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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315692/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-fibroblast-function-in-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-induced-lung-fibrosis
#1
Jane Ma, Bridget Bishoff, R R Mercer, Mark Barger, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Vincent Castranova
The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO2 induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO2-induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 (0.15 to 7mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298356/the-glass-micropipette-electrode-a-history-of-its-inventors-and-users-to-1950
#2
Allan H Bretag
Soon after the glass micropipette was invented as a micro-tool for manipulation of single bacteria and the microinjection and microsurgery of living cells, it was seen to hold promise as a microelectrode to stimulate individual cells electrically and to study electrical potentials in them. Initial successes and accurate mechanistic explanations of the results were achieved in giant plant cells in the 1920s. Long known surface electrical activity in nerves and muscles was only resolved at a similar cellular level in the 1930s and 1940s after the discovery of giant nerve fibers and the development of finer tipped microelectrodes for normal-sized cells...
March 15, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292875/in-vivo-ca-2-dynamics-induced-by-ca-2-injection-in-individual-rat-skeletal-muscle-fibers
#3
Mario Wakizaka, Hiroaki Eshima, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hideki Shirakawa, David C Poole, Yutaka Kano
In contrast to cardiomyocytes, store overload-induced calcium ion (Ca(2+)) release (SOICR) is not considered to constitute a primary Ca(2+) releasing system from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle myocytes. In the latter, voltage-induced Ca(2+) release (VICR) is regarded as the dominant mechanism facilitating contractions. Any role of the SOICR in the regulation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and its dynamics in skeletal muscle in vivo remains poorly understood. By means of in vivo single fiber Ca(2+) microinjections combined with bioimaging techniques, we tested the hypothesis that the [Ca(2+)]i dynamics following Ca(2+) injection would be amplified and fiber contraction facilitated by SOICR...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281032/mouse-soleus-slow-muscle-shows-greater-intramyocellular-lipid-droplet-accumulation-than-edl-fast-muscle-fiber-type-specific-analysis
#4
Yusuke Komiya, Shoko Sawano, Daisuke Mashima, Riho Ichitsubo, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Wataru Mizunoya
Skeletal muscle is the main tissue of lipid metabolism and accordingly is critical for homeostasis and energy production; however, the determinants of lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle are unknown. Here, we examined whether the soleus muscle (predominantly slow-twitch fibers) has a higher lipid accumulation capacity than that of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast-twitch fibers) muscle in mice. Soleus and EDL muscles were harvested from male C57BL/6J mice. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid import and triglyceride synthesis and accumulation were examined in soleus and EDL muscles...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270752/neuronal-correlates-of-functional-coupling-between-reach-and-grasp-related-components-of-muscle-activity
#5
Shashwati Geed, Martha L McCurdy, Peter L E van Kan
Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand toward a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, Geed and Van Kan (2016) demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268468/detection-of-myasthenia-gravis-using-electrooculography-signals
#6
T Liang, M I Boulos, B J Murray, S Krishnan, H Katzberg, K Umapathy
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder resulting from skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. An early common symptom is fatigable weakness of the extrinsic ocular muscles; if symptoms remain confined to the ocular muscles after a few years, this is classified as ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG). Diagnosis of MG when there are mild, isolated ocular symptoms can be difficult, and currently available diagnostic techniques are insensitive, non-specific or technically cumbersome. In addition, there are no accurate biomarkers to follow severity of ocular dysfunction in MG over time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259120/study-of-age-dependent-structural-and-functional-changes-of-mitochondria-in-skeletal-muscles-and-heart-of-naked-mole-rats-heterocephalus-glaber
#7
S Holtze, C M Eldarov, V B Vays, I M Vangeli, M Yu Vysokikh, L E Bakeeva, V P Skulachev, T B Hildebrandt
Morphometric analysis of mitochondria in skeletal muscles and heart of 6- and 60-month-old naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber) revealed a significant age-dependent increase in the total area of mitochondrial cross-sections in studied muscle fibers. For 6- and 60-month-old animals, these values were 4.8 ± 0.4 and 12.7 ± 1.8%, respectively. This effect is mainly based on an increase in the number of mitochondria. In 6-month-old naked mole rats, there were 0.23 ± 0.02 mitochondrial cross-sections per µm(2) of muscle fiber, while in 60-month-old animals this value was 0...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238572/seronegative-myasthenia-gravis-associated-with-malignant-thymoma
#8
Jason Richards, James F Howard
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is generally caused by antibodies directed against the neuromuscular junction, including antibodies against the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Pathologic abnormalities of the thymus gland, including thymoma, are associated with MG. We report a 56-year-old woman who presented with double vision. Single fiber EMG confirmed myasthenia gravis. AChR, striational muscle and MuSK antibodies were absent in the serum. Chest CT demonstrated a malignant thymoma. We report the first case of seronegative myasthenia gravis associated with malignant thymoma...
February 2, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228723/presynaptic-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-trkb-receptor-cooperate-in-the-elimination-of-redundant-motor-nerve-terminals-during-development
#9
Laura Nadal, Neus Garcia, Erica Hurtado, Anna Simó, Marta Tomàs, Maria A Lanuza, Victor Cilleros, Josep Tomàs
The development of the nervous system involves the overproduction of synapses but connectivity is refined by Hebbian activity-dependent axonal competition. The newborn skeletal muscle fibers are polyinnervated but, at the end of the competition process, some days later, become innervated by a single axon. We used quantitative confocal imaging of the autofluorescent axons from transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice to investigate the possible cooperation of the muscarinic autoreceptors (mAChR, M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes) and the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor in the control of axonal elimination after the mice Levator auris longus (LAL) muscle had been exposed to several selective antagonist of the corresponding receptor pathways in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226641/detection-of-myasthenia-gravis-using-electrooculography-signals
#10
T Liang, M I Boulos, B J Murray, S Krishnan, H Katzberg, K Umapathy, T Liang, M I Boulos, B J Murray, S Krishnan, H Katzberg, K Umapathy, M I Boulos, K Umapathy, H Katzberg, S Krishnan, T Liang, B J Murray
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder resulting from skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. An early common symptom is fatigable weakness of the extrinsic ocular muscles; if symptoms remain confined to the ocular muscles after a few years, this is classified as ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG). Diagnosis of MG when there are mild, isolated ocular symptoms can be difficult, and currently available diagnostic techniques are insensitive, non-specific or technically cumbersome. In addition, there are no accurate biomarkers to follow severity of ocular dysfunction in MG over time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#11
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214291/segmental-distribution-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-within-single-muscle-fibers
#12
Ming Zhang, Maree Gould
Despite many studies looking at the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms across a transverse section of muscle, knowledge of MHC distribution along the longitudinal axis of a single skeletal muscle fiber has been relatively overlooked. Immunocytochemistry was performed on serial sections of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle to identify MHC types I, IIA, IIX, IIY and IIB. Sixteen fascicles which contained a total of 362 fibers were randomly and systematically sampled from the 3 EDL muscles...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209802/doublet-stimulation-increases-ca-2-binding-to-troponin-c-to-ensure-rapid-force-development-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
Anthony J Bakker, Tanya R Cully, Catherine D Wingate, Christopher J Barclay, Bradley S Launikonis
Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers are often exposed to motor neuron double discharges (≥200 Hz), which markedly increase both the rate of contraction and the magnitude of the resulting force responses. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood, likely because of technical limitations in previous studies. In this study, we measured cytosolic Ca(2+) during doublet activation using the low-affinity indicator Mag-Fluo-4 at high temporal resolution and modeled the effects of doublet stimulation on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, binding of Ca(2+) to cytosolic buffers, and force enhancement in fast-twitch fibers...
March 6, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199794/the-cellular-stress-response-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-following-lengthening-contractions
#14
Evan Pollock-Tahiri, Marius Locke
The cellular stress response (CSR) of the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was investigated following 20, 40 or 60 lengthening contractions (LCs) using an in-vivo model of electrical stimulation. Muscles were removed at 0, 1, 3, or 24 hours after LCs and assessed for HSF activation, HSP content and/or morphological evidence of muscle fibre damage. When compared to the first muscle contraction, peak muscle torque was reduced by 26% (p<0.05) after 20 LCs and further reduced to 56% and 60% (p<0.001) after 40 and 60 LCs, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#15
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185314/beta-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-expressed-in-acetylcholine-containing-nerve-fibers-of-the-human-urinary-bladder-an-immunohistochemical-study
#16
Ana Coelho, Tiago Antunes-Lopes, James Gillespie, Francisco Cruz
AIMS: To identify in the human bladder the structures which express the Beta-3 adrenoceptor (β3AR). METHODS: Human bladders from cadaveric organ donors (equally balanced in sex and age) were collected. Bladders were immediately fixed in paraformaldehyde and further processed for cryostat sectioning. Single and double immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against β3AR C-terminal, β3AR N-terminal, a pan-neuronal marker (β3-Tubulin) and markers of cholinergic (Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter), adrenergic (Tyrosine Hidroxylase), and peptidergic (Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide) nerve fibers...
February 10, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177529/a-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-projection-to-medial-rectus-motoneurons-supplying-singly-and-multiply-innervated-extraocular-muscle-fibers
#17
Martin O Bohlen, Susan Warren, Paul J May
We recently demonstrated a bilateral projection to the supraoculomotor area from the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF), a region implicated in horizontal gaze changes. C-group motoneurons, which supply multiply innervated fibers in the medial rectus muscle, are located within the primate supraoculomotor area, but their inputs and function are poorly understood. Here we tested whether C-group motoneurons in Macaca fascicularis monkeys receive a direct cMRF input by injecting this portion of the reticular formation with anterograde tracers in combination with injection of retrograde tracer into the medial rectus muscle...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100491/motor-control-by-precisely-timed-spike-patterns
#18
Kyle H Srivastava, Caroline M Holmes, Michiel Vellema, Andrea R Pack, Coen P H Elemans, Ilya Nemenman, Samuel J Sober
A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086790/rna-sequencing-for-global-gene-expression-associated-with-muscle-growth-in-a-single-male-modern-broiler-line-compared-to-a-foundational-barred-plymouth-rock-chicken-line
#19
Byung-Whi Kong, Nicholas Hudson, Dongwon Seo, Seok Lee, Bhuwan Khatri, Kentu Lassiter, Devin Cook, Alissa Piekarski, Sami Dridi, Nicholas Anthony, Walter Bottje
BACKGROUND: Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. METHODS: To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081371/gwas-identifies-new-loci-for-painful-temporomandibular-disorder
#20
A E Sanders, D Jain, T Sofer, K F Kerr, C C Laurie, J R Shaffer, M L Marazita, L M Kaste, G D Slade, R B Fillingim, R Ohrbach, W Maixner, T Kocher, O Bernhardt, A Teumer, C Schwahn, K Sipilä, R Lähdesmäki, M Männikkö, P Pesonen, M Järvelin, C M Rizzatti-Barbosa, C B Meloto, M Ribeiro-Dasilva, L Diatchenko, P Serrano, S B Smith
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a musculoskeletal condition characterized by pain and reduced function in the temporomandibular joint and/or associated masticatory musculature. Prevalence in the United States is 5% and twice as high among women as men. We conducted a discovery genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TMD in 10,153 participants (769 cases, 9,384 controls) of the US Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The most promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in meta-analysis of 4 independent cohorts...
March 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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