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bk polyoma

Ashraf Kariminik
It has been demonstrated that IL-2 plays a dual role in induction/suppression of immune responses via activation of conventional and regulatory T lymphocytes, respectively. IL-2 contacts complete IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) which contains CD25 (α chain) on the antigen specific activated T helper and cytotoxic lymphocytes and also T regulatory cells. Additionally, previous investigations revealed that polyoma BK virus (PBK) reactivation and induction of PBK associated nephropathy (PBKAN) is a main complication following renal transplantation...
October 5, 2016: Cytokine
S Kuppachi, D Holanda, M Eberlein, B Alexiev, A J Tyler, M C Wissel, S B Kleiboeker, C P Thomas
We report a lung transplant recipient who developed BK polyoma virus (BKPyV) DNAemia and BKPyV nephropathy. With careful management of his immunosuppression he achieved significant reduction in BKPyV DNAemia and stabilization of his kidney function. He later developed a high-grade bladder cancer and shortly thereafter he experienced a major upsurge in the level of BKPyV DNAemia that coincided with the discovery of hepatic metastasis. Retrospectively, the bladder cancer and the hepatic secondary tumor stained uniformly for SV40 large T antigen, and the BKPyV DNA sequences identified in plasma corresponded to BKPyV DNA within hepatic tissue, indicating that the spike in BKPyV load was likely derived from the circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA following metastases of a BKV-associated cancer...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Peter Boan, Christopher Hewison, Ramyasuda Swaminathan, Ashley Irish, Kevin Warr, Rajalingam Sinniah, Todd M Pryce, James Flexman
BACKGROUND: BK virus is a polyoma virus causing renal allograft nephropathy. Reduction of immunosuppression with the early recognition of significant BK viral loads in urine and plasma can effectively prevent BKV associated nephropathy (BKVN), however the optimal compartment and frequency of BK viral load measurement post renal transplantation are undetermined. Our purpose was to examine time to detection and viral loads in urine compared to plasma, and establish viral load cut-offs associated with histological BKVN...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Armine Darbinyan, Eugene O Major, Susan Morgello, Steven Holland, Caroline Ryschkewitsch, Maria Chiara Monaco, Thomas P Naidich, Joshua Bederson, Joanna Malaczynska, Fei Ye, Ronald Gordon, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Mary Fowkes, Nadejda M Tsankova
Human BK polyomavirus (BKV) is reactivated under conditions of immunosuppression leading most commonly to nephropathy or cystitis; its tropism for the brain is rare and poorly understood. We present a unique case of BKV-associated encephalopathy in a man with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency (HED-ID) due to IKK-gamma (NEMO) mutation, who developed progressive neurological symptoms. Brain biopsy demonstrated polyomavirus infection of gray and white matter, with predominant involvement of cortex and distinct neuronal tropism, in addition to limited demyelination and oligodendroglial inclusions...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
M El Ansary, S Abd Elhamid, G Saadi, W Ismail, N Ibrahim, N Bahaa El-Din, S Alhsyek
BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN) mainly caused by BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) remains the most common productive viral infection of the kidney in immunosuppressed patients. The diagnosis of PVN is based on the detection of BK viruria and BK viremia in conjunction with histological findings in the graft biopsy. METHODS: Our study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of productive BKPyV infection among renal transplant patients within the first year post-transplant and identify those at risk of developing PVN...
August 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Turgay Ebiloglu, Engin Kaya, Sercan Yilmaz, Gökhan Özgür, Yusuf Kibar
Haemorrhagic Cystitis (HC) is defined as diffuse inflammatory bladder bleeding due to many aetiologies. Massive HC often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of pelvic malignancies. Phosphamides are the anti-cancer drugs used for treating breast cancer, B-cell lymphoma, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythaematosis by cross-linking strands of DNA and preventing the cell division. They are also used in bone marrow transplantation for prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Sobhana Thangaraju, Jagbir Gill, Allissa Wright, Jianghu Dong, Caren Rose, John Gill
BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for BK polyoma virus (BKPyV) without confounding by donor factors and era effects in paired analysis may inform strategies to prevent BKPyV. METHODS: In this analysis of 21,575 mate kidney pairs in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 2004 and 2010, the presence of a treatment code for BKPyV virus in follow-up forms was used to identify pairs in which 1 of 2 mate kidneys was treated (discordant treatment) or both mate kidneys were treated (concordant treatment)...
April 2016: Transplantation
Sarat Kuppachi, Deepkamal Kaur, Danniele G Holanda, Christie P Thomas
BK virus (BKV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family that causes an interstitial nephritis in immunosuppressed patients. BKV nephropathy is now a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and early allograft failure following kidney transplantation. It is also known to cause renal disease with a progressive decline in kidney function in non-renal solid organ transplant (NRSOT) recipients, although the disease may not be recognized nor its impact appreciated in this patient population. In this report, we review the existing literature to highlight our current understanding of its incidence in NRSOT populations, the approaches to diagnosis and the potential treatment options...
April 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Daiki Iwami, Yayoi Ogawa, Hiromi Fujita, Ken Morita, Hajime Sasaki, Yuichiro Oishi, Haruka Higuchi, Kanako Hatanaka, Nobuo Shinohara
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious complication following solid organ transplantation. Ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant CMV infection may be fatal, and is difficult to treat while avoiding allograft rejection. A 31-year-old woman received a second ABO-incompatible kidney transplant, from her father. Induction therapy consisted of basiliximab and rituximab followed by maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone. Her CMV serostatus was D(+) /R(-) at second transplant and she received prophylactic low-dose valganciclovir (VGCV)...
July 2016: Nephrology
Derek B Allison, Matthew T Olson, Mohammed Lilo, Mingjuan L Zhang, Dorothy L Rosenthal, Christopher J VandenBussche
BACKGROUND: According to The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology (TPS), the category of atypical urothelial cells (AUC) should not be applied to specimens in which cellular changes can be entirely attributed to the polyoma (BK) virus cytopathic effect (CPE). Until recently, cases with BK CPE at The Johns Hopkins Hospital were categorized as atypical urothelial cells of uncertain significance (AUC-US), which is equivalent to the TPS AUC category. This study was performed to determine how significantly the rate of AUC-US specimens would decrease if specimens with only BK CPE were classified as benign...
June 2016: Cancer Cytopathology
Benjamin L Laskin, Harsharan K Singh, Ulf H Beier, Taylor Moatz, Susan L Furth, Nancy Bunin, David Witte, Jens Goebel, Stella M Davies, Christopher Dandoy, Sonata Jodele, Volker Nickeleit
BACKGROUND: After hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), polyoma-BK virus is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and also with polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN). However, the true burden of post-HCT PVN is unknown because kidney biopsies are avoided due to their bleeding risk. The novel, noninvasive urinary PV-Haufen test detects PVN in kidney transplant recipients with greater than 95% positive/negative predictive values. We hypothesized that the detection of PV-Haufen in voided urine samples-a positive PV-Haufen test-was also clinically significant after HCT...
October 2016: Transplantation
Steven P Salvatore, Patricia M Myers-Gurevitch, Stacy Chu, Brian D Robinson, Darshana Dadhania, Surya V Seshan
A direct role for BK polyomavirus infection in malignant tumors of renal allografts and urinary tract is emerging. Case reports suggest a link between BK virus (BKV) reactivation and development of malignancy in renal allograft recipients. Herein we describe the first case of BKV positive invasive urothelial carcinoma within the renal allograft, presenting with chronic diarrhea and weight loss 5 years following resolution of BK viremia/nephropathy (BKVN). Unique to our case was the remote history of BK viremia/BKVN, rising titer of anti-HLA antibody and presence of renal limited urothelial carcinoma with microinvasion of malignant cells staining positive for SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag)...
March 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Ling Yan, Mohamed E Salama, Christian Lanciault, Linh Matsumura, Megan L Troxell
Viral pathogens have been associated with both infectious disease and neoplasia in transplant recipients. Polyomavirus is emerging as a potential causative agent for genitourinary tract cancer in post-kidney transplant patients. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a proven role in squamous cancers, but has not been studied in genitourinary malignancies in transplantation. Of 2345 kidney transplants performed at our center over the past 20 years, we identified 16 patients with 20 genitourinary cancers (0.7%), including 13 bladder/ureter carcinomas, 5 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and 2 prostate carcinomas...
February 2016: Human Pathology
Sandra A Calarota, Judith H Aberle, Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl, Fausto Baldanti
Opportunistic viral infections are still a major complication following solid organ transplantation. Immune monitoring may allow the identification of patients at risk of infection and, eventually, the modulation of immunosuppressive strategies. Immune monitoring can be performed using virus-specific and non virus-specific assays. This article describes and summarizes the pros and cons of the different technical approaches. Among the assays based on non virus-specific antigens, the enumeration of T-cell subsets, the quantification of cytokines and chemokines and the quantification of intracellular adenosine triphosphate following mitogen stimulation are described and their clinical applications to determine the risk for viral infection are discussed...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
P Lovinfosse, L Weekers, C Bonvoisin, C Bovy, S Grosch, J-M Krzesinski, R Hustinx, F Jouret
Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary biopsy. AR involves recruitment of leukocytes avid for fluorodeoxyglucose F(18) ((18) F-FDG), thus (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) coupled with computed tomography (CT) may noninvasively distinguish nonrejection from AR. From January 2013 to February 2015, we prospectively performed 32 (18) F-FDG PET/CT scans in 31 adult KTRs with suspected AR who underwent transplant biopsy...
January 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
S Querido, C Jorge, H Sousa, R Birne, P Matias, A Weigert, T Adragão, M Bruges, S Ramos, M Santos, P Paixão, M D Curran, D Machado
We report the case of an isolated JC virus (JCV) infection, without co-infection by polyoma BK virus (BKV), associated with nephropathy 4 years after kidney transplantation. Clinical suspicion followed the observation of a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and a renal allograft biopsy revealing polyomavirus-associated tubulointerstitial nephritis and positivity for SV40. An in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, targeting the presence of JCV and the absence of BKV in biopsy tissue, confirmed diagnosis...
October 2015: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Osama Gheith, Torki Al-Otaibi, Zakaria Zakaria, Medhat Abdel Halim, Naryanan Nampoory
OBJECTIVES: Nephropathy from BK virus is an increasing problem in renal transplant recipients and has been correlated with newer immunosuppressive agents and the decline in acute rejection rates. We aimed to evaluate the effect of BK virus-positive kidney donors on the outcome of kidney transplant recipients after mean follow-up 21 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 18 kidney donors with BK virus in blood and urine, 5 donors were fit for donation. Clinical information was reviewed for the 5 kidney transplant recipients who received kidney allografts from these donors (mean donor age, 35 ± 3 y)...
April 2015: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Brian J Nankivell, Jasveen Renthawa, Neisha Jeoffreys, Kathy Kable, Philip J O'Connell, Jeremy R Chapman, Germaine Wong, Raghwa N Sharma
BACKGROUND: Reactivation of BK polyoma virus can result in destructive viral allograft nephropathy (BKVAN) with limited treatment options. Screening programs using surrogate markers of viral replication are important preventive strategies, guiding immunosuppression reduction. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic test performance of urinary decoy cells and urinary SV40T immunochemistry of exfoliated cells, to screen for BKVAN, (defined by reference histology with SV40 immunohistochemistry, n = 704 samples), compared with quantitative viremia, from 211 kidney and 141 kidney-pancreas transplant recipients...
August 2015: Transplantation
H N Madhavan, R Bagyalakshmi, M Revathy, P Aarthi, J Malathi
PURPOSE: To optimise a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based DNA sequencing technique for genotyping polyoma virus in clinical specimens obtained from renal transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hundred and thirty (106 peripheral blood and 24 urine) clinical specimens collected from renal transplant patients were included in the study for detecting the presence of  DNA of BK virus (BKV), JC virus (JCV) by PCR targeting the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene. PCR based DNA sequencing was performed to determine the genotypes of polyoma virus and subjected to bioinformatics analysis to determine the amino acid sequences and screen for mutations in the VP1 gene...
February 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yangmin Zeng, Alex Magil, Trana Hussaini, C Kit Yeung, Siegfried R Erb, Vladimir Marquez-Alazagara, Eric M Yoshida
Renal dysfunction frequently occurs in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. BK virus is a human polyoma virus that reactivates during immunocompromised states and is a known cause of renal allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. However, BK nephropathy of native kidneys is rare in non-renal transplant recipients. There is no published data linking BK virus and renal dysfunction in liver transplant recipients. We describe the first confirmed case of native polyomavirus BK nephropathy in a liver transplant recipient...
January 2015: Annals of Hepatology
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