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Morahem Ashengroph
The present study has been conducted towards isolation of moderately halophilic bacteria capable of transforming caffeine into theobromine. A total of 45 caffeine-degrading moderate halophiles were enriched from hypersaline lakes and examined for the biotransformation of caffeine to theobromine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Strain GL6, giving the highest yield of theobromine, was isolated from the Hoz Soltan Lake, 20 % w/v salinity, central Iran, and identified as Salinivibrio costicola based on morphological and biochemical features as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank Accession No...
October 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Taeyeon Kim, Sukhyeong Cho, Sun-Mi Lee, Han Min Woo, Jinwon Lee, Youngsoon Um, Jin-Ho Seo
Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions...
2016: PloS One
Thazin Thin, Lin Myat, Gi-Hyung Ryu
The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Athanasios Ch Mitropoulos, Evangelos P Favvas, Konstantinos L Stefanopoulos, Etienne F Vansant
Everett's theorem-6 of the domain theory was examined by conducting adsorption in situ with small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) supplemented by the contrast matching technique. The study focuses on the spectrum differences of a point to which the system arrives from different scanning paths. It is noted that according to this theorem at a common point the system has similar macroscopic properties. Furthermore it was examined the memory string of the system. We concluded that opposite to theorem-6: a) at a common point the system can reach in a finite (not an infinite) number of ways, b) a correction for the thickness of the adsorbed film prior to capillary condensation is necessary, and c) the scattering curves although at high-Q values coincide, at low-Q values are different indicating different microscopic states...
2016: PloS One
Dámaris Núñez-Gómez, Alcione Aparecida de Almeida Alves, Flavio Rubens Lapolli, María A Lobo-Recio
Mine-impacted water (MIW) is one of the most serious mining problems and has a high negative impact on water resources and aquatic life. The main characteristics of MIW are a low pH (between 2 and 4) and high concentrations of SO4(2-) and metal ions (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Al, Cr, Mn, Mg, etc.), many of which are toxic to ecosystems and human life. Shrimp shell was selected as a MIW treatment agent because it is a low-cost metal-sorbent biopolymer with a high chitin content and contains calcium carbonate, an acid-neutralizing agent...
October 9, 2016: Chemosphere
Hamed Moradkhani, Mir-Shahabeddin Izadkhah, Navideh Anarjan
In this work, gas dispersion in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor is analyzed by calculating volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient which is modeled using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD), code FLUENT 6.2. Dispersed oxygen bubbles dynamics is based on standard "k-ε" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. This paper describes a three-dimensional CFD model coupled with population balance equations (PBE) in order to get more confirming results of experimental measurements. Values of k L a are obtained using dynamic gassing-out method...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Carlo R Bartoli, Jooeun Kang, David Zhang, Jessica Howard, Michael Acker, Pavan Atluri, Tadashi Motomura
BACKGROUND: Supraphysiologic shear stress from continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) accelerates von Willebrand factor (vWF) degradation and predisposes patients to nonsurgical bleeding. It is unknown whether unique design characteristics of LVADs differentially affect vWF degradation. We tested the hypothesis that the centrifugal-flow EVAHEART (Evaheart, Houston, TX) left ventricular assist system (LVAS), which was designed to minimize shear stress (low operational revolutions per minute [rpm], larger flow gaps, low shear stress, flat H-Q curve), reduced vWF degradation versus the axial-flow HeartMate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) LVAD...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Golla Ramanjaneyulu, Bontha Rajasekhar Reddy
Xylanses are hydrolytic enzymes with wide applications in several industries like biofuels, paper and pulp, deinking, food, and feed. The present study was aimed at hitting at high yield xylanase producing fungi from natural resources. Two highest xylanase producing fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were picked from collection of 450 fungal cultures for the utilization of xylan. These fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were identified basing on ITS gene sequencing analysis as Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 (KT119615) and Fusarium strain BRR R6 (KT119619), respectively with construction of phylogenetic trees...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Arijit Das, Sourav Bhattacharya, Srividya Shivakumar, Sujina Shakya, Swathi Shankar Sogane
Filamentous fungi are efficient producers of lipases. The present study focuses on identification of a potent lipolytic fungus and enhancement of lipase production through optimization of nutritional and cultural conditions under submerged fermentation. Molecular characterization of the fungus by 18S rDNA sequencing revealed its identity as Aspergillus tamarii with 98% homology. Maximum lipase production was noted in mineral salts medium supplemented with coconut oil (2.5%, v/v). A combination of ammonium chloride (2%, w/v) and tryptone (2%, w/v) facilitated maximum lipase production at pH 5 of the production medium...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Lei Yan, Peng Chen, Shuang Zhang, Suyue Li, Xiaojuan Yan, Ningbo Wang, Ning Liang, Hongyu Li
We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ahmed M Abdel-Azeem, Sherif M Zaki, Waleed F Khalil, Noha A Makhlouf, Lamiaa M Farghaly
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-rheumatoid activity of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic mycobiota in Egypt. A total of 27 endophytic fungi were isolated from 10 dominant medicinal plant host species in Wadi Tala, Saint Katherine Protectorate, arid Sinai, Egypt. Of those taxa, seven isolates of Chaetomium globosum (CG1-CG7), being the most frequent taxon, were recovered from seven different host plants and screened for production of active anti-inflammatory metabolites. Isolates were cultivated on half - strength potato dextrose broth for 21 days at 28°C on a rotatory shaker at 180 rpm, and extracted in ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yingjie Li, Qingnan Liu, Wenfeng Li, Yingzhou Lu, Hong Meng, Chunxi Li
Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) is a good alternative to traditional incineration for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the key is to find an efficient co-milling reagent. Toward this aim, HCB was milled with various reagents in a planetary ball mill at room temperature, and CaC2 was found to be the best one. HCB can be destroyed completely within 20 min at a mass ratio of CaC2/HCB = 0.9 and a rotation speed of 300 rpm. The ground samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 2017: Chemosphere
P-M Leprêtre, M Ghannem, S Delanaud, T Porcher, A Barnabé, L Gaillard, N Jaunet, T Weissland
: Exercise prescription was generally based on the determination of ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Changes in surface electromyographic activity (EMGth1, EMGth2) were also related to VT1 and VT2 in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: To observe the occurrence of EMGth1 and EMGth2 and whether these events accompany VT1 and VT2 during CPX in cardiac patients (CP). METHOD: Thirty-four CP (62.1±7.3years, 172...
September 30, 2016: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Manoranjan Paul, Rui Xiao, Junbin Gao, Terry Bossomaier
A Hyperspectral (HS) image provides observational powers beyond human vision capability but represents more than 100 times the data compared to a traditional image. To transmit and store the huge volume of an HS image, we argue that a fundamental shift is required from the existing "original pixel intensity"-based coding approaches using traditional image coders (e.g., JPEG2000) to the "residual"-based approaches using a video coder for better compression performance. A modified video coder is required to exploit spatial-spectral redundancy using pixel-level reflectance modelling due to the different characteristics of HS images in their spectral and shape domain of panchromatic imagery compared to traditional videos...
2016: PloS One
Rahimah Othman, Goran T Vladisavljevic, Zoltan K Nagy, Richard Graham Holdich
Rapamycin loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles (RAPA-PCL NPs) with a low polydispersity index of 0.006-0.073 were produced by anti-solvent precipitation using a ringed stainless steel membrane with 10-μm diameter laser-drilled pores. The organic phase composed of 6 g L(-1) of PCL and 0.6-3.0 g L(-1) of RAPA in acetone was injected through the membrane at 140 L m(-2) h(-1) into 0.2 wt% aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution stirred at 1300 rpm, resulting in a Z-average mean of 189-218 nm, a drug encapsulation efficiency of 98...
September 30, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Francielo Vendruscolo, Willibaldo Schmidell, Débora de Oliveira, Jorge Luiz Ninow
Pigments produced by species of Monascus have been used to coloring rice, meat, sauces, wines and beers in East Asian countries. Monascus can produce orange (precursor), yellow and red pigments. Orange pigments have low solubility in culture media and when react with amino groups they become red and largely soluble. The orange pigments are an alternative to industrial pigment production because the low solubility facilitates the downstream operations. The aim of this work was to study the kinetic on the production of orange pigments by Monascus ruber CCT 3802...
September 29, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jianbing Yi, Hao Yang, Xuan Yang, Guoliang Chen
We propose a deformable registration approach to estimate patient-specific lung motion during free breathing for four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) based on point matching and tracking between images in different phases. First, a robust point matching (RPM) algorithm coarsely aligns the source phase image onto all other target phase images of 4D CT. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is introduced into the cost function in order to accelerate and stabilize the convergence of the point matching...
September 20, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jun Chen, Siyang Gu, Honghong Hao, Jianmeng Chen
A novel heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium, Alcaligenes sp. TB (GenBank accession no. JQ044686), was isolated from a rotating drum biofilter for NO removal. Its characteristics and metabolic pathway for NO removal were comprehensively investigated. Experimental results showed that the nitrification and denitrification efficiency reached 99.42 and 96.44 %, respectively, after 44 h under the conditions of pH 7.2, 30 °C, and 120 rpm. The tests with the addition of Pb(2+) and Na2WO4 as the reductase inhibitor revealed that nitrite was the key intermediate to produce the nitrogen gas as the final product in the simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and denitrification by strain TB...
September 27, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Carter S Haines, Na Li, Geoffrey M Spinks, Ali E Aliev, Jiangtao Di, Ray H Baughman
Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm...
September 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrée Dionne, Mario Leone, David E Andrich, Louis Pérusse, Alain Steve Comtois
We aimed to determine the effect of aquatic cycling and different levels of immersion on respiratory responses in healthy and heart disease (HD) volunteers. Thirty-four age matched volunteers, 21 HD and 13 healthy controls (HC) took part in this study. The ventilatory pattern, phase 1VE and steady-state ventilatory responses to progressive exercise from 40 to peak rpm, were measured while participants exercised on a water stationary bike (WSB) at different levels of immersion. No effect of immersion was observed on steady-state respiratory responses in the HD group, but immersion reduced VE phase 1 by ∼79% at pedaling cadences of 40, 50 and 60rpm...
September 23, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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