provide the opportunity to additionally identify participants at high cardiovascular risk...
August 2013: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Mihir Patel, Hetvi Joshi, Jayantilal Mehta
SESSION TYPE: Cancer Student/Resident Case Report PostersPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Spontaneous pneumothorax can be caused by lung tissue weakness - rupture of thin cysts called blebs on lung surface. Chest pain, dyspnea and occasionally palpitations are classical symptoms of pneumothorax but it can also present silently.CASE PRESENTATION: A 58 year old Caucasian male working as a chemical engineer presented with palpitations and rapid heart rate of 190 per minute which was resolved with valsalva maneuver in ER...
October 1, 2012: Chest
B Walther
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K antagonists not only influence the synthesis of coagulation factors but also the activation of other vitamin K dependent proteins. Among other possible side effects, arterial calcification has been focused on in recent years. HISTORY AND FINDINGS: Four patients under long-term anticoagulation for more than 10 years developed medial calcific sclerosis. In case 1 we identified an unexplained medial calcific sclerosis on x-ray after a trauma by chance...
May 2013: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sam Chitsaz, Namrata Gundiah, Charlie Blackshear, Nebiyu Tegegn, Kimberly S Yan, Ali N Azadani, Michael Hope, Elaine E Tseng
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The quantification of incidentally found aortic valve calcification on computed tomography (CT) is not performed routinely, as data relating to the accuracy of aortic valve calcium for estimating the severity of aortic stenosis (AS) is neither consistent nor validated. As aortic valve calcium quantification by CT is confounded by wall and coronary ostial calcification, as well as motion artifact, the ex-vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of stenotic aortic valves allows a precise measurement of the amounts of calcium present...
May 2012: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Yuka Otaki, Ronak Rajani, Victor Y Cheng, Heidi Gransar, Rine Nakanishi, Haim Shmilovich, Ryo Nakazato, Sean W Hayes, Louise E J Thomson, John D Friedman, Piotr J Slomka, Nathan D Wong, Alan Rozanski, Leslee Shaw, Matthew Budoff, Daniel S Berman, Damini Dey
BACKGROUND: Epicardial fat volume (EFV) has been associated with prevalent but not incident coronary artery calcium. However, the relationship between EFV and development of incident coronary calcium (incCC) has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the relationship between epicardial fat volume and the development of coronary artery calcium over 3-5 years. METHODS: From 1248 subjects who underwent 2 serial noncontrast cardiac CT scans 3-5 years (median, 4 years) apart to measure coronary calcium score of 0 who subsequently developed incident coronary calcium (incCC(+)) were matched to 106 controls in whom coronary calcium score remained 0 (incCC(-))...
September 2011: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Peter C Jacobs, Martijn J Gondrie, Willem P Mali, Ayke L Oen, Mathias Prokop, Diederick E Grobbee, Yolanda van der Graaf
OBJECTIVES: An increase in the number of CT investigations will likely result in a an increase in unrequested information. Clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. This is the first follow-up study to investigate the prognostic relevance of subclinical coronary (CAC) and aortic calcification (TAC) as contained in routine diagnostic chest CT in a clinical care population. METHODS: The follow-up of 10,410 subjects (>40 years) from a multicentre, clinical care-based cohort of patients included 240 fatal to 275 non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (mean follow-up 17...
August 2011: European Radiology
Nancy Crum-Cianflone, James Stepenosky, Sheila Medina, Dylan Wessman, David Krause, Gilbert Boswell
Those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and might undergo computed tomographic (CT) scans for early detection. Incidental findings on cardiac CT imaging are important components of the benefits and costs of testing. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with incidental findings on CT scans performed to screen for coronary artery calcium (CAC) among HIV-infected men. A clinically significant finding was defined as requiring additional workup or a medical referral...
February 15, 2011: American Journal of Cardiology
Anil George, Assad Movahed
Multislice computed tomography (CT) is rapidly emerging as a novel technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. It is anticipated that with increasing acceptance of this imaging technique, CT for calcium scores and CT angiography will be performed in ever greater numbers. Thus, it is all but inevitable that clinicians will stumble upon incidental findings given the sheer number of vital organs and blood vessels that are imaged in the field of view. This article reviews the literature on incidental findings on cardiac CT with a focus on pulmonary nodules, ethical aspects of following up such findings, and cost implications...
2010: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
K Bendix, J M Jensen, S Poulsen, N Mygind, B L Nørgaard
OBJECTIVES: (1) To establish the prevalence of incidental extra-cardiac findings (ECFs) in coronary multi detector computed tomography (CCT) performed in a large, homogeneous cohort of patients suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD). (2) To examine whether any association can be established between ECFs and pretest risk as determined by conventional risk factors for CAD, the Diamond-Forrester risk model or coronary artery calcium scores. (3) To assess cost related to extra-cardiac examinations...
October 2011: European Journal of Radiology
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