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Avishag Tuval, Liora Las, Yael Shilo-Benjamini
Egyptian fruit bats are increasingly used as model animals in neuroscience research. Our aim was to characterize suitable injectable anaesthesia for this species, possibly replacing inhalant anaesthesia, thus minimizing occupational health hazards. Eight bats were randomly assigned by a crossover design for subcutaneously administered combinations of medetomidine-midazolam with: saline (MM-Sal), ketamine (MM-Ket), fentanyl (MM-Fen), morphine (MM-Mor), or butorphanol (MM-But). The anaesthetic depth and vital signs were monitored at baseline and every 10 min until bats recovered...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Yong-Deok Im, Kwang-Suk Park, Kuk-Hyun Song
This study was carried out to evaluate the development of microstructures and mechanical properties on friction welded dissimilar materials with a light weight. For this work, Al6063 and Duralumin alloys with a shape of rod were selected as experimental materials, and friction welding was performed under conditions with a rotation speed of 2,000 RPM, a friction load of 12 kgf/cm2 and an upset force of 25 kgf/cm2, respectively. After welding, the microstructural analysis such as the grain boundary characteristic distributions and the formation of intermetallic compounds was analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction method and transmission electron microscopy, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Xiaohui Chen, Ruting Xu, Yanting Xu, Hui Hu, Shouquan Pan, Hongkun Pan
Sawdust was expected to remove impurities in waste lubricant, and was modified with sodium hydroxide and triethanolamine, which can ameliorate its surface properties and improve its adsorption capacity. The increase of hydroxyl groups, the decrease of carbonyl groups and grafting new azyl after modification were beneficial for the adsorption of impurities. The surface area of modified sawdust is 0.969 m 2 g -1 , which is nearly 1.39 times as much as raw sawdust. The point of zero charge for modified sawdust decreased from 6...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Argang Kazemzadeh, Cynthia Elias, Melih Tamer, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari
The hydrodynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a single-use bioreactor were investigated in detail both experimentally and numerically. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and dynamic gas disengagement (DGD) combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were employed to assess the effect of the volumetric gas flow rate and impeller speed on the gas-liquid flow field, local and global gas holdup values, and Sauter mean bubble diameter. From the results obtained from DGD coupled with ERT, the bubble sizes were determined...
February 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jochen Kressler, Joshua Koeplin-Day, Benedikt Muendle, Brice Rosby, Elizabeth Santo, Antoinette Domingo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether consumer-level activity trackers can estimate wheelchair strokes and arm ergometer revolutions. Thirty able-bodied participants wore three consumer-level activity trackers (Garmin VivoFit, FitBit Flex, and Jawbone UP24) on the wrist. Participants propelled a wheelchair at fixed frequencies (30, 45 and 60 strokes per minute (spm)) three minutes each and at pre-determined varied frequencies, (30-80 spm) for two minutes. Participants also freely wheeled through an obstacle course...
2018: PloS One
Karlaina Jl Osmon, Meera Vyas, Evan Woodley, Patrick Thompson, Jagdeep S Walia
Behavioral testing is used in pre-clinical trials to assess the phenotypic effects and outcomes that a particular disease or treatment has on the animal's wellbeing and health. There are numerous behavioral tests that may be applied. We selected a test for general locomotion, the open field test (OFT); a test for muscular strength, the mesh test (MT); and a test for coordination, the rotarod test (RR). Testing can be accomplished on a weekly or monthly basis. As a test for general locomotion, the OFT works by objectively monitoring movement parameters while the mouse is in an open field apparatus...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yu Dai, Lu-Lin Wei, Ming Chen, Jing-Jing Wang, Jie Ren, Qiong Wang, Yan-Ze Wu, Ya-Ping Wang, Xiao-Nong Cheng, Xue-Hua Yan
Commercial WS2 powders were exfoliated in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution with a combination of ball-milling and sonication. WS2 nanosheets can be uniformly dispersed in the solution. The layers and thicknesses of WS2 nanosheets could be tailored via changing the ball-milling speed. The effects of the ball-milling speed on crystallinity and morphology of the samples were analyzed. The results show that the layer structure of WS2 nanosheets is destroyed and the crystallinity is decreased with increase of the ball-milling rate...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Joo Shun Tan, Sahar Abbasiliasi, Saeid Kadkhodaei, Yew Joon Tam, Teck-Kim Tang, Yee-Ying Lee, Arbakariya B Ariff
BACKGROUND: Demand for high-throughput bioprocessing has dramatically increased especially in the biopharmaceutical industry because the technologies are of vital importance to process optimization and media development. This can be efficiently boosted by using microtiter plate (MTP) cultivation setup embedded into an automated liquid-handling system. The objective of this study was to establish an automated microscale method for upstream and downstream bioprocessing of α-IFN2b production by recombinant Escherichia coli...
January 4, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Elena Stojanovska, Mustafa Kurtulus, Abdelrahman Abdelgawad, Zeki Candan, Ali Kilic
Lignin-based nanofibers were produced via centrifugal spinning from lignin-thermoplastic polyurethane polymer blends. The most suitable process parameters were chosen by optimization of the rotational speed, nozzle diameter and spinneret-to-collector distance using different blend ratios of the two polymers at different total polymer concentrations. The basic characteristics of polymer solutions were enlightened by their viscosity and surface tension. The morphology of the fibers produced was characterized by SEM, while their thermal properties by DSC and TG analysis...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Djordje Medarević, Jelena Djuriš, Svetlana Ibrić, Miodrag Mitrić, Kyriakos Kachrimanis
The aim of this study is to develop nanosuspension of carvedilol (CRV) by wet media milling. Concentration of polymeric stabilizer (hydroxypropyl cellulose-HPC-SL), milling speed and size of milling beads were identified as critical formulation and process parameters and their effect on CRV particle size after 60 min of milling was assessed using a Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimized nanosuspension was solidified using spray drying and freeze drying and subjected to solid state characterization. Low stabilizer concentration (10%), low milling speed (300 rpm) with small milling beads (0...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Andrey Ratushnyy, Maria Ezdakova, Danila Yakubets, Ludmila Buravkova
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are strongly involved in tissue homeostasis mainly through paracrine regulation. Here we examined the influence of simulated microgravity on the angiogenic potential of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs). The conditioned medium (CM) from RPM-exposed ASCs stimulated the formation of vessel network in ovo, endothelial cell (EC) capillary-like network ex ovo and non-directed EC migration in vitro. These effects were driven by alteration of both angiogenesis-related gene and protein expression...
February 12, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
J Rajesh Banu, S Sugitha, R Yukesh Kannah, S Kavitha, Ick Tae Yeom
The present study concerns the liquefying potential of an unusual source of lignocellulosic biomass (Marsilea spp., water clover, an aquatic fern) during combinative pretreatment. The focus was on how the pretreatment affects the biodegradability, methane production, and profitability of thermochemical dispersion disintegration (TCDD) based on liquefaction and soluble lignin. The TCDD process was effective at 12,000 rpm and 11 min under the optimized thermochemical conditions (80 °C and pH 11). The results from biodegradability tests imply that 30% liquefaction was sufficient to achieve enhanced biodegradability of about 0...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jiewei Tian, Xiufeng Long, Shuai Zhang, Qiumian Qin, Longzhan Gan, Yongqiang Tian
All locust epiphytic bacteria were screened and a total of 62 epiphytic bacteria were obtained from samples of Acrida cinerea. Via phylogenetic analysis, the 62 epiphytic bacteria were allocated to 27 genera, 18 families, 13 orders, six classes, and four phylums. Then, cyhalothrin degradation experiments were conducted, and the 10 strains that degraded more than 30% cyhalothrin and Paracoccus acridae SCU-M53 showed the highest cyhalothrin degradation rate of 70.5%. Furthermore, Paracoccus acridae SCU-M53 was selected for optimal cyhalothrin biodegradation conditions via the response surface method (Design-Expert)...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gizat M Kassie, Tuan A Nguyen, Lisa M Kalisch Ellett, Nicole L Pratt, Elizabeth E Roughead
BACKGROUND: Medicines are potentially modifiable risk factors for postoperative delirium. However, the extent to which preoperative medicines are included in risk prediction models (RPMs) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to assess the extent of inclusion of preoperative medications in RPMs for postoperative delirium. METHODS: Articles were systematically searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) where possible and keywords for postoperative delirium and prediction model...
February 8, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Matthew D Walker, Kevin M Bradley, Daniel R McGowan
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory motion can degrade PET image quality and lead to inaccurate quantification of lesion uptake. Such motion can be mitigated via respiratory gating. Our objective was to evaluate a data driven gating (DDG) technique that is being developed commercially for clinical PET/CT. METHODS: A data driven respiratory gating algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to phantom and FDG patient data. An anthropomorphic phantom and a NEMA IEC Body phantom were filled with 18F, placed on a respiratory motion platform, and imaged using a PET/CT scanner...
February 8, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
F Y Zhang, N Yang, Y F Rao, W H Du, H S Hao, X M Zhao, H B Zhu, Y Liu
Neonatal respiratory distress is a major mortality factor in cloned animals; however, the pathogenesis of this disease has rarely been investigated. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs regulate critical genes related to lung development, cell differentiation, surfactant synthesis, secretion and lung disease. This study aimed to examine differentially expressed miRNAs in collapsed lungs of cloned bovine neonates and normal lungs in order to identify key pathways and functions that might be related to the pathogenesis of neonatal respiratory distress...
February 8, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
M Dinesh Kumar, K Tamilarasan, S Kaliappan, J Rajesh Banu, M Rajkumar, Sang Hyoun Kim
The present study aimed to increase the disintegration potential of marine macroalgae, (Ulva reticulata) through chemo mechanical pretreatment (CMP) in an energy efficient manner. By combining surfactant with disperser, the specific energy input was considerably reduced from 437.1 kJ/kg TS to 264.9 kJ/kg TS to achieve 10.7% liquefaction. A disperser rpm (10,000), pretreatment time (30 min) and tween 80 dosage (21.6 mg/L) were considered as an optimum for effective liquefaction of algal biomass. CMP was designated as an appropriate pretreatment resulting in a higher soluble organic release 1250 mg/L, respectively...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Amit H Batghare, Neha Singh, Vijayanand S Moholkar
This work reports ultrasound-induced enhancement of astaxanthin production in batch fermentation using wild strain of P. rhodozyma MTCC 7536. The methodology adopted in this study comprises of statistical optimization of the medium and fermentation parameters, followed by application of sonication at optimized conditions. P. rhodozyma fermentation at conditions of 20 g/L glucose, pH 4.4, temperature 21 °C, 4% v/v inoculum, shaking at 205 rpm with nitrogen sources of (NH4)2SO4 and yeast extract yielded 6...
January 26, 2018: Bioresource Technology
R C Saxena, Jayashree Biswal, H J Pant, J S Samantray, S C Sharma, A K Gupta, S S Ray
Acidic crude oil transportation and processing in petroleum refining and petrochemical operations cause corrosion in the pipelines and associated components. Corrosion monitoring is invariably required to test and prove operational reliability. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique is a nuclear technique used for measurement of corrosion and erosion of materials. The technique involves irradiation of material with high energy ion beam from an accelerator and measurement of loss of radioactivity after the material is subjected to corrosive environment...
February 2, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Julia Harting, Peter Kleinebudde
Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for continuous API quantification during twin-screw wet granulation. Therefore, a Raman probe was implemented in front of the granulator barrel. This setup enabled the collection of Raman spectra upon a constant granule flow. To develop an in-line PLS calibration model, eight binary mixtures of the API and lactose monohydrate with API contents between 5-50% were pre-blended and granulated in a twin-screw granulator with a screw speed of 150 rpm and a powder feed rate of 40 g/min...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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