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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777462/a-composite-of-multisystem-injury-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection-association-with-everyday-functioning
#1
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777287/decreased-plasma-levels-of-gasotransmitter-hydrogen-sulfide-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-correlation-with-psychopathology-and-cognition
#2
Jian-Wen Xiong, Bo Wei, Yan-Kun Li, Jin-Qiong Zhan, Shu-Zhen Jiang, Hai-Bo Chen, Kun Yan, Bin Yu, Yuan-Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter that regulates NMDAR function. The current study investigated the relationship between plasma H2 S levels and both psychopathological and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects were recruited in present study...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774174/outpatient-interventions-that-may-enhance-the-care-of-a-patient-with-co-existing-moyamoya-and-down-syndromes
#3
Anita Lwanga, Waldo Herrera, Katya Cruz Madrid, Antony Irungu
Moyamoya vasculopathy is a condition of chronic, progressive occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries and the Circle of Willis. The resultant ischemia produces compensatory angiogenesis and the growth of a network of collateral blood vessels, which on angiography resemble a "puff of smoke" or "moyamoya" in Japanese. The objective of this case report is to describe the clinical course of a patient with Down and moyamoya syndromes and to enlighten clinicians about strategies that can be taken to enhance the care of similar patients...
March 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773664/cognitive-development-and-quality-of-life-associated-with-bpd-in-10-year-olds-born-preterm
#4
Sudhir Sriram, Michael D Schreiber, Michael E Msall, Karl C K Kuban, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O' Shea, Elizabeth N Allred, Alan Leviton
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurocognitive, language, executive function, academic achievement, neurologic and behavioral outcomes, and quality of life at age 10 years in children born extremely preterm who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to children who did not develop BPD. METHODS: The Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns study population included 863 children born extremely preterm whose BPD status before discharge was known had an IQ (Differential Ability Scales II [DAS II]) assessment at 10 years...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771819/sharing-as-a-model-for-understanding-division
#5
Alexa Ellis, Xiaosu Hu, Craig E Smith, Pamela E Davis-Kean, Ioulia Kovelman
Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771285/increased-dolutegravir-peak-concentrations-in-people-living-with-hiv-aged-60-and-over-and-analysis-of-sleep-quality-and-cognition
#6
Emilie R Elliot, Xinzhu Wang, Suveer Singh, Bryony Simmons, Jaime H Vera, Robert F Miller, Colin Fitzpatrick, Graeme Moyle, Myra McClure, Marta Boffito
Background: Demographic data show an increasingly aging HIV population worldwide. Recent concerns over dolutegravir-related neuropsychiatric toxicity have emerged, particularly amongst older HIV patients. We describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dolutegravir (DTG) 50mg once daily in people living with HIV (PLWH) aged 60 and older. Additionally, to address the call for prospective neuropsychiatric toxicodynamic data, we evaluate changes in sleep quality and cognitive function after switching to abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC)/DTG, over 6 months in this population...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768190/a-bayesian-model-comparison-approach-to-test-the-specificity-of-visual-integration-impairment-in-schizophrenia-or-psychosis
#7
Tyler B Grove, Beier Yao, Savanna A Mueller, Merranda McLaughlin, Vicki L Ellingrod, Melvin G McInnis, Stephan F Taylor, Patricia J Deldin, Ivy F Tso
Impaired visual integration is well documented in schizophrenia and related to functional outcomes. However, it is unclear if this deficit is specific to schizophrenia, or characteristic of psychosis more broadly. To address this question, this study used a Bayesian model comparison approach to examine the evidence of three grouping models of visual integration performance in 116 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SA), bipolar disorder (BD) with or without a history of prominent psychosis (BDP+ and BDP-, respectively), or no psychiatric diagnosis (healthy controls; HC)...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763451/episodic-memory-and-delayed-recall-are-significantly-more-impaired-in-younger-patients-with-deficit-schizophrenia-than-in-elderly-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sookjaroen Tangwongchai, Thitiporn Supasitthumrong, Sira Sriswasdi, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: Both amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and schizophrenia, in particular deficit schizophrenia, are accompanied by cognitive impairments. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive differences between aMCI and (non)deficit schizophrenia. METHODS: Towards this end we recruited 60 participants with aMCI, 40 with deficit and 40 with nondeficit schizophrenia and 103 normal volunteers. Cognitive measures were assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Word list memory (WLM), Word list recall (WLRecall) and Word list recognition (WLRecognition)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761877/diagnostic-accuracy-of-new-and-old-cognitive-screening-tools-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#9
M Trunfio, D Vai, C Montrucchio, C Alcantarini, A Livelli, M C Tettoni, G Orofino, S Audagnotto, D Imperiale, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Calcagno
OBJECTIVES: Considering the similarities between HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and neurodegenerative dementias and the frequency of executive dysfunctions among HIV-positive patients, we evaluated the accuracy of the Frontal Assessment Battery and Clock-Drawing Test together with the Three Questions Test and International HIV Dementia Scale to screen for HAND. METHODS: A cross-sectional monocentric study was conducted from 2010 to 2017. The index tests were represented by the four screening tools; the reference standard was represented by a comprehensive neurocognitive battery used to investigate 10 cognitive domains...
May 15, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758392/effects-of-mindfulness-and-psychoeducation-on-working-memory-in-adult-adhd-a-randomised-controlled-fmri-study
#10
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754989/the-brain-health-registry-an-internet-based-platform-for-recruitment-assessment-and-longitudinal-monitoring-of-participants-for-neuroscience-studies
#11
Michael W Weiner, Rachel Nosheny, Monica Camacho, Diana Truran-Sacrey, R Scott Mackin, Derek Flenniken, Aaron Ulbricht, Philip Insel, Shannon Finley, Juliet Fockler, Dallas Veitch
INTRODUCTION: Recruitment, assessment, and longitudinal monitoring of participants for neuroscience studies and clinical trials limit the development of new treatments. Widespread Internet use allows data capture from participants in an unsupervised setting. The Brain Health Registry, a website and online registry, collects data from participants and their study partners. METHODS: The Brain Health Registry obtains self and study partner report questionnaires and neuropsychological data, including the Cogstate Brief Battery, Lumos Labs Neurocognitive Performance Test, and MemTrax Memory Test...
May 8, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751051/neurocognitive-effects-of-methylphenidate-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Michelle A Pievsky, Robert E McGrath
PIEVSKY, M. A., and R. E. McGrath. Neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 81(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- This meta-analysis summarized 21 double-blind randomized controlled trials with a mean study duration of 18 days comparing the neurocognitive functioning of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on methylphenidate vs placebo. Effect sizes were weighted using a random-effects model. Scores on neurocognitive measures and tests of driving ability were on average higher on methylphenidate than on placebo, g = ...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749006/predictors-of-recurrence-in-remitted-late-life-depression
#13
Yi Deng, Douglas R McQuoid, Guy G Potter, David C Steffens, Kimberly Albert, Meghan Riddle, John L Beyer, Warren D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with a fragile antidepressant response and high recurrence risk. This study examined what measures predict recurrence in remitted LLD. METHODS: Individuals of age 60 years or older with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - IV (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depressive disorder were enrolled in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study. Participants received manualized antidepressant treatment and were followed longitudinally for an average of 5 years...
May 10, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747571/axonal-chronic-injury-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-adults-with-asymptomatic-neurocognitive-impairment-and-its-relationship-with-clinical-variables-and-cognitive-status
#14
Rui-Li Li, Jun Sun, Zhen-Chao Tang, Jing-Ji Zhang, Hong-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: HIV is a neurotropic virus, and it can bring about neurodegeneration and may even result in cognitive impairments. The precise mechanism of HIV-associated white matter (WM) injury is unknown. The effects of multiple clinical contributors on WM impairments and the relationship between the WM alterations and cognitive performance merit further investigation. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 20 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) adults and 20 healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742385/the-neurocognitive-mechanisms-underlying-food-cravings-and-snack-food-consumption-a-combined-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-ctbs-and-eeg-study
#15
Cassandra J Lowe, William R Staines, Felicia Mannochio, Peter A Hall
Regulation of food cravings is thought to be critical for modulating eating behavior, yet we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which cognitive control operates in the eating context. The current study combined rTMS and EEG paradigms to examine the causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in modulating visceral and behavioral responses to high calorie foods, and the mediational mechanisms underlying this relation. 28 right-handed female participants received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS; a rTMS variant used to decrease cortical activity) targeting the left dlPFC in a counterbalanced order...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737618/long-term-follow-up-of-3-t-mri-detected-brain-lesions-after-percutaneous-catheter-based-left-atrial-appendage-closure
#16
Barbara Bellmann, Andreas Rillig, Carsten Skurk, David Manuel Leistner, Karl Georg Haeusler, Tina Lin, Rohat Geran, Luzie Koehler, Selma Guttmann, Verena Tscholl, Mattias Roser, Klaus Lenz, Kersten Villringer, Jai- Wun Park, Jochen B Fiebach, Ulf Landmesser
BACKGROUND: Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) for stroke prevention is an increasingly performed intervention. AIMS: This prospective study aims to evaluate the incidence of long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected brain lesions as well as potential changes of neurocognitive function after percutaneous LAAC. METHODS: Brain MRI at 3 T was performed within 24 hr before and after LAAC. A follow-up MRI was carried out after three months...
May 8, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737194/characterization-of-cellular-immune-responses-in-thai-individuals-with-and-without-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#17
Silvia Ratto-Kim, Alexandra Schuetz, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, John Barber, Nicholas Hutchings, Sukalaya Lerdlum, James L K Fletcher, Yuwadee Phuang-Ngern, Weerawan Chuenarom, Somporn Tipsuk, Mantana Pothisri, Tanate Jadwattanakul, Supunnee Jirajariyavej, Chayada Sajjaweerawan, Siriwat Akapirat, Thep Chalermchai, Duanghathai Suttichom, Boot Keawboon, Peeriya Prueksakaew, Putthachard Karnsomlap, David Clifford, Robert H Paul, Mark de Souza, Jerome H Kim, Jintinant Anaworanich, Victor Valcour
HIV-associated cognitive disorder (HAND) remains a challenge despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), and has been linked to monocyte/macrophage (M/M) migration to the brain. Due to the potential impact of T cell effector mechanisms in eliminating activated/HIV-infected M/M, T cell activation may play a role in the development of HAND. We sought to investigate the relationship between cognition and both CD8+ T-cell activation (HLA-DR+/CD38+) and HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses at the time of HIV diagnosis and 12 months post initiation of ART...
May 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736913/effects-of-caffeine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats
#18
Melissa S Assis, Aluízio C Soares, Dircilei N de Sousa, João Eudes-Filho, Lilian Rosana F Faro, Fabiana P Carneiro, Mônica V da Silva, Andrea B Motoyama, Greice Maria R de Souza, Stéphanie Marchiori, Nadyelle T de Lima, Raphael Boëchat-Barros, Vania M Ferreira
There are many studies that have sought to find drug therapies to prevent harm arising from sepsis. Such studies have represented a progress in the support to septic patients and also in the development of new pharmacological alternatives. Our interest was to investigate the caffeine effect on sepsis behavioural and memory impairments. Male rats were anaesthetized and the surgery was made to allow exposure of the cecum, which was then squeezed to extrude a small amount of faeces from the perforation site, which was later placed back into the peritoneal cavity...
May 7, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736060/improvement-in-neurocognitive-functions-and-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-patients-with-depression-treated-with-antidepressants-and-yoga
#19
Naveen Gowrapura Halappa, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Shivarama Varambally, Mukund Rao, Rita Christopher, Gangadhar B Nanjundaiah
Context and Aims: Impairment in cognition is well-known in patients with major depressive disorder. This study examined the effect of yoga therapy with or without antidepressants and antidepressants alone on certain neuropsychological functions in patients with depression. Correlation between changes in neuropsychological test performance and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels was also explored. Materials and Methods: Antidepressant-naïve/antidepressant-free outpatients with depression received antidepressant medication alone ( n = 23) or yoga therapy with ( n = 26) or without ( n = 16) antidepressants...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734952/arachidonic-acid-and-dha-status-in-pregnant-women-is-not-associated-with-cognitive-performance-of-their-children-at-4-or-6-7-years
#20
Sarah R Crozier, Charlene M Sibbons, Helena L Fisk, Keith M Godfrey, Philip C Calder, Catharine R Gale, Sian M Robinson, Hazel M Inskip, Janis Baird, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Graham C Burdge
Arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA, supplied primarily from the mother, are required for early development of the central nervous system. Thus, variations in maternal ARA or DHA status may modify neurocognitive development. We investigated the relationship between maternal ARA and DHA status in early (11·7 weeks) or late (34·5 weeks) pregnancy on neurocognitive function at the age of 4 years or 6-7 years in 724 mother-child pairs from the Southampton Women's Survey cohort. Plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition was measured in early and late pregnancy...
May 8, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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