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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223824/correlating-motor-unit-morphology-with-bioelectrical-activity-a-simulation-study
#1
Ewa Zalewska, Irena Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine motor unit morphology underpinning the various MUP waveforms using MUP analysis. METHOD: The simulation method is based on the decomposition of MUP into single fiber potentials. Number of fibers, fiber diameters and fiber to electrode distances were determined. The impact of each muscle fiber on the MUP waveform was determined and quantified by its percentage contribution. RESULTS: The origin of the four examined MUPs of distinct waveforms have been explained by showing the histograms of fiber diameters and their distance to the electrode...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213017/topographical-anatomy-of-the-pronator-teres-muscle-and-median-nerve-a-study-using-histological-sections-of-human-fetuses
#2
Shinichi Abe, Naomitsu Tomita, Masahito Yamamoto, Minako Sato, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
The median nerve passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the pronator teres muscle (PT), although variations such as absence of the ulnar head may exist. We observed histological sections of the upper extremity from 24 embryos and fetuses. In the early stage, the PT extended between the radius and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, but no candidate for the ulnar head was found. In mid-term fetuses, the ulnar margin of the PT was attached to the elbow joint capsule. Moreover, in late-stage fetuses, a small deep part of the PT arose from the thick joint capsule of the humero-ulnar joint near the coronoid process of the ulna...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212849/trim63-murf-1-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-biomarkers-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#3
Philipp Baumert, Mark J Lake, Barry Drust, Claire Stewart, Robert M Erskine
Unaccustomed strenuous exercise can lead to muscle strength loss, inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated if a missense single nucleotide polymorphism (A>G, rs2275950) within the TRIM63 gene (encoding MuRF-1 and potentially affecting titin mechanical properties) was associated with the variable response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Sixty-five untrained, healthy participants (genotyped for rs2275950: AA, AG and GG) performed 120 maximal eccentric knee extensions (ECC) to induce muscle damage...
December 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206857/z-disc-protein-chapb-induces-cardiomyopathy-and-contractile-dysfunction-in-the-postnatal-heart
#4
Willemijn van Eldik, Brigit den Adel, Jantine Monshouwer-Kloots, Daniela Salvatori, Saskia Maas, Ingeborg van der Made, Esther E Creemers, Derk Frank, Norbert Frey, Nicky Boontje, Jolanda van der Velden, Paul Steendijk, Christine Mummery, Robert Passier, Abdelaziz Beqqali
AIMS: The Z-disc is a crucial structure of the sarcomere and is implicated in mechanosensation/transduction. Dysregulation of Z-disc proteins often result in cardiomyopathy. We have previously shown that the Z-disc protein Cytoskeletal Heart-enriched Actin-associated Protein (CHAP) is essential for cardiac and skeletal muscle development. Furthermore, the CHAP gene has been associated with atrial fibrillation in humans. Here, we studied the misregulated expression of CHAP isoforms in heart disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204914/muscle-fiber-conduction-velocity-and-emg-amplitude-of-the-upper-trapezius-muscle-in-healthy-subjects-after-low-level-laser-irradiation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#5
Fabiana Sarilho de Mendonça, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Daniela Aparecida Biasotto-Gonzalez, Simone Aparecida Penimpedo Calamita, Cid André Fidelis de Paula Gomes, César Ferreira Amorim, Marco Antônio Fumagalli, Fabiano Politti
Although low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is an important resource for the treatment of non-specific neck pain patients, the dose which presents the greatest therapeutic potential for the treatment of this pathology is still unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the immediate effect of LLLT on the muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT) muscle in healthy individuals. A total of 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study...
December 5, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193153/aquaporin-4-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fiber-types
#6
Elisa Vizzaccaro, Chiara Terracciano, Emanuele Rastelli, Roberto Massa
Introduction - Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of transmembrane proteins involved in the maintenance of osmotic gradients. AQP4 is abundant in skeletal muscle, where it seems to be associated with glycolytic metabolism. We investigated the pattern of expression of AQP4 in normal human myofibers relative to the main forms of myosin heavy chain (MHC). Methods - Six normal human muscle biopsies were analyzed by double immunofluorescence for co-expression of AQP4 and slow or fast MHC. Results - A high percentage (64-99%) of MHC-fast positive fibers showed immunoreaction for AQP4...
November 28, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187365/foxo1-nucleo-cytoplasmic-distribution-and-unidirectional-nuclear-influx-are-the-same-in-nuclei-in-a-single-skeletal-muscle-fiber-but-vary-between-fibers
#7
Yewei Liu, Sarah J Russell, Martin F Schneider
Foxo transcription factors promote protein breakdown and atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. Foxo transcriptional effectiveness is largely determined by phosphorylation-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling. Imaging Foxo1-GFP over time in 124 nuclei in 68 multi-nucleated adult skeletal muscle fibers under control culture conditions reveals large variability in Foxo1-GFP nucleo-cytoplasmic concentration ratio (N/C) and in the apparent rate coefficient (kI') for Foxo1-GFP unidirectional nuclear influx (measured with efflux blocked by leptomycin B)...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169382/confirmed-ceylon-krait-bungarus-ceylonicus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka-resulting-in-neuromuscular-paralysis-a-case-report
#8
Chamara Dalugama, Indika Bandara Gawarammana
BACKGROUND: Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. It inhabits shaded home gardens and forests in the wet zone of Sri Lanka and might creep into houses in the night. Despite frequent encounters with humans, reports of envenoming are very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 26-year-old Sri Lankan Sinhalese man with confirmed Ceylon krait envenoming presenting with bilateral partial ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, and dysphagia...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157784/deriving-muscle-fiber-diameter-from-recorded-single-fiber-potential
#9
Ewa Zalewska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. METHODS: Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. RESULTS: Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle...
November 17, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150079/mechanism-hypotheses-for-the-electrophysiological-manifestations-of-two-cases-of-endplate-acetylcholinesterase-deficiency-related-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#10
Qingyun Ding, Dongchao Shen, Yi Dai, Youfang Hu, Yuzhou Guan, Mingsheng Liu, Liying Cui
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the electrophysiological characteristics of two cases of endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency (EAD) related congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) caused by COLQ mutation and to discuss the possible mechanism of these electrophysiological phenomena. METHODS: Electrophysiological examinations were conducted including nerve conduction studies, routine electromyography (EMG), repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) and single fiber EMG (SFEMG)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143476/differences-in-innervated-neurons-of-the-internal-anal-sphincter-based-on-age-and-sex-a-histological-study
#11
Tomoaki Kaneko, Tetsuo Nemoto, Kimihiko Funahashi, Junichi Koike, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Hironori Kaneko
AIM: Previous studies have shown sex and age differences in anal sphincter function, but few morphological studies have focused on the quality and quantity of the nerves that control the sphincter muscles. The present study aimed to determine whether there are morphological and quantitative sex and age differences in the nerves in the conjoined longitudinal muscle. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study using surgical specimens from 44 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection between 2003 and 2012...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134575/impact-of-intramuscular-administration-of-lipid-soluble-and-water-soluble-vehicles-into-regenerating-muscle-at-the-distinct-phases-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#12
Ratchakrit Srikuea, Kanokwan Suhatcho
Interpretation on the effectiveness of potential substances to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration is difficult if an inappropriate vehicle is administered, since vehicle administration can directly enhance or suppress regenerative capacity. In the current study, intramuscular administration of lipid-soluble and water-soluble vehicles into regenerating muscle at the distinct phases of skeletal muscle regeneration (regenerative vs. remodeling) were investigated. Tested vehicles included lipid-soluble [olive oil, (0...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130058/bioluminescence-monitoring-of-neuronal-activity-in-freely-moving-zebrafish-larvae
#13
Steven Knafo, Andrew Prendergast, Olivier Thouvenin, Sophie Nunes Figueiredo, Claire Wyart
The proof of concept for bioluminescence monitoring of neural activity in zebrafish with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GFP-aequorin has been previously described (Naumann et al., 2010) but challenges remain. First, bioluminescence signals originating from a single muscle fiber can constitute a major pitfall. Second, bioluminescence signals emanating from neurons only are very small. To improve signals while verifying specificity, we provide an optimized 4 steps protocol achieving: 1) selective expression of a zebrafish codon-optimized GFP-aequorin, 2) efficient soaking of larvae in GFP-aequorin substrate coelenterazine, 3) bioluminescence monitoring of neural activity from motor neurons in free-tailed moving animals performing acoustic escapes and 4) verification of the absence of muscle expression using immunohistochemistry...
September 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121585/schwann-cells-participate-in-synapse-elimination-at-the-developing-neuromuscular-junction
#14
REVIEW
Young Il Lee, Wesley J Thompson, Mark L Harlow
During the initial stages of innervation of developing skeletal muscles, the terminal branches of axons from multiple motor neurons form neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) on a small region of each muscle fiber, the motor endplate. Subsequently, the number of axonal inputs at the endplate region is reduced so that, at maturity, each muscle fiber is innervated by the terminals of a single motor neuron. The Schwann cells associated with the axon terminals are involved in the removal of these synapses but do not select the axon that is ultimately retained on each fiber...
November 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121441/influence-on-jitter-measurement-of-components-from-distant-fibers-in-potential-recorded-by-single-fiber-electrode
#15
EDITORIAL
Ewa Zalewska, Malgorzata Gawel
Single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG) is one of the most important diagnostic tools for evaluating neuromuscular transmission and jitter as well as fiber density.(1) When a motor axon is depolarized, the action potential travels distally and activates all the muscle fibers belonging to the same motor unit at more or less the same time. The variations in the time interval between firing of adjacent single muscle fibers from the same motor unit are called neuromuscular jitter and reflect abnormalities in the transmission time in axonal derivations and synapses...
November 9, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118959/congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-due-to-dok7-mutations-in-a-family-from-chile
#16
Jorge A Bevilacqua, Marian Lara, Jorge Díaz, Mario Campero, Jessica Vázquez, Ricardo A Maselli
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are neuromuscular transmission disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding neuromuscular junction proteins. A 61-year-old female and her older sister showed bilateral ptosis, facial and proximal limb weakness, and scoliosis since childhood. Another female sibling had milder signs, while other family members were asymptomatic. Facial nerve repetitive stimulation in the proband showed decrement of muscle responses. Single fiber EMG revealed increased jitter and blocking...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106741/development-and-characterization-of-a-handheld-hyperspectral-raman-imaging-probe-system-for-molecular-characterization-of-tissue-on-mesoscopic-scales
#17
Karl St-Arnaud, Kelly Aubertin, Mathias Strupler, Wendy-Julie Madore, Andrée-Anne Grosset, Kevin Petrecca, Dominique Trudel, Frédéric Leblond
PURPOSE: Raman spectroscopy is a promising cancer detection technique for surgical guidance applications. It can provide quantitative information relating to global tissue properties associated with structural, metabolic, immunological and genetic biochemical phenomena in terms of molecular species including amino acids, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid (DNA). To date in vivo Raman spectroscopy systems mostly included probes and biopsy needles typically limited to single-point tissue interrogation over a scale between 100 and 500 microns...
November 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104116/putative-roles-of-soluble-trophic-factors-in-facial-nerve-regeneration-target-reinnervation-and-recovery-of-vibrissal-whisking
#18
REVIEW
Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Maria Grosheva, Levent Sarikcioglu, Tessa Gordon, Doychin N Angelov
It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements. The second way is that, in contrast with the precise target-directed pathfinding by elongating motor nerves during embryonic development, several axons rather than a single axon grow out from each transected nerve fiber...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094077/quantitative-facial-electromyography-monitoring-after-hypoglossal-facial-jump-nerve-suture
#19
Jan Flasar, Gerd Fabian Volk, Thordis Granitzka, Katharina Geißler, Andrey Irintchev, Thomas Lehmann, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
Objectives/Hypothesis: The time course of the reinnervation of the paralyzed face after hypoglossal-facial jump nerve suture using electromyography (EMG) was assessed. The relation to the clinical outcome was analyzed. Study Design: Retrospective single-center cohort study. Methods: Reestablishment of motor units was studied by quantitative EMG and motor unit potential (MUP) analysis in 11 patients after hypoglossal-facial jump nerve suture...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090480/relationships-between-tissue-microstructure-and-the-diffusion-tensor-in-simulated-skeletal-muscle
#20
David B Berry, Benjamin Regner, Vitaly Galinsky, Samuel R Ward, Lawrence R Frank
PURPOSE: To establish a series of relationships defining how muscle microstructure and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are related. METHODS: The relationship among key microstructural features of skeletal muscle (fiber size, fibrosis, edema, and permeability) and the diffusion tensor were systematically simulated over physiologically relevant dimensions individually, and in combination, using a numerical simulation application. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify which microstructural features of muscle significantly predict the diffusion tensor using single-echo and multi-echo DTI pulse sequences...
October 31, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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