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Coronary calcium

Takayoshi Yamaguchi, Katsuhiro Ichikawa, Daichi Takahashi, Teppei Sugaya, Jungo Furuya, Keiichi Igarashi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We have developed a new contrast enhancement protocol for subtraction coronary computed tomography (SCCTA) requiring a short breath-holding time. In the protocol, test and main boluses were sequentially and automatically injected, and correct timings for pre-contrast and contrast-enhanced scans for main bolus were automatically determined only by the test bolus tracking. Combined with a fixed short main bolus injection for 7 seconds, the breath-holding time was shortened as possible...
October 17, 2016: Academic Radiology
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Kongkiat Chaikriangkrai, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Hye Yeon Jhun, Patompong Ungprasert, Gardar Sigurdsson, Faisal Nabi, John J Mahmarian, Su Min Chang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-established test for risk stratifying asymptomatic patients. Recent studies also indicate that CACS may accurately risk stratify stable patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain; however, many were underpowered. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prognostic value and accuracy of a zero (normal) CACS for identifying patients at acceptable low risk for future cardiovascular events who might be safely discharged home from the ED...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Stephen B Smith, Zhaobin Xu, Tatiana Novitskaya, Bo Zhang, Elena Chepurko, Xin-An Pu, Debra G Wheeler, Mark Ziolo, Richard J Gumina
AIMS: Prior work suggests that ischemic preconditioning increases the level of CD39 in the heart and contributes to cardiac protection. Therefore, we examined if targeted cardiac expression of CD39 protects against myocardial injury. MAIN METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific expression of human CD39 (αMHC/hCD39-Tg) were generated, characterized and subjected to left coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct size at 24h following injury quantified. KEY FINDINGS: αMHC/hCD39-Tg mice have increased in cardiac ATPase and ADPase activity compared to WT littermates...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Nermina Buljubasic, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Jin M Cheng, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Sanneke P M de Boer, Evelyn Regar, Robert-Jan M van Geuns, Patrick W J C Serruys, Eric Boersma, Isabella Kardys
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide additional insight into the role of fibrinogen in coronary artery disease by investigating the associations between plasma fibrinogen with both degree and composition of coronary atherosclerosis as determined by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 581 patients undergoing coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina pectoris, preprocedural blood samples were drawn for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 measurements, and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound of a nonculprit coronary artery was performed...
October 14, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
Adriana Van Ballegooijen
Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are major age-related causes of morbidity and premature death that occur among older adults. Emerging evidence suggests that calcium from bone is deposited in the arteries. This leads to calcification in valves and vessels, which is associated with a 3-4 fold higher risk of coronary heart disease. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is frequently advised in older adults for the prevention of osteoporosis and to reduce the risk of fractures and falls. However, recent RCT's showed that individuals taking calcium and vitamin D were at higher risk of cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rha Seung-Woon, Choi Byoung Geol, Li Hu, Na Jin Oh, Choi Cheol Ung, Park Chang Gyu, Seo Hong Seog, Oh Dong Joo, Kim Yong Hoon, Her Ae-Young, Park Sang-Ho
OBJECTIVE: Recently several studies reported that anti-hypertensive drugs were associated with development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). However, data on the relationship between detailed prescription types and long-term incidence of NODM are still limited in Asian patients (pts). DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 3,208 consecutive hypertension pts prescribed with calcium channel blockers (CCB) were enrolled with the exclusion of diabetic pts. Pts were divided into two groups according to the additional prescription of renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers; 1) the CCB group (n = 1,987) and 2) CCB + RAS group (n = 1,221)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chan Joo Lee, Jaewon Oh, Sang-Hak Lee, Seok-Min Kang, Donghoon Choi, Hyeon-Chang Kim, Sungha Park
OBJECTIVE: In most cases, the 5 first line drugs are recommended for management of hypertension without preference for one or the other. However, it is unclear whether different classes of anti-hypertensive agents have different effect on survival in low risk, uncomplicated hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of 4 classes of first line anti-hypertensive agents on improving survival in patients with low risk, uncomplicated hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Adult hypertensive patients without chronic kidney disease, end stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure in 2002 were selected from Korean National Health Insurance sample cohort consisting of one million subjects...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
William C Cushman
Beginning with the Veterans Administration (VA) Cooperative Hypertension Study of the 1960 s, blood pressure (BP) lowering with antihypertensive medications has been shown to reduce major cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure (HF) and CV and all-cause mortality in randomized controlled CV outcome trials. Multiple drugs were usually required in these trials to lower BP in treated participants. Medication regimens in the early trials, including the VA trial, included a thiazide-type diuretic (TTD) as initial therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kazuomi Kario
The essential benefit of the management of hypertension is derived from the blood pressure (BP) lowering per se, indicating the importance of BP throughout 24 hours. Recent guidelines stressed the importance of home BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. It is well-known that cardiovascular events occur more frequently in the morning BP levels have been shown to increase during the period from night to early morning. Clinical research using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) or home BP monitoring has clarified that morning BP and BP surge are more closely related to the cardiovascular risk than office BP (Kario et al...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lea Azour, Michael A Kadoch, Thomas J Ward, Corey D Eber, Adam H Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is often identified on routine chest computed tomography (CT). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether ordinal scoring of CAC on non-gated, routine chest CT is an accurate predictor of Agatston score ranges in a community-based population, and in particular to determine the accuracy of an ordinal score of zero on routine chest CT. METHODS: Two thoracic radiologists reviewed consecutive same-day ECG-gated and routine non-gated chest CT scans of 222 individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Marvin Louis Roy Lu, Shuchita Gupta, Abel Romero-Corral, Magdaléna Matejková, Toni De Venecia, Edinrin Obasare, Vikas Bhalla, Gregg S Pressman
BACKGROUND: Calcium deposits in the aortic valve and mitral annulus have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there is no accepted standard method for scoring such cardiac calcifications, and most existing methods are simplistic. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a semiquantitative score, one that accounts for all visible calcium on echocardiography, could predict all-cause mortality and stroke in a graded fashion. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 443 unselected subjects derived from a general echocardiography database...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Michael Messerli, Fabian Rengier, Lotus Desbiolles, Niklas F Ehl, Ralf W Bauer, Sebastian Leschka, Hatem Alkadhi, Simon Wildermuth, Claas P Nähle
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) on the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores by computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients underwent CAC imaging with dual-source 192-slice CT. Agatston, volume and mass score were calculated from filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstructions with different levels of ADMIRE. Friedman test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for multiple comparisons of CAC values and the difference ratio among different ADMIRE groups using FBP as reference...
October 11, 2016: Academic Radiology
Michael H Criqui, Victor Aboyans, Matthew A Allison, Julie O Denenberg, Nketi Forbang, Mary M McDermott, Christina L Wassel, Nathan D Wong
We reviewed published MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study articles concerning peripheral arterial disease, subclavian stenosis (SS), abdominal aortic calcium (AAC), and thoracic artery calcium (TAC). Important findings include, compared to non-Hispanic whites, lower ankle-brachial index (ABI) and more SS in African Americans, and higher ABI and less SS in Hispanic and Chinese Americans. Abnormal ABI and brachial pressure differences were associated with other subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) measures...
September 2016: Global Heart
Michael J Blaha, Joseph Yeboah, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Kiang Liu, Richard Kronmal, Philip Greenland
When the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) began, the Framingham risk score was the preferred tool for 10-year global coronary heart disease risk assessment; however, the Framingham risk score had limitations including derivation in a homogenous population lacking racial and ethnic diversity and exclusive reliance on traditional risk factors without consideration of most subclinical disease measures. MESA was designed to study the prognostic value of subclinical atherosclerosis and other risk markers in a multiethnic population...
September 2016: Global Heart
Alicja E Grzegorzewska, Mateusz Paciorkowski, Adrianna Mostowska, Bartosz Frycz, Wojciech Warchoł, Ireneusz Stolarek, Marek Figlerowicz, Paweł P Jagodziński
Nephrolithiasis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), and cardiovascular complications are associated with disturbances in Ca handling and contribute to morbidity/mortality during haemodialysis (HD). Calcimimetics, activators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), provide an effective means of reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in sHPT. Polymorphism in CaSR gene (CASR) influences Ca-related parameters, however it was not shown in HD patients for CASR rs7652589. The minor allele at this polymorphism modifies the binding sites of transcription factors and CaSR expression...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
John J B Anderson, Bridget Kruszka, Joseph A C Delaney, Ka He, Gregory L Burke, Alvaro Alonso, Diane E Bild, Matthew Budoff, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND: Recent randomized data suggest that calcium supplements may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Using a longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the association between calcium intake, from both foods and supplements, and atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 5448 adults free of clinically diagnosed CVD (52% female; aged 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Ji Hyun Lee, Donghee Han, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Asim Rizvi, Heidi Gransar, Hyung-Bok Park, Hyo Eun Park, Su-Yeon Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Jidong Sung, Sung Hak Park, Hae-Won Han, James K Min, Hyuk-Jae Chang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is associated with favorable prognosis of all-cause mortality (ACM) according to a panel of conventional risk factors (RF) in asymptomatic Korean adults.Methods and Results:A total of 48,215 individuals were stratified according to presence/absence of CAC, and the following RF were examined: hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol...
October 4, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Henry D De'Ath, Kathryn Oakland, Karim Brohi
BACKGROUND: Arterial calcification on Computerised Tomography (CT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease. It is predictive of future adverse cardiac events and mortality in many disease states. The incidence of arterial disease and its impact on outcomes of the injured is not known. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of arterial calcification in trauma patients, and establish its impact on mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all injured patients aged over 45 years presenting to a major trauma centre over a 34-month period...
October 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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