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Aasima Rafiq, Savita Sharma, Baljit Singh
The present study explores the possibility of using twin screw extruder for preparation of pregelatinized pasta. The effects of extrusion parameters feed moisture (28 and 32%), barrel temperature (60-105 °C) and screw speed (100-200 rpm) on pregelatinized pasta were investigated. Prepared pasta was analysed for quality characteristics in terms of cooking quality, degree of gelatinization, color, texture, pasting properties, bioactive composition. Results indicated that higher screw speed improved the cooking quality of pasta and decreased gruel solid loss...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Lyla A Youssef, Abdelhadi Rebbaa, Sergey Pampou, Stuart P Weisberg, Brent R Stockwell, Eldad A Hod, Steven L Spitalnik
Macrophages play important roles in recycling iron derived from the clearance of red blood cells (RBCs). They are also a critically important component of host defense, protecting against invading pathogens. However, the effects on macrophage biology of acutely ingesting large numbers of RBCs are not completely understood. To investigate this issue, we used a mouse model of RBC transfusion and clearance, which mimics the clinical setting. In this model, transfusions of refrigerator storage-damaged (i.e., "old") RBCs led to increased erythrophagocytosis by splenic red pulp macrophages (RPMs)...
April 17, 2018: Blood
Tanjira Sundum, Katalin Mészáros Szécsényi, Kaewta Kaewtatip
Thermoplastic starch (TPS) composites were prepared containing different amounts of unmodified (UFA) or modified fly ash (MFA) powder. The modification of the fly ash was carried out by dry grinding UFA in a planetary ball mill at various speeds and grinding times. The particle size of the fly ash was determined with a laser particle size analyzer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the particle size of the UFA decreased from 59.60 μm to 13.17 μm after grinding for 1 h at 400 rpm...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sonia Pandey, Vijayendra Swamy, Arti Gupta, Akshay Koli, Swagat Patel, Furqan Maulvi, Bhavin Vyas
Purpose To optimize the Eudragit/Surelease® coated pH-sensitive pellets for controlled and target drug delivery to the colon tissue and to avoid frequent high dosing and associated side effects which restrict its use in the colorectal-cancer therapy. Methods The pellets were prepared using extrusion-spheronization technique. Box-Behnken and 32 full factorial designs were applied to optimize the process parameters [extruder sieve size, spheronizer-speed and spheronizer-time] and the coating levels [%w/v of Eudragit S100/Eudragit-L100 and Surelease® ] respectively, to achieve the smooth optimized size pellets with sustained drug delivery without prior drug release in upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Divya Subramanyam, Deepa Gurunathan, R Gaayathri, V Vishnu Priya
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between lipid peroxidation and dental caries in children with ECC by estimating the levels of MDA in saliva of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children were selected; 75 children with ECC and 75 children without caries (non-ECC). Saliva samples were collected and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 24 min at 4°C to obtain a supernatant. MDA levels were estimated by Buege and Aust method by using thiobarbituric acid...
January 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
Shraboni Mukherjee, Sujata Dutta, Sourjya Ray, Gopinath Halder
The present study aims towards fluoride remediation from synthetic water using steam-activated carbon of Aegle marmelos (bael shell/wood apple) (BAC) and Parthenium hysterophorus (PHAC) according to batch sorption techniques. The impact of different parametric conditions viz. initial fluoride concentration (4-12 mg/L), time (0-5 h), temperature (293.15-333.15 K), adsorbent dosage (4-14 g/L), pH (4-9), and RPM (150-350) were considered for both the adsorbents. Maximum defluoridation of 89% was achieved by BAC at a concentration of 10 mg/L, adsorbent dose 6 g/L, pH 5, temperature 313...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Agnieszka Sobianowska-Turek
The utilization of the stream of waste secondary nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells, representing annually about 33% of all consumer batteries and accumulators placed on the Polish market, will soon become a big challenge for both legislators and plants dealing with the recycling of this type of hazardous waste. It is due to the fact that no company in Poland operating on the market has a complete technology for the processing of a full stream of waste chemical energy sources produced in this country...
April 11, 2018: Waste Management
Claudiox Claudio Silva-Vergara, Joan Fontdevila, Omar Weshahy
BACKGROUND: The tuberous breast syndrome is a condition that affects young women and can bring on serious disorders of self-esteem. There are numerous surgical techniques to correct this condition, but most of them include the use of breast implants to replace lack of volume. Nowadays, patients are increasingly becoming more demanding to get a definitive solution with minimal aesthetic sequelae. METHODS: We present a series of 11 patients with tuberous breast deformities treated with lipofilling technique...
January 2018: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
Tushar Verma, Xinyao Wei, Soon Kiat Lau, Andreia Bianchini, Kent M Eskridge, Jayne Stratton, Nathan M Anderson, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Jeyamkondan Subbiah
An increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks and recalls due to Salmonella in low-moisture foods has resulted in the need for the development and validation of process controls to ensure their microbiological safety. Furthermore, the Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food final rule requires food processors to validate their process controls to ensure food safety. The objective of this study was to develop a response surface model to predict Salmonella inactivation in oat flour, as affected by moisture, fat content, screw speed, and temperature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Aránzazu Manzano, Raúl Herranz, Leonardus A den Toom, Sjoerd Te Slaa, Guus Borst, Martijn Visser, F Javier Medina, Jack J W A van Loon
Clinostats and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) are used to simulate microgravity, but, for space exploration, we need to know the response of living systems to fractional levels of gravity (partial gravity) as they exist on Moon and Mars. We have developed and compared two different paradigms to simulate partial gravity using the RPM, one by implementing a centrifuge on the RPM (RPMHW ), the other by applying specific software protocols to driving the RPM motors (RPMSW ). The effects of the simulated partial gravity were tested in plant root meristematic cells, a system with known response to real and simulated microgravity...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Grzegorz Kłosowski, Dawid Mikulski, Oliwia Jankowiak
One of the key steps in the production of phytases of microbial origin is selection of culture parameters, followed by isolation of the enzyme and evaluation of its catalytic activity. It was found that conditions for S. cerevisiae yeast culture, strain Finarome, giving the reduction in phytic acid concentration of more than 98% within 24 h of incubation were as follows: pH 5.5, 32 °C, continuous stirring at 80 rpm, the use of mannose as a carbon source and aspartic acid as a source of nitrogen. The highest catalytic activity of the isolated phytase was observed at 37 °C, pH 4...
April 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guan-Wen Chen, Yu-Hsin Lin, Chia-Hua Lin, Hsiao-Chin Jen
This study utilized pomelo steam distillation to isolate pomelo peel essential oil. The constituents were then analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil emulsions at different homogenizer speed conditions and concentrations of water-soluble chitosan (degree of acetylation, DA = 54.8%) against S. aureus and E. coli was examined. Analysis of the essential oil composition identified a total of 33 compounds with the main constituent, limonene accounting for 87...
April 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ivana Lukášová, Jan Muselík, Aleš Franc
Warfarin is intensively discussed drug with narrow therapeutic index. In the past, its generic substitution was identified as a cause of bleeding. Altered quality of the active substance or varying drug content was discussed. The substance quality can be evaluated with adequate dissolution method. An official dissolution method with aqueous medium exists, however this method is non-discriminatory. In the first 15 minutes the whole amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient is released from a tested dosage form, which does not allow comparison between tablets from different producers and it also makes difficult to track the changes throughout stability testing...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
M Schulze, R Bortfeldt, J Schäfer, M Jung, F Fuchs-Kittowski
The shipping of semen doses to sow farms can impair boar semen quality. Unfortunately, there is currently no practice-oriented information available regarding general shipping conditions of boar semen. For this reason, a special mobile sensing app (TransportLog 1.0), utilizing the built-in sensors of smartphones, has been programmed to capture vibration emissions during shipping of semen doses (QuickTip Flexitubes®, Minitüb). Data were analyzed, transformed and used as standards for simulating vibration emissions from an orbital shaker IKA MTS 4 (Laborgeräte München) in a spermatological reference laboratory...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Poonam Singha, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan
Response surface methodology was used to investigate the single screw extrusion of apple pomace-defatted soy flour-corn grits blends and the product properties. Five different blends at a level of 0-20% w/w apple pomace were extrusion cooked with varied barrel and die temperature (100-140℃), screw speed (100-200 rpm), and feed moisture content (14-20% wet basis). Increasing apple pomace content in the blends significantly ( P < 0.05) increased the bulk density, the total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of the extrudates...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Prerna Joshi, Toshihiko Okada, Keiko Miyabayashi, Mikio Miyake
Organically (octyl amine, OA) surface modified electrocatalyst (OA-Pt/CB) was studied for its oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity via DC methods and its charge and mass transfer properties were studied via Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Comparison with a commercial catalyst (TEC10V30E) with similar Pt content was also carried out. In EIS, both the catalysts showed a single time-constant with an emerging high frequency semi-circle of very small diameter which was fitted using suitable equivalent circuits...
April 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
J Kosel, L Vižintin, A Majer, B Bohanec
Freshly released pollen of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) was incubated under various culture conditions until germination was achieved. Optimal conditions for germination were determined and used for maturation of unicellular microspores in vitro. Staining with 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, propidium iodide and iodine potassium iodide was used to assess pollen viability, nuclear phase and maturation, respectively. The germination rate was highest when fresh pollen was agitated at 40 rpm in Petri dishes containing a liquid medium consisting of Brewbaker and Kwack salts, 15% (w/v) sucrose, 500 mg/l MES sodium salt, at pH 5...
April 3, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
S L Stella, D A Velasco-Acosta, C Skenandore, Z Zhou, A Steelman, D Luchini, F C Cardoso
During the transition from prepartum to early lactation, dairy cows often experience negative energy balance (NEB) that may result in reproductive stress and decreased fertility. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma amino acid concentrations, uterine cytology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD), and to confirm neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 20) were randomly assigned to two treatments starting at 21 d before calving until 73 days in milk (DIM)...
March 26, 2018: Theriogenology
Matthew Hopgood, Gavin Reynolds, Richard Barker
We use computational fluid dynamics to compare the shear rate and turbulence in an advanced in vitro gastric model (TIMagc) during its simulation of fasted state Migrating Motor Complex phases I and II, with the United States Pharmacopeia Paddle Dissolution Apparatus II (USPII). A specific focus is placed on how shear rate in these apparatus effects erosion-based solid oral dosage forms. The study finds that tablet surface shear rates in TIMagc are strongly time-dependant and fluctuate between 0.001 and 360 s-1 ...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rayta Paim Horta, Bianca do Amaral, Patricio Guillermo Peralta-Zamora, Bruno José Gonçalves Silva
This study involved the development, validation and application of a three-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drugs omeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole in human plasma. The evaluation of the HF-LPME parameters was crucial for the determination of the drugs and the conditions selected were: 1-octanol as solvent; phosphate buffer at pH 5 as donor phase; borate buffer at pH 10 as acceptor phase; extraction time of 15 min; stirring at 750 rpm and NaCl was added at 5% (w/v)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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