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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025640/fabrication-and-preliminary-study-of-a-biomimetic-tri-layer-tubular-graft-based-on-fibers-and-fiber-yarns-for-vascular-tissue-engineering
#1
Tong Wu, Jialing Zhang, Yuanfei Wang, Dandan Li, Binbin Sun, Hany El-Hamshary, Meng Yin, Xiumei Mo
Designing a biomimetic and functional tissue-engineered vascular graft has been urgently needed for repairing and regenerating defected vascular tissues. Utilizing a multi-layered vascular scaffold is commonly considered an effective way, because multi-layered scaffolds can easily simulate the structure and function of natural blood vessels. Herein, we developed a novel tri-layer tubular graft consisted of Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone)/collagen (PLCL/COL) fibers and Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/silk fibroin (PLGA/SF) yarns via a three-step electrospinning method...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987165/mitochondrial-diseases
#2
Maria J Molnar, Gabor G Kovacs
Mitochondrial disorders represent a major challenge in medicine. Most of the mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear DNA (nDNA), whereas a very small fraction is encoded by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes can result in mitochondrial dysfunction. The disease usually affects multiple organs in varying locations and severity; however, there are some forms which affect a single organ. The diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders is based on clinical examination, biochemical and histopathologic examinations, functional studies, and molecular genetic testing...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983756/effects-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-and-topical-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-on-skeletal-muscle-injury-induced-by-contusion-in-rats-part-1-morphological-and-functional-aspects
#3
Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, Lúcio Frigo, Tereza Cristina Dos Reis Ferreira, Heliodora Leão Casalechi, Simone Teixeira, Patrícia de Almeida, Marcelo Nicolas Muscara, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Andrey Jorge Serra, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior
Musculoskeletal injuries are very frequent and are responsible for causing pain and impairment of muscle function, as well as significant functional limitations. In the acute phase, the most prescribed treatment is with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), despite their questionable effectiveness. However, the use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in musculoskeletal disorders has been increasing in the last few years, and this therapy appears to be an interesting alternative to the traditional drugs...
October 5, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979214/intramuscular-contributions-to-low-frequency-force-potentiation-induced-by-a-high-frequency-conditioning-stimulation
#4
Arthur J Cheng, Daria Neyroud, Bengt Kayser, Håkan Westerblad, Nicolas Place
Electrically-evoked low-frequency (submaximal) force is increased immediately following high-frequency stimulation in human skeletal muscle. Although central mechanisms have been suggested to be the major cause of this low-frequency force potentiation, intramuscular factors might contribute. Thus, we hypothesized that two intramuscular Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms can contribute to the low-frequency force potentiation: increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and increased myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972685/effects-of-manipulating-tetanic-calcium-on-the-curvature-of-the-force-velocity-relationship-in-isolated-rat-soleus-muscles
#5
A M Kristensen, O B Nielsen, K Overgaard
AIM: In dynamically contracting muscles, increased curvature of the force-velocity relationship contributes to the loss of power during fatigue. It has been proposed that fatigue-induced reduction in [Ca(++) ]i causes this increased curvature. However, earlier studies on single fibers have been conducted at low temperatures. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that curvature is increased by reductions in tetanic [Ca(++) ]i in isolated skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperatures...
October 3, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971627/the-functional-anatomy-of-nerves-innervating-the-ventral-grooved-blubber-of-fin-whales-balaenoptera-physalus
#6
Wayne Vogl, Hannes Petersen, Arlo Adams, Margo A Lillie, Robert E Shadwick
Nerves that supply the floor of the oral cavity in rorqual whales are extensible to accommodate the dramatic changes in tissue dimensions that occur during "lunge feeding" in this group. We report here that the large nerves innervating the muscle component of the ventral grooved blubber (VGB) in fin whales are branches of cranial nerve VII (facial nerve). Therefore, the muscles of the VGB are homologous to second branchial arch derived muscles, which in humans include the muscles of "facial expression." We speculate, based on the presence of numerous foramina on the dorsolateral surface of the mandibular bones, that general sensation from the VGB likely is carried by branches of the mandibular division (V3) of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve), and that these small branches travel in the lipid-rich layer directly underlying the skin...
November 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966653/a-novel-triple-immunoenzyme-staining-enables-simultaneous-identification-of-all-muscle-fiber-types-on-a-single-skeletal-muscle-cryosection-from-normal-denervated-or-reinnervated-rats
#7
Peng Wu, Shuya Zhang, Robert J Spinner, Michael Torres Lizardi, Yudong Gu, Cong Yu, Michael J Yaszemski, Anthony J Windebank, Huan Wang
Triple immunofluorescence staining has recently been developed to simultaneously identify all muscle fibers on a single cryosection which is helpful for clinical and basic research, but it has disadvantages such as fast photobleaching and unclear outlines of muscle fibers. Triple immunoenzyme staining (TIE) is likely to avoid these disadvantages. In this study, we aimed to establish a sensitive and specific TIE technique to identify fiber types in normal, denervated, and reinnervated rat muscles, and to develop a systematic sampling method for muscle fiber quantification...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947258/-focal-myositis-an-unknown-disease
#8
L Gallay, N Streichenberger, O Benveniste, Y Allenbach
Focal myositis are inflammatory muscle diseases of unknown origin. At the opposite from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, they are restricted to a single muscle or to a muscle group. They are not associated with extramuscular manifestations, and they have a good prognosis without any treatment. They are characterized by a localized swelling affecting mostly lower limbs. The pseudo-tumor can be painful, but is not associated with a muscle weakness. Creatine kinase level is normal. Muscle MRI shows an inflammation restricted to a muscle or a muscle group...
September 22, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912520/intraoperative-intorsional-traction-test-of-the-inferior-oblique
#9
A J Connor, S P Kraft
PurposeWe present a novel variation of the traction test of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle. We demonstrate the correlation between the traction test and clinically graded IO overaction and describe the utility of this test to confirm IO weakening.MethodsWe performed a retrospective chart review on all patients who underwent IO surgery and intraoperative intorsion traction tests by a single surgeon over a 10-year period. We compared the traction test results, in 'clock hours' of freedom, before and after IO surgery...
September 15, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895244/identification-and-characterization-of-three-novel-mutations-in-the-casq1-gene-in-four-patients-with-tubular-aggregate-myopathy
#10
Virginia Barone, Valeria Del Re, Alessandra Gamberucci, Valentina Polverino, Lucia Galli, Daniela Rossi, Elisa Costanzi, Luana Toniolo, Gianna Berti, Alessandro Malandrini, Giulia Ricci, Gabriele Siciliano, Gaetano Vattemi, Giuliano Tomelleri, Enrico Pierantozzi, Simone Spinozzi, Nila Volpi, Rosella Fulceri, Roberto Battistutta, Carlo Reggiani, Vincenzo Sorrentino
Here, we report the identification of three novel missense mutations in the calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1) gene in four patients with tubular aggregate myopathy. These CASQ1 mutations affect conserved amino acids in position 44 (p.(Asp44Asn)), 103 (p.(Gly103Asp)), and 385 (p.(Ile385Thr)). Functional studies, based on turbidity and dynamic light scattering measurements at increasing Ca(2+) concentrations, showed a reduced Ca(2+) -dependent aggregation for the CASQ1 protein containing p.Asp44Asn and p.Gly103Asp mutations and a slight increase in Ca(2+) -dependent aggregation for the p...
September 11, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874356/impact-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-mediated-adaptations-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#11
Nina Brandt, Lene Nielsen, Bjørg Thiellesen Buch, Anders Gudiksen, Stine Ringholm, Ylva Hellsten, Jens Bangsbo, Henriette Pilegaard
PGC-1α has been suggested to regulate exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations and autophagy in skeletal muscle. The factors regulating PGC-1α are however not fully resolved. The aim was to investigate the impact of β-adrenergic signaling in PGC-1α mediated metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle with exercise training. Muscle was obtained from muscle specific PGC-1α knockout (MKO) mice and LOX/LOX 1) 3h after a single exercise bout with or without prior injection of propranolol or 3h after a single injection of clenbuterol and 2) after 5 weeks of wheel running exercise training with or without propranolol treatment or after 5 weeks of clenbuterol treatment...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872121/minimally-invasive-muscle-embedding-mime-a-novel-experimental-technique-to-facilitate-donor-cell-mediated-myogenesis
#12
Joseph A Roche, Morium Begam, Sujay S Galen
Skeletal muscle possesses regenerative capacity due to tissue-resident, muscle-fiber-generating (myogenic) satellite cells (SCs), which can form new muscle fibers under the right conditions. Although SCs can be harvested from muscle tissue and cultured in vitro, the resulting myoblast cells are not very effective in promoting myogenesis when transplanted into host muscle. Surgically exposing the host muscle and grafting segments of donor muscle tissue, or the isolated muscle fibers with their SCs onto host muscle, promotes better myogenesis compared to myoblast transplantation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871339/recruitment-strategies-in-efferent-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#13
REVIEW
J Kevin Shoemaker
In 1968, the first reported microneurographic recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans revealed the bursty behavior of efferent sympathetic nerve activity. The timing of bursts could be explained by baroreflex physiology, but the variability in size of each burst was left unexplained. On the basis of shorter latencies of larger bursts, Wallin's group [53] proposed the existence of variable supraspinal synaptic delays and/or options for recruitment of faster-conducting sympathetic neurons when bursts become stronger...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835899/acute-elevated-glucose-promotes-abnormal-action-potential-induced-ca-2-transients-in-cultured-skeletal-muscle-fibers
#14
Erick O Hernández-Ochoa, Quinton Banks, Martin F Schneider
A common comorbidity of diabetes is skeletal muscle dysfunction, which leads to compromised physical function. Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC)-the sequential link between action potentials (AP), intracellular Ca(2+) release, and the contractile machinery. Yet, little is known about the impact of acute elevated glucose on the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca(2+) transients and ionic underlying mechanisms that lead to muscle dysfunction...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829740/deconstruction-of-the-beaten-path-sidestep-interaction-network-provides-insights-into-neuromuscular-system-development
#15
Hanqing Li, Ash Watson, Agnieszka Olechwier, Michael Anaya, Siamak K Sorooshyari, Dermott P Harnett, Hyung-Kook Peter Lee, Jost Vielmetter, Mario A Fares, K Christopher Garcia, Engin Özkan, Juan-Pablo Labrador, Kai Zinn
An 'interactome' screen of all Drosophila cell-surface and secreted proteins containing immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains discovered a network formed by paralogs of Beaten Path (Beat) and Sidestep (Side), a ligand-receptor pair that is central to motor axon guidance. Here we describe a new method for interactome screening, the Bio-Plex Interactome Assay (BPIA), which allows identification of many interactions in a single sample. Using the BPIA, we 'deorphanized' four more members of the Beat-Side network...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820842/-upper-extremity-innervation-patterns-and-clinical-implications-for-nerve-and-tendon-transfer
#16
Ellen Y Lee, Sandeep J Sebastin, Andre Cheah, V P Kumar, Aymeric Y T Lim
BACKGROUND: We previously studied the intramuscular innervation of 150 upper limb muscles and demonstrated that certain patterns of intramuscular innervation allowed muscles to be split into compartments with independent function. This study aims to determine the location, extra-muscular course, and number of motor nerve branches of upper limb peripheral nerves. We want to combine this information with our previous work to create a blueprint of upper limb neuromuscular anatomy that would be useful in reconstructive surgery...
August 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819053/novel-neurobiological-properties-of-elements-in-the-escape-circuitry-of-the-shrimp
#17
De Forest Mellon
Escape behaviors in peneid shrimp are mediated by large myelinated medial giant fibers which course from the brain to the last abdominal ganglion in the ventral nerve cord. In each abdominal segment the medial giant axons make synaptic connections with paired myelinated giant motor axons that excite the abdominal deep flexor muscles and drive the tailflips that constitute the escape behavior. I examined 1) anatomical features of the abdominal motor giant fibers and 2) electrical properties of both the medial giants and motor giants in the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duoarum...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818390/three-novel-recessive-mutations-in-lama2-syne1-and-ttn-are-identified-in-a-single-case-with-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Liang Wu, Bingwu Xiang, Huan Zhang, Xiaoxiao He, Celina Shih, Xiang Chen, Tao Cai
Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a group of heterogeneous disorders. Here, targeted next generation sequencing of 168 CMD-associated genes was performed on collected clinic samples to identify potential mutations. A loss-of-function mutation (c.4676-4682delGCTGCAA; p.Cys1560Thrfs*33) of the LAMA2 gene in a consanguineous family was identified and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The second recessive mutation in SYNE1 (c.2881C>T; p.Arg961Trp) was found in the SAP motif, which was predicted to be involved in chromosomal organization...
July 6, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817961/evaluating-the-ergonomics-of-flexible-ureteroscopy
#19
Wesley Ludwig, Gyusung I Lee, Justin Bradley Ziemba, Joan S Ko, Brian Matlaga
INTRODUCTION: To date, the ergonomics of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) have not been well described. We performed a study to assess the biomechanical stresses on urologists performing URS and to investigate the effect of ureteroscope type on these parameters. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activation level of muscle groups involved in URS. Surface EMG electrodes (Delsys, Boston, MA) were placed on the right and left thenar, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), biceps, triceps and deltoid...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814297/genotyping-and-comparative-pathology-of-spirocerca-in-black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-in-south-africa
#20
M M Bumby, M C Williams, J C A Steyl, R Harrison-White, H Lutermann, G T Fosgate, P J de Waal, J Mitha, S J Clift
BACKGROUND: The pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode Spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. However, it has not been described in wild carnivores in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for Spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. Jackals were also stratified according to age and the Spirocerca species recovered were characterized using molecular techniques...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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