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Jens Hauslage, Volkan Cevik, Ruth Hemmersbach
Ground-based facilities, such as clinostats and random positioning machines aiming at simulating microgravity conditions, are tools to prepare space experiments and identify gravity-related signaling pathways. A prerequisite is that the facilities are operated in an appropriate manner and potentially induced non-gravitational effects, such as shearing forces, have to be taken into account. Dinoflagellates, here P. noctiluca, as fast and sensitive reporter system for shear stress and hydrodynamic gradients, were exposed on a clinostat (constant rotation around one axis, 60 rpm) or in a random positioning machine, that means rotating around two axes, whose velocity and direction were chosen at random...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo, Casimiro Javierre, Robert Hristovski, Josep L Ventura, Natàlia Balagué
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Cristian Alarid-García, Eleazar Maximo Escamilla-Silva
Four strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus niger CDBB-H-176, A. niger CDBB-H-175, A. niger ATCC 9642, and Aspergillus terreus CDBB-H-194) were used to produce extracellular β-glucosidase. Using an orthogonal experimental design (L9), we optimized the parameters of culture medium to maximize the activity of β-glucosidase. The optimal conditions (same for the four strains) were as follows: temperature, 30°C; pH, 6.0; orbital agitation, 200 rpm; concentration of sucrose, 0.5% (w/v). The most productive strain was A...
March 2, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Isadora Lopes Alves, David Vállez Vállez García, Andrea Parente, Janine Doorduin, Ana Maria Marques da Silva, Michel Koole, Rudi Dierckx, Antoon Willemsen, Ronald Boellaard
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the performance of several parametric methods for assessing [(11)C]flumazenil binding distribution in the rat brain. PROCEDURES: Dynamic (60 min) positron emission tomography data with metabolite-corrected plasma input function were retrospectively analyzed (male Wistar rats, n = 10). Distribution volume (V T) images were generated from basis function method (BFM), Logan graphical analysis (Logan), and spectral analysis (SA). Using the pons as pseudo-reference tissue, binding potential (BP ND and DVR-1) images were obtained from receptor parametric imaging algorithms (RPM and SRTM2) and reference Logan (RLogan)...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Yuwu Liu, Jiming Zhu, Dianming Jiang
Bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (BHA/PAA) is a potential bone repair material. Rifapentine-loaded poly(lactic‑co‑glycolic acid) microspheres (RPMs) are bioactive and efficient controlled‑release delivery systems used in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo drug release characteristics of RPM‑loaded BHA/PAA on a rabbit model of bone defect. RPM was combined with BHA/PAA to obtain the drug‑loaded, slow‑releasing bioactive material. Bone defects were generated in New Zealand white rabbits and the rabbits were then implanted with RPM‑loaded BHA/PAA...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ryoki Sasaki, Masaki Nakagawa, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Somatosensory input induced by passive movement activates primary motor cortex (M1). We applied repetitive passive movement (RPM) of different frequencies to test if modulation of M1 excitability depends on RPM frequency. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in this study. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to left M1 were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) to assess corticospinal excitability (experiment 1: n=15), and F-waves were measured from the right FDI as an index of spinal motoneuron excitability (experiment 2: n=15)...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
Jun Lv, Bo-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Dong Liu, Chan Zhang, Lei Chen, Gan-Rong Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Natural yellow pigments produced by submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus have potential economic value and application in the food industry. In the present study, the relationships among fermentation conditions (in terms of pH and shaking/agitation speed), mycelial morphology and the production of Monascus yellow pigments were investigated in both shake-flask and scale-up bioreactor experiments. In the shake-flask fermentation, the highest yield of the Monascus yellow pigments was obtained at pH 5.0 and a shaking speed of 180 rpm...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Valeria Friuli, Lauretta Maggi, Giovanna Bruni, Giorgio Musitelli, Ubaldo Conte
The purpose of this investigation is to determine how the dissolution media may influence the release rate of an insoluble drug in in-vitro conditions. Some oral dosage forms containing Ibuprofen, a molecule that shows pH-dependent solubility, are tested. They are evaluated in different media to simulate the gastrointestinal transit at paddle rotation speeds of 50 and 100 rpm. Moreover, the potential effect of different ethanol concentrations on drug release is tested. The dissolution profiles of the tablets show a similar behavior in water, pH 1...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Roberto Contreras-Bustos, E Manríquez-Reza, Jaime Jiménez-Becerril, Melania Jiménez-Reyes, Bibiana Cercado-Quezada
The conditions for the synthesis of a material with MnO2 (OMD) on activated carbon (AC) were studied. These conditions were: reaction time, temperature, stirring speed, concentrations of AC, H2SO4, and O3 in solution, and particle size. Agglomerates on AC were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microanalysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and revealed the presence of OMD deposited on the surface. The activation energy and the factor of frequency for the reaction were determined as Ea = 1...
June 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Zhenhong Gao, Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Jing Zhu, Zhiwei Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jinxin Che, Xiaoguang Xu, Junling Shi
Phomopsis sp. XP-8 (an endophytic fungus) was previously found to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG), a major antihypertensive compound of Tu-Chung (the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.), which is widely used in Chinese traditional medicines. In the present study, two bioconversion systems were developed for the production of PDG in Tris-HCl buffer containing glucose and Phomopsis sp. XP-8 cells (both resting and freeze-dried). When other factors remained unchanged, the bioconversion time, glucose concentration, cell ages, cell dosage, pH, temperature, and stirring speed influenced PDG production in a similar and decreasing manner after an initial increase with increasing levels for each factor...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Atsushi Kambayashi, Jennifer B Dressman
The aim of the current research was to determine the precipitation kinetics of dantrolene sodium using canine biorelevant in vitro testing and to model the precipitation kinetics by appropriately coupling the data with an in silico tool adapted for dogs. The precipitation profiles of dantrolene sodium solutions were obtained with the in vitro paddle apparatus at a revolution rate of 50 rpm. The in silico prediction tool was designed using STELLA software and the predicted plasma concentration profiles of dantrolene using the in vitro precipitation data were compared with the observed in vivo pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Sravya Kallu, Ryan J Kowalski, Girish M Ganjyal
Objective of this study was to understand the impacts of cellulose fiber with different particle size distributions, and starches with different molecular weights, on the expansion of direct expanded products. Fiber with 3 different particle size distributions (<125, 150 to 250, 300 to 425 μm) and 4 types of starches representing different amylose contents (0%, 23%, 50%, and 70%) were investigated. Feed moisture content (18 ± 0.5 % w.b) and extruder temperature (140 °C) were kept constant and only the extruder screw speed was varied (100, 175, and 250 rpm) to achieve different specific mechanical energy inputs...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
I Timmermans, M Meine, E Zitron, J Widdershoven, G Kimman, S Prevot, T Rauwolf, F Anselme, I Szendey, J Romero Roldán, P Mabo, B Schaer, J Denollet, H Versteeg
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that remote monitoring (RPM) of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is at least comparable to in-clinic follow-up with regard to clinical outcomes and might be cost-effective, yet RPM is not standard clinical practice within Europe. Better insight into the patient perspective on RPM may aid in its acceptance, implementation and reimbursement. This narrative review 1) summarizes existing evidence on the impact of RPM on patient reported outcomes and 2) discusses future directions in examining the patient perspective...
June 14, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Ahmed A Ismaiel, Ashraf S Ahmed, Ismail A Hassan, El-Sayed R El-Sayed, Al-Zahraa A Karam El-Din
Among 60 fungal endophytes isolated from twigs, bark, and mature leaves of different plant species, two fungal isolates named TXD105 and TER995 were capable of producing paclitaxel in amounts of up to 84.41 and 37.92 μg L(-1), respectively. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristic analysis, the two respective isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria tenuissima. In the effort to increase paclitaxel magnitude by the two fungal strains, several fermentation conditions including selection of the proper fermentation medium, agitation rate, incubation temperature, fermentation period, medium pH, medium volume, and inoculum nature (size and age of inoculum) were tried...
June 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Amelia Torcello-Gómez, Timothy J Foster
The development of emulsion-based products through optimisation of ingredients, reduction in energy-input during manufacture, while fulfilling healthy attributes, are major objectives within the food industry. Instant emulsions can meet these features, but comprehensive studies are necessary to investigate the effect of the initial formulation on the final microstructure and, in turn, on the in vitro lipolysis, comprising the double aim of this work. The instant emulsion is formed within 1.5-3 min after pouring the aqueous phase into the oil phase which contains a mixture of emulsifier (Tween 20), swelling particles (Sephadex) and thickeners (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC, and guar gum, GG) under mild shearing (180 rpm)...
June 13, 2017: Food & Function
Tamene Milkessa Jiru, Marizeth Groenewald, Carolina Pohl, Laurinda Steyn, Nicholas Kiggundu, Dawit Abate
Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89, an oleaginous yeast, isolated from Ethiopian soil, was grown under nitrogen-limited media. The capacity this with respect to biomass production, lipid yield and lipid content was evaluated. The influence of inoculum size, carbon sources, variations in glucose concentration, nitrogen sources, C/N ratio, pH, temperature, agitation, and aeration rate and incubation period were investigated. Inoculum size of 10% v/v, glucose as a carbon source at 50 g/L glucose, 0...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Rwivoo Baruah, Barsha Deka, Niharika Kashyap, Arun Goyal
Weissella cibaria RBA12 produced a maximum of 9 mg/ml dextran (with 90% efficiency) using shake flask culture under the optimized concentration of medium components viz. 2% (w/v) of each sucrose, yeast extract, and K2HPO4 after incubation at optimized conditions of 20 °C and 180 rpm for 24 h. The optimized medium and conditions were used for scale-up of dextran production from Weissella cibaria RBA12 in 2.5-l working volume under batch fermentation in a bioreactor that yielded a maximum of 9.3 mg/ml dextran (with 93% efficiency) at 14 h...
June 1, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Dongwon Yun, Jeong-Hoi Koo
This paper presents a novel Magneto-rheological (MR) brake system that can self-regulate the output braking torques. The proposed MR brake can generate a braking torque at a critical rotation speed without an external power source, sensors, or controllers, making it a simple and cost-effective device. The brake system consists of a rotary disk, permanent magnets, springs, and MR fluid. The permanent magnets are attached to the rotary disk via the springs, and they move outward through grooves with two different gap distances along the radial direction of the stator due to the centrifugal force...
May 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Mansour Nazari, Tahereh Mehrabi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
INTRODUCTION: House flies (Musca domestica) have been known as a mechanical vector in spreading infectious diseases such as cholera, shigellosis, salmonellosis and skin infections. AIM: To investigate the bacterial contaminations of house flies and determine the resistance of these bacteria against various antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An analytical descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted. The study was performed from July to September 2015 in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Alireza Nomani, Hamed Nosrati, Hamidreza Kheiri Manjili, Leila Khesalpour, Hossein Danafar
Biodegradable copolymeric polymersomes have been used for controlled drug delivery of proteins. These polymersomes important areas to overcome formulation associated problems of the proteins. The aim of this study was to develop polymersomes using biodegradable copolymers for delivery of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. Encapsulated BSA by mPEG-PCL polymersomes led to formation of BSA-loaded mPEG-PCL polymersomes. The polymersomes synthesized with the protein-polymer ratio of 1:4 at 15 000 rpm gave maximum loading, minimum polydispersion with maximally sustained protein release pattern, among the prepared polymersomes...
May 30, 2017: Drug Research
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