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Denisa Baci, Antonino Bruno, Barbara Bassani, Matilde Tramacere, Lorenzo Mortara, Adriana Albini, Douglas M Noonan
Carnitines play an important role in the energy exchange in cells, involved in the transport of fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. L-Acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) is an acetic acid ester of carnitine that has higher bioavailability than carnitine and is considered a fat-burning energizer supplement. We previously found that in serum samples from prostate cancer (PCa) patients, 3 carnitine family members were significantly decreased, suggesting a potential protective role of carnitine against PCa...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
Prajna Hegde, Jagadeesh Narasimhappagari, Bale M Swamy, Shashikala R Inamdar
Expression of altered glycans like TF, Tn and sTn antigens has been observed in a number of carcinomas which are targeted in cancer therapy. Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is known to recognize TF and its substituted forms. Clinical potential of SRL has been demonstrated by studying its interaction with different types of cancer cells. Here we report, in vitro studies of SRL on breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells and in vivo studies with MCF-7 xenografts. In vitro growth inhibitory studies of SRL on metastatic triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells was performed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, adhesion and CAM assay...
April 20, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Changmin Kim, Hyo-Sook Song, Hojung Park, Bonglee Kim
Although Salvia miltiorrhiza has been reported to have anti-cancer mechanisms, such as caspase activation, cell cycle arrest, an anti-angiogenesis effect, and Bcl-2 family regulation, its underlying mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has never been demonstrated. Thus, in this current study, ER stress-related apoptosis via miR-216b of the ethanol extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is elucidated for the first time. SM treatment inhibited the viability of U266 and U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fatemeh Sheikhbahaei, Mozafar Khazaei, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani
Purpose: Angiogenesis plays an important role in numerous pathophysiological events like cancer. As a result of this, tranilast as an anti-fibrotic drug induces the promising antitumor activities through the inhibition of angiogenesis. Further, Teucrium polium (TP) is a herbal medicine (family Lamaceae) with antitumor properties. This study was conducted to investigate the combination effects of tranilast and T. polium on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) viability and apoptotic genes expression...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Mandana Rastegar, Haji-Amin Marjani, Yaghoub Yazdani, Majid Shahbazi, Masoud Golalipour, Touraj Farazmandfar
Purpose: Human hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Metformin and rapamycin may decrease the expression of VEGF protein and subsequently angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these two drugs on expression of VEGF protein and the cell proliferation in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (ATCC HB-8065). Methods: HepG2 was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium at 37°C for 48h as a pre-culture and then treated by different concentrations of metformin (0, 5, 10 and 20 mM) and rapamycin (0, 5, 10 and 20 nM) at different times (12, 24 and 48 h)...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Tahseena Akhtar, Willayat Yousuf Wani, Mohammad A Kamal, Rajinder Kaur
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, involving autoimmune mechanism wherein immune system, autoantigens and various environmental triggers all interact to create the systemically diseased state. It is a multifactorial skin disease of complex nature characterized by infiltration of multiple immune cells, kerationcyte proliferation, and increased dermal vascularity. Among all factors, vascular alterations present a significant feature of the disease and angiogenesis seems to have an important role in giving rise to psoriasis phenotype...
April 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Eunji Choi, Jungju Oh, Dahee Lee, Jaewon Lee, Xiaonan Tan, Minkyung Kim, Gyeungyun Kim, Chunxian Piao, Minhyung Lee
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of RAGE might be an effective anti-angiogenic therapy for cancer. In this study, a cationic RAGE-binding peptide (RBP) was produced as an antagonist of RAGE, and a ternary-complex consisting of RBP, polyethylenimine (2 kDa, PEI2k), and a suicide gene (pHSVtk) was developed as a gene delivery system with dual functions: the anti-tumor effect of pHSVtk and anti-angiogenic effect of RBP. As an antagonist of RAGE, RBP decreased the secretion of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in activated macrophages and reduced the tube-formation of endothelial cells in vitro...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Run Lin, Jing Huang, Liya Wang, Yuancheng Li, Malgorzata Lipowska, Hui Wu, Jianyong Yang, Hui Mao
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the cascade of development and progression of cancers. Targeting this cancer hallmark is a logical strategy for imaging based cancer detection and monitoring the anti-angiogenesis treatment. Using Bevacizumab (Avastin®), which is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody directly against VEGF and an angiogenesis inhibitor, as a targeting ligand, a multimodal VEGF targeted molecular imaging probe was developed by conjugating near infrared dye (NIR830) labeled bevacizumab to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of cancers over-expressing VEGF...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Lu Xie, Wei Guo, Ye Wang, Taiqiang Yan, Tao Ji, Jie Xu
BACKGROUND: Anti-angiogenesis Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been proved to show promising effects on prolonging progression-free survival (PFS) for advanced sarcoma after failure of standard multimodal Therapy. Methylsulfonic apatinib is one of those TKIs which specifically inhibits VEGFR-2. This paper summarizes the experience of three Peking University affiliated hospitals in off-label use of apatinib in the treatment of extensively pre-treated sarcoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed files of patients with advanced sarcoma not amenable to curative treatment, who were receiving an apatinib-containing regimen between June 1, 2015 and December 1, 2016...
April 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Chi Ming Laurence Lau, Yu Yu, Ghodsiehsadat Jahamir, Ying Chau
Antiangiogenic therapeutics, such as corticosteroids, VEGF targeting antibodies and aptamers have been demonstrated effective in controlling retinal and choroidal neovascularization related vision loss. However, to manage the chronic conditions, it requires long term and frequent intravitreal injections of these drugs, resulting in poor patient compliance and suboptimal treatment. In addition, emerging drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and siRNAs received much expectations, but the late stage clinical trials encountered various obstacles...
April 3, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Run Tian, Fang Han, Jun Yang, Hai-Yan Zhao, Yan Mei, Ai-Ping Deng, Lin Fang, Xi-Rui Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the VR-10 TSP-1 synthetic polypeptide on cytokines and the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, as well as exploring a new method for anti-ocular neoangiogenesis. METHODS: We measured the proliferation of RF/6A cells by an MTT assay and investigated the migration of RF/6A cells by a Transwell chamber assay. We examined the mRNA transcript levels of TGF-β2, VEGF, PEDF, Bcl-2 and FasL in RF/6A cells by RT-PCR and evaluated the expression of Fas and caspase-3 proteins in RF/6A cells by western blot analysis...
March 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Anupama Bhat, Kewei Huan, Tiana Cooks, Hacene Boukari, Qi Lu
Noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) such as gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs) have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor effect in anti-angiogenesis, photothermal and radio therapeutics. On the other hand, cell membranes are critical locales for specific targeting of cancerous cells. Therefore, NP-membrane interactions need be studied at molecular level to help better understand the underlying physicochemical mechanisms for future applications in cancer nanotechnology. Herein, we report our study on the interactions between citrate stabilized colloidal AuNPs/AgNPs (10 nm in size) and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) using hyperspectral dark-field microscopy...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wei Zhao, Yuping Yang, Lingling Song, Tianyi Kang, Ting Du, Yujiao Wu, Meimei Xiong, Li Luo, Jianlin Long, Ke Men, Lan Zhang, Xiaoxin Chen, Meijuan Huang, Maling Gou
Gene therapy provides a novel method for cancer therapy. This study shows a DNA nanocomplex that is inspired from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) for ovarian cancer therapy. This DNA nanocomplex consists of a cationized monomethoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (d,l-lactide) (MPEG-PLA) nanoparticle and a plasmid encoding the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVMP) that plays a critical role in the VSV-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cationized MPEG-PLA nanoparticle that is self-assembled by MPEG-PLA copolymer and N -[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy) propyl]- N,N,N -trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP) has low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency (>80%)...
March 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Daniel W Nixon
Down syndrome (trisomy 21), a complex mix of physical, mental, and biochemical issues, includes an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and childhood leukemia, a decreased risk of other tumors, and a high frequency of overweight/obesity. Certain features related to the third copy of chromosome 21 (which carries the APP gene and several anti-angiogenesis genes) create an environment favorable for Alzheimer's disease and unfavorable for cancer. This environment may be enhanced by two bioactive compounds from fat cells, leptin, and adiponectin...
March 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
Min Li, Fangrong Zhang, Yujie Su, Jianping Zhou, Wei Wang
Increasing understanding in tumor pathology reveals that tumor microenvironment (TME), which supports tumor progression and poses barriers for available therapies, takes a great responsibility in inefficient treatment and poor prognosis. In recent years, the versatile nanotechnology employed in TME regulation has made great progress. The nanoparticles (NPs) can be tailored as needed to accurately target TME components by distinguishing healthy tissues from malignancy, and to regulate TME to promote tumor regression...
March 22, 2018: Life Sciences
Maolei Xu, Yanli Zhang, Wanfa Dong, Lifeng Jiang, Jing Zhang, Pengfei Yu, Shuyang Xie, Ling Zhou
AIMS: Active immunization with human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) vaccines provides a therapeutic option instead of bevacizumab therapy. However, the immunity to self-molecule is difficult to elicit due to immune tolerance. A bioactive peptide of two tandem repeats of mHSP70407-426 (M2 ) has exhibited potent adjuvant ability in our previous study, and the aim of this study was to explore whether M2 could assist hVEGF to display enhanced therapeutic anti-tumor effects. MAIN METHODS: The anti-tumor effects of hVEGF-M2 vaccine were evaluated in both H22 hepatocellular carcinoma and Lewis lung tumor models...
March 20, 2018: Life Sciences
Hsien-Kuo Chin, Chi-Ting Horng, Yi-Shan Liu, Chi-Cheng Lu, Chen-Ying Su, Pei-Syuan Chen, Hong-Yi Chiu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Po-Chuen Shieh, Jai-Sing Yang
Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most general clinical obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Kaempferol is a flavonoid phytochemical found in many fruits and vegetables. Our previous study revealed that kaempferol triggered apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by ROS‑mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. However, the anti‑angiogenic potential of kaempferol remains unclear and its underlying mechanism warranted further exploration in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs. In the present study, kaempferol significantly reduced VEGF‑stimulated HUVEC viability...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Shuang Fu, Xiaodong Xu, Yu Ma, Shubiao Zhang, Shufen Zhang
Integrin αv β3 is restrictedly expressed on angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. It plays a key role in angiogenesis for tumor growth and metastasis. RGD peptide can specifically recognize the integrin αv β3 , which serve as targeted molecular for anti-angiogenesis strategies. Therefore, targeted delivery of therapeutics by RGD peptide based non-viral vectors to tumor vasculature and tumor cells is recognized as a promising approach for treating cancer. In this review, we illustrate the interaction between RGD peptide and integrin αv β3 from different perspectives...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Philippe Collery
Many experimental models demonstrated that inorganic and organic selenium (Se) compounds may have an anticancer activity. However, large clinical studies failed to demonstrate that Se supplementations may prevent the outcome of cancers. Moreover, there are few randomized trials in cancer patients and there is not yet any Se compound recognized as anticancer drug. There is still a need to develop new Se compounds with new strategies. For that, it may be necessary to consider that Se compounds may have a dual role, either as anti-oxidant or as pro-oxidant...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Ari Rosenberg, Mark Agulnik
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare sarcoma, as such it can pose a clinical dilemma based solely on its rarity. Also, the spectrum of disease varies greatly between an indolent disease and aggressive disease with widespread metastases. In our clinical practice, the primary focus has been to get a handle on the aggressive nature of the disease, which will then dictate how urgently one needs to treat the patient. Pathological review with immunohistochemistry and molecular characterization is paramount...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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