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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228723/presynaptic-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-trkb-receptor-cooperate-in-the-elimination-of-redundant-motor-nerve-terminals-during-development
#1
Laura Nadal, Neus Garcia, Erica Hurtado, Anna Simó, Marta Tomàs, Maria A Lanuza, Victor Cilleros, Josep Tomàs
The development of the nervous system involves the overproduction of synapses but connectivity is refined by Hebbian activity-dependent axonal competition. The newborn skeletal muscle fibers are polyinnervated but, at the end of the competition process, some days later, become innervated by a single axon. We used quantitative confocal imaging of the autofluorescent axons from transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice to investigate the possible cooperation of the muscarinic autoreceptors (mAChR, M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes) and the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor in the control of axonal elimination after the mice Levator auris longus (LAL) muscle had been exposed to several selective antagonist of the corresponding receptor pathways in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226641/detection-of-myasthenia-gravis-using-electrooculography-signals
#2
T Liang, M I Boulos, B J Murray, S Krishnan, H Katzberg, K Umapathy, T Liang, M I Boulos, B J Murray, S Krishnan, H Katzberg, K Umapathy, M I Boulos, K Umapathy, H Katzberg, S Krishnan, T Liang, B J Murray
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder resulting from skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. An early common symptom is fatigable weakness of the extrinsic ocular muscles; if symptoms remain confined to the ocular muscles after a few years, this is classified as ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG). Diagnosis of MG when there are mild, isolated ocular symptoms can be difficult, and currently available diagnostic techniques are insensitive, non-specific or technically cumbersome. In addition, there are no accurate biomarkers to follow severity of ocular dysfunction in MG over time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#3
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214291/segmental-distribution-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-within-single-muscle-fibers
#4
Ming Zhang, Maree Gould
Despite many studies looking at the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms across a transverse section of muscle, knowledge of MHC distribution along the longitudinal axis of a single skeletal muscle fiber has been relatively overlooked. Immunocytochemistry was performed on serial sections of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle to identify MHC types I, IIA, IIX, IIY and IIB. Sixteen fascicles which contained a total of 362 fibers were randomly and systematically sampled from the 3 EDL muscles...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209802/doublet-stimulation-increases-ca-2-binding-to-troponin-c-to-ensure-rapid-force-development-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
Anthony J Bakker, Tanya R Cully, Catherine D Wingate, Christopher J Barclay, Bradley S Launikonis
Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers are often exposed to motor neuron double discharges (≥200 Hz), which markedly increase both the rate of contraction and the magnitude of the resulting force responses. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood, likely because of technical limitations in previous studies. In this study, we measured cytosolic Ca(2+) during doublet activation using the low-affinity indicator Mag-Fluo-4 at high temporal resolution and modeled the effects of doublet stimulation on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, binding of Ca(2+) to cytosolic buffers, and force enhancement in fast-twitch fibers...
February 16, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199794/the-cellular-stress-response-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-following-lengthening-contractions
#6
Evan Pollock-Tahiri, Marius Locke
The cellular stress response (CSR) of the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was investigated following 20, 40 or 60 lengthening contractions (LCs) using an in-vivo model of electrical stimulation. Muscles were removed at 0, 1, 3, or 24 hours after LCs and assessed for HSF activation, HSP content and/or morphological evidence of muscle fibre damage. When compared to the first muscle contraction, peak muscle torque was reduced by 26% (p<0.05) after 20 LCs and further reduced to 56% and 60% (p<0.001) after 40 and 60 LCs, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#7
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185314/beta-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-expressed-in-acetylcholine-containing-nerve-fibers-of-the-human-urinary-bladder-an-immunohistochemical-study
#8
Ana Coelho, Tiago Antunes-Lopes, James Gillespie, Francisco Cruz
AIMS: To identify in the human bladder the structures which express the Beta-3 adrenoceptor (β3AR). METHODS: Human bladders from cadaveric organ donors (equally balanced in sex and age) were collected. Bladders were immediately fixed in paraformaldehyde and further processed for cryostat sectioning. Single and double immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against β3AR C-terminal, β3AR N-terminal, a pan-neuronal marker (β3-Tubulin) and markers of cholinergic (Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter), adrenergic (Tyrosine Hidroxylase), and peptidergic (Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide) nerve fibers...
February 10, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177529/a-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-projection-to-medial-rectus-motoneurons-supplying-singly-and-multiply-innervated-extraocular-muscle-fibers
#9
Martin O Bohlen, Susan Warren, Paul J May
We recently demonstrated a bilateral projection to the supraoculomotor area from the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF), a region implicated in horizontal gaze changes. C-group motoneurons, which supply multiply innervated fibers in the medial rectus muscle, are located within the primate supraoculomotor area, but their inputs and function are poorly understood. Here we tested whether C-group motoneurons in Macaca fascicularis monkeys receive a direct cMRF input by injecting this portion of the reticular formation with anterograde tracers in combination with injection of retrograde tracer into the medial rectus muscle...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100491/motor-control-by-precisely-timed-spike-patterns
#10
Kyle H Srivastava, Caroline M Holmes, Michiel Vellema, Andrea R Pack, Coen P H Elemans, Ilya Nemenman, Samuel J Sober
A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086790/rna-sequencing-for-global-gene-expression-associated-with-muscle-growth-in-a-single-male-modern-broiler-line-compared-to-a-foundational-barred-plymouth-rock-chicken-line
#11
Byung-Whi Kong, Nicholas Hudson, Dongwon Seo, Seok Lee, Bhuwan Khatri, Kentu Lassiter, Devin Cook, Alissa Piekarski, Sami Dridi, Nicholas Anthony, Walter Bottje
BACKGROUND: Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. METHODS: To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081371/gwas-identifies-new-loci-for-painful-temporomandibular-disorder
#12
A E Sanders, D Jain, T Sofer, K F Kerr, C C Laurie, J R Shaffer, M L Marazita, L M Kaste, G D Slade, R B Fillingim, R Ohrbach, W Maixner, T Kocher, O Bernhardt, A Teumer, C Schwahn, K Sipilä, R Lähdesmäki, M Männikkö, P Pesonen, M Järvelin, C M Rizzatti-Barbosa, C B Meloto, M Ribeiro-Dasilva, L Diatchenko, P Serrano, S B Smith
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a musculoskeletal condition characterized by pain and reduced function in the temporomandibular joint and/or associated masticatory musculature. Prevalence in the United States is 5% and twice as high among women as men. We conducted a discovery genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TMD in 10,153 participants (769 cases, 9,384 controls) of the US Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The most promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in meta-analysis of 4 independent cohorts...
March 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078066/use-it-or-lose-it-tonic-activity-of-slow-motoneurons-promotes-their-survival-and-preferentially-increases-slow-fiber-type-groupings-in-muscles-of-old-lifelong-recreational-sportsmen
#13
Simone Mosole, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri
: Histochemistry, immuno-histochemistry, gel electrophoresis of single muscle fibers and electromyography of aging muscles and nerves suggest that: i) denervation contributes to muscle atrophy, ii) impaired mobility accelerates the process, and iii) lifelong running protects against loss of motor units. Recent corroborating results on the muscle effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of aged muscles will be also mentioned, but we will in particular discuss how and why a lifelong increased physical activity sustains reinnervation of muscle fibers...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045071/magnetic-resonance-microscopy-mrm-of-single-mammalian-myofibers-and-myonuclei
#14
Choong H Lee, Niclas Bengtsson, Stephen M Chrzanowski, Jeremy J Flint, Glenn A Walter, Stephen J Blackband
Recently, the first magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) images at the cellular level in isolated mammalian brain tissues were obtained using microsurface coils. These methods can elucidate the cellular origins of MR signals and describe how these signals change over the course of disease progression and therapy. In this work, we explore the capability of these microimaging techniques to visualize mouse muscle fibers and their nuclei. Isolated myofibers expressing lacZ were imaged with and without a stain for β-galactosidase activity (S-Gal + ferric ammonium citrate) that produces both optical and MR contrast...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984439/skeletal-muscle-fatigability-and-myosin-heavy-chain-fiber-type-in-resistance-trained-men
#15
James R Bagley, Kathryn A McLeland, Jose A Arevalo, Lee E Brown, Jared W Coburn, Andrew J Galpin
Bagley, JR, McLeland, KA, Arevalo, JA, Brown, LE, Coburn, JW, and Galpin, AJ. Skeletal muscle fatigability and myosin heavy chain fiber type in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 602-607, 2017-Forty years ago, Thorstensson and Karlsson in 1976 described the link between muscle fatigability and fiber type, finding that more fast-twitch fibers were associated with a quicker onset of quadriceps fatigue. This provided the foundation for the Classic Thorstensson Test of fatigability and subsequent noninvasive fiber type prediction equation...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983992/single-injection-of-a-novel-nerve-growth-factor-coacervate-improves-structural-and-functional-regeneration-after-sciatic-nerve-injury-in-adult-rats
#16
Rui Li, Jiang Wu, Zhenkun Lin, Matthew R Nangle, Yi Li, Pingtao Cai, Dan Liu, Libin Ye, Zecong Xiao, Chaochao He, Jingjing Ye, Hongyu Zhang, Yingzheng Zhao, Jian Wang, Xiaokun Li, Yan He, Qingsong Ye, Jian Xiao
The prototypical neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), plays an important role in the development and maintenance of many neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, and can promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury in adulthood. However, repair of peripheral nerve defects is hampered by the short half-life of NGF in vivo, and treatment with either NGF alone or NGF contained in synthetic nerve conduits is inferior to the use of nerve autografts, the current gold standard. We tested the reparative ability of a single local injection of a polyvalent coacervate containing polycation-poly(ethylene argininylaspartate diglyceride; PEAD), heparin, and NGF, in adult rats following sciatic nerve crush injury, using molecular, histological and behavioral approaches...
February 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976642/solitary-rectal-ulcer-syndrome-a-single-center-case-series
#17
Abdulaziz I AlGhulayqah, Ehab H Abu-Farhaneh, Fahad I AlSohaibani, Majid A Almadi, Hadeel M AlMana
BACKGROUND/AIM: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign, chronic defecation disorder with varied presentations. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinical features, endoscopic findings, histological appearance, and treatment strategies associated with SRUS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with SRUS at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh from January 2003 to December 2013...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935068/single-fiber-emg-with-concentric-electrodes-in-lambert-eaton-myasthenia
#18
Yuzhou Guan, Qingyun Ding, Mingsheng Liu, Jingwen Niu, Liying Cui
INTRODUCTION: We analyzed jitter recordings made with concentric needle electrode single-fiber EMG (CNE-SFEMG) in Lambert-Eaton myasthenia (LEM). METHODS: Fifteen subjects diagnosed with LEM were studied using CNE-SFEMG in the extensor digitorum (ED) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. CNE-SFEMG in the ED and TA was also used to evaluate 12 and 10 healthy controls (HCs), respectively. RESULTS: Ten men and 5 women were diagnosed with LEM based on an increase of 100% in compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude during 50 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation...
December 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#19
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906110/failed-upregulation-of-tfam-protein-and-mitochondrial-dna-in-oxidatively-deficient-fibers-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-locomotor-muscle
#20
Yana Konokhova, Sally Spendiff, R Thomas Jagoe, Sudhakar Aare, Sophia Kapchinsky, Norah J MacMillan, Paul Rozakis, Martin Picard, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Charlotte H Pion, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
BACKGROUND: Low mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity are well-established features of locomotor muscle dysfunction, a prevalent and debilitating systemic occurrence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the exact cause is not firmly established, physical inactivity and oxidative stress are among the proposed underlying mechanisms. Here, we assess the impact of COPD pathophysiology on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, biogenesis, and cellular oxidative capacity in locomotor muscle of COPD patients and healthy controls...
February 18, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
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