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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233736/fumonisin-b1-induces-oxidative-stress-in-oesophageal-sno-cancer-cells
#1
René B Khan, Alisa Phulukdaree, Anil A Chuturgoon
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a ubiquitous contaminant of maize that is epidemiologically linked to oesophageal cancer (OC) in South Africa. FB1-induced oxidative stress mediates toxicity in animals and human cell lines, but the effects relating to OC are limited. Given the species-specific effects of FB1, this study investigated FB1-mediated toxicity and oxidative stress in spindle-shaped N-cadherin (+) CD45 (-) osteoblastic (SNO) cells. Following exposure to FB1 (0-20 μM) for 48 h, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) were measured (flow cytometry)...
December 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233733/regulation-mechanism-of-dioscin-on-uric-acid-excretion
#2
Yi Zhang, Lijun Jin, Jinchang Liu, Wei Wang, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Qian Chen, Tao Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Dioscin, a spirostane glycoside, the rhizoma of Dioscorea septemloba (Diocoreacea) is used for diuresis, rheumatism, and joints pain. Given the poor solubility and stability of Dioscin, we proposed a hypothesis that Dioscin's metabolite(s) are the active substance(s) in vivo to contribute to the reducing effects on serum uric acid levels. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to identify the active metabolite(s) of Dioscin in vivo and to explore the mechanism of its antihyperuricemic activity...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230505/polymorphisms-and-expression-of-inflammasome-genes-are-associated-with-the-development-and-severity-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-brazilian-patients
#3
Catarina Addobbati, Heidi Lacerda Alves da Cruz, José Eduardo Adelino, Amanda Luíze Melo Tavares Ramos, Thiago Sotero Fragoso, Alexandre Domingues, Ângela Luiza Branco Pinto Duarte, Renê Donizeti Ribeiro Oliveira, Paulo Louzada-Júnior, Eduardo Antônio Donadi, Alessandra Pontillo, Jaqueline de Azevêdo Silva, Sergio Crovella, Paula Sandrin-Garcia
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we analyzed the possible association of inflammasome gene variants and expression to rheumatoid arthritis (RA)'s development and severity in the Brazilian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms within six inflammasome genes (NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, CARD8, CASP1) as well as IL1B and IL18 genes in two different Brazilian populations (from Northeast and Southeast Brazil) were analyzed. We also evaluated inflammasome gene expression profile in resting and LPS + ATP-treated monocytes from RA patients and healthy individuals...
December 11, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230178/human-cardiac-31p-mr-spectroscopy-at-3-tesla-cannot-detect-failing-myocardial-energy-homeostasis-during-exercise
#4
Adrianus J Bakermans, Jason N Bazil, Aart J Nederveen, Gustav J Strijkers, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Daniel A Beard, Jeroen A L Jeneson
Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) is a unique non-invasive imaging modality for probing in vivo high-energy phosphate metabolism in the human heart. We investigated whether current 31P-MRS methodology would allow for clinical applications to detect exercise-induced changes in (patho-)physiological myocardial energy metabolism. Hereto, measurement variability and repeatability of three commonly used localized 31P-MRS methods [3D image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) and 1D ISIS with 1D chemical shift imaging (CSI) oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the surface coil] to quantify the myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio in healthy humans (n = 8) at rest were determined on a clinical 3 Tesla MR system...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223910/analysis-of-the-interactions-between-environmental-and-food-contaminants-cadmium-and-deoxynivalenol-in-different-target-organs
#5
Thanh-Huong Le, Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Isabelle P Oswald, Philippe Pinton
Cadmium (Cd), a common and widespread toxic heavy metal, and mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequent contaminants of the food supply. Most of the data on their toxicity concern their effects when present alone. However, consumers can be exposed to a cocktail of DON and Cd. To improve the understanding of their combined toxicity, the effects of DON and Cd alone or in combination were investigated in different human cell lines from the kidney (HEK-293), intestine (Caco-2), blood (HL-60) and liver (HepG2)...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222162/dual-inhibition-of-pik3c3-and-fgfr-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-to-treat-bladder-cancer
#6
Chun-Han Chen, C Changou, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Yu-Ching Lee, Cheng-Ying Chu, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Hao-Ching Wang, Yu-Chen Lin, Yan-Ni Lo, Yun-Ru Liu, Jing-Ping Liou, Yun Yen
PURPOSE: MPT0L145 has been developed as a FGFR inhibitor exhibiting significant anti-bladder cancer activity in vitro and in vivo via promoting autophagy-dependent cell death. Here, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Autophagy flux, morphology and intracellular organelles were evaluated by western blotting, transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. Molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance assay were performed to identify drug-protein interaction...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222138/application-of-large-scale-aptamer-based-proteomic-profiling-to-planned-myocardial-infarctions
#7
Jaison Jacob, Debby Ngo, Nancy Finkel, Rebecca Pitts, Scott Gleim, Mark D Benson, Michelle J Keyes, Laurie A Farrell, Thomas Morgan, Lori L Jennings, Robert Gerszten
Background -Emerging proteomic technologies using novel affinity-based reagents allow for efficient multiplexing with high sample throughput. To identify early biomarkers of myocardial injury, we recently applied an aptamer-based proteomic profiling platform that measures 1,129 proteins to samples from patients undergoing septal alcohol ablation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a human model of "planned myocardial injury" (PMI). Here we examined the scalability of this approach using a markedly expanded platform to study a far broader range of human proteins in the context of myocardial injury...
December 8, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221133/endogenous-glutamine-decrease-is-associated-with-pancreatic-cancer-progression
#8
Cecilia Roux, Chiara Riganti, Sammy Ferri Borgogno, Roberta Curto, Claudia Curcio, Valeria Catanzaro, Giuseppe Digilio, Sergio Padovan, Maria Paola Puccinelli, Monica Isabello, Silvio Aime, Paola Cappello, Francesco Novelli
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is becoming the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The mortality is very high, which emphasizes the need to identify biomarkers for early detection. As glutamine metabolism alteration is a feature of PDAC, its in vivo evaluation may provide a useful tool for biomarker identification. Our aim was to identify a handy method to evaluate blood glutamine consumption in mouse models of PDAC. We quantified the in vitro glutamine uptake by Mass Spectrometry (MS) in tumor cell supernatants and showed that it was higher in PDAC compared to non-PDAC tumor and pancreatic control human cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220825/effects-of-nutritional-education-on-weight-change-and-metabolic-abnormalities-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-japan-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Norio Sugawara, Toyoaki Sagae, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Manabu Yamazaki, Kazutaka Shimoda, Takao Mori, Takuro Sugai, Hiroshi Matsuda, Yutaro Suzuki, Yuji Ozeki, Kurefu Okamoto, Toshiyuki Someya
OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than the general population. Minimizing weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in a population with an already high prevalence of obesity is of clinical and social importance. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of monthly nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. METHODS: From July 2014 to December 2014, we recruited 265 obese patients who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218518/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-glut-inhibitors-using-a-seahorse-extracellular-flux-analyzer
#10
Changyong Wei, Monique Heitmeier, Paul W Hruz, Mala Shanmugam
Glucose is metabolized through anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Perturbing glucose uptake and its subsequent metabolism can alter both glycolytic and OXPHOS pathways and consequently lactate and/or oxygen consumption. Production and secretion of lactate, as a consequence of glycolysis, leads to acidification of the extracellular medium. Molecular oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, facilitating oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. The alterations in extracellular acidification and/or oxygen consumption can thus be used as indirect readouts of glucose metabolism and assessing the impact of inhibiting glucose transport through specific glucose transporters (GLUTs)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218453/energy-depletion-and-not-ros-formation-is-a-crucial-step-of-glucolipotoxicity-gltx-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#11
Morgana Barroso Oquendo, Nikolas Layer, Rebecca Wagner, Peter Krippeit-Drews, Gisela Drews
We have shown previously that genetic or pharmacological deletion of KATP channels protect against beta cell dysfunction induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since it is assumed that glucolipotoxicity (GLTx) causes ROS production, we aimed to evaluate whether suppression of KATP channel activity can also prevent beta cell damage evoked by GLTx. We used an in vitro model of GLTx and measured distinct parameters of stimulus-secretion coupling. GLTx gradually induced disturbances of Ca2+ oscillations over 3 days...
December 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217919/attitude-of-medical-students-towards-psychiatry-the-case-of-jimma-university-southwest-ethiopia
#12
Hailemariam Hailesilassie, Habtamu Kerebih, Alemayehu Negash, Eshetu Girma, Mathias Siebeck, Markos Tesfaye
Background: The inability to attract medical graduates to specialize in psychiatry has always been a serious challenge to psychiatry training programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 122 fourth year medical students of Jimma University. The attitude of medical students towards psychiatry was measured by Attitude toward Psychiatry - 30 (ATP-30)...
May 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216328/comparative-analysis-of-idf-atpiii-and-cds-in-the-diagnosis-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-adult-inhabitants-in-jiangxi-province-china
#13
Lengmei Cheng, Wei Yan, Liping Zhu, Yiying Chen, Jie Liu, Yan Xu, Lu Ji, Junrong He
BACKGROUND: Currently, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has attracted widespread public attention. However, there is a war regarding the applicability of the diagnosis in different populations regarding the distinct criteria for the diagnosis of MS. Data about the prevalence rate of MS and its components in Jiangxi Province are limited. Thus, our goals were to compare the consistency rates and applicability of three criteria, i.e., those of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment PanelⅢ (ATPⅢ), and the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215860/direct-measurement-of-single-molecule-adenosine-triphosphatase-hydrolysis-dynamics
#14
Jie Li, Gen He, Ueno Hiroshi, Wenzhe Liu, Hiroyuki Noji, Chuanmin Qi, Xuefeng Guo
F1-ATPase (F1) is a bidirectional molecular motor that hydrolyzes nearly all ATPs to fuel the cellular processes. Optical observation of labelled F1 rotation against the α3β3 hexamer ring revealed the sequential mechanical rotation steps corresponding to ATP binding/ADP release and ATP hydrolysis/Pi release. These substeps originate from the F1 rotation but with heavy load on the γ shaft due to fluorescent labelling and the photophysical limitation of an optical microscope, which hampers better understanding of the intrinsic kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis...
December 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215320/early-effects-of-rhodomyrtone-on-membrane-integrity-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Wipawadee Sianglum, Dennapa Saeloh, Pongsri Tongtawe, Natthakul Wootipoom, Nitaya Indrawattana, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
Strong evidence of high potency of rhodomyrtone as a promising antibacterial agent against pathogenic gram-positive bacteria has been clearly demonstrated in our previous work. The aim of this study was to provide insight into early action of rhodomyrtone, an acylphloroglucinol, on membrane damage in multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Early effects of rhodomyrtone on the bacterial membrane integrity were detected in a time-course study. Flow cytometry revealed a reduction in green fluorescent emission and increase in uptake of propidium iodide in rhodomyrtone-treated bacterial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213328/the-transcription-factors-hsf1-and-msn2-of-thermotolerant-kluyveromyces-marxianus-promote-cell-growth-and-ethanol-fermentation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-at-high-temperatures
#16
Pengsong Li, Xiaofen Fu, Lei Zhang, Zhiyu Zhang, Jihong Li, Shizhong Li
Background: High temperature inhibits cell growth and ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a complex phenotype, thermotolerance usually involves synergistic actions of many genes, thereby being difficult to engineer. The overexpression of either endogenous or exogenous stress-related transcription factor genes in yeasts was found to be able to improve relevant stress tolerance of the hosts. Results: To increase ethanol yield of high-temperature fermentation, we constructed a series of strains of S...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213241/interaction-of-purinergic-p2x4-and-p2x7-receptor-subunits
#17
Markus Schneider, Kirsten Prudic, Anja Pippel, Manuela Klapperstück, Ursula Braam, Christa E Müller, Günther Schmalzing, Fritz Markwardt
P2X4 and P2X7 are members of the P2X receptor family, comprising seven isoforms (P2X1-P2X7) that form homo- and heterotrimeric non-specific cation channels gated by extracellular ATP. P2X4 and P2X7 are widely coexpressed, particularly in secretory epithelial cells and immune and inflammatory cells, and regulate inflammation and nociception. Although functional heteromerization has been established for P2X2 and P2X3 subunits expressed in sensory neurons, there are contradictory reports regarding a functional interaction between P2X4 and P2X7 subunits...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212737/astrocytic-lrp4-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-4-contributes-to-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-by-regulating-atp-release-and-adenosine-a2ar-adenosine-a2a-receptor-signaling
#18
Xin-Chun Ye, Jin-Xia Hu, Lei Li, Qiang Li, Fu-Lei Tang, Sen Lin, Dong Sun, Xiang-Dong Sun, Gui-Yun Cui, Lin Mei, Wen-Cheng Xiong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, where it regulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by suppressing ATP release. Here, we investigated Lrp4's function in ischemia/stroke-induced brain injury response, which includes glutamate-induced neuronal death and reactive astrogliosis. METHODS: The brain-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4GFAP-Cre), astrocytic-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4GFAP-creER), and their control mice (Lrp4f/f) were subjected to photothrombotic ischemia and the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212043/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-ucp1-and-ucp3-by-purine-nucleotides-and-phosphate
#19
Gabriel Macher, Melanie Koehler, Anne Rupprecht, Jürgen Kreiter, Peter Hinterdorfer, Elena E Pohl
Mitochondrial membrane uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is not only expressed in skeletal muscle and heart, but also in brown adipose tissue (BAT) alongside UCP1, which facilitates a proton leak to support non-shivering thermogenesis. In contrast to UCP1, the transport function and molecular mechanism of UCP3 regulation are poorly investigated, although it is generally agreed upon that UCP3, analogous to UCP1, transports protons, is activated by free fatty acids (FFAs) and is inhibited by purine nucleotides (PN)...
December 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210131/allergens-produce-serine-proteases-dependent-distinct-release-of-metabolite-damps-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#20
Sangeetha Ramu, Mandy Menzel, Leif Bjermer, Cecilia Andersson, Hamid Akbarshahi, Lena Uller
BACKGROUND: The respiratory epithelium is a major site for disease interaction with inhaled allergens. Additional to IgE-dependent effects, allergens contain proteases that may stimulate human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) through protease-activated receptors, causing the release of mediators important in driving Th2 mediated immune responses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate if different allergens induce metabolite DAMPs such as ATP and uric acid (UA) release in HBECs...
December 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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