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Neurocognitive testing

Rami A El Shafie, Angela Paul, Denise Bernhardt, Kristin Lang, Thomas Welzel, Tanja Sprave, Adriane Hommertgen, Johannes Krisam, Daniela Schmitt, Sebastian Klüter, Kai Schubert, Christina Klose, Meinhard Kieser, Jürgen Debus, Stefan Rieken
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases (BM) is recommended in oligometastatic scenarios as a less toxic treatment alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy. Recent findings support SRS for patients with multiple (>3) BM. Furthermore, advances in MR imaging have facilitated the detection of very small BM, as advances in SRS technology have facilitated the highly conformal and simultaneous treatment of multiple target lesions. OBJECTIVE: To compare efficacy and toxicity of repeated frameless robotic SRS of up to 10 simultaneous BM through a single-center prospective randomized trial...
March 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
Steffen Moritz, Karla Spirandelli, Insa Happach, Despina Lion, Fabrice Berna
OBJECTIVES: There is mixed evidence regarding whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) display substantial neurocognitive deficits. Several studies implicate poor motivation, comorbid disorders, or distraction due to obsessive thoughts as potential causes of secondary malperformance. The present study examined the impact of stereotype threat (i.e., confrontation with a negative stereotype may impair performance) on neuropsychological functioning in individuals with OCD...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Rose Mary Xavier, Jennifer R Dungan, Richard S E Keefe, Allison Vorderstrasse
Genetic etiology of psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia is supported by candidate gene and polygenic risk score (PRS) association studies. Such associations are reported to be dependent on several factors - sample characteristics, illness phase, illness severity etc. We aimed to examine if schizophrenia PRS predicted psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We also examined if schizophrenia associated autosomal loci were associated with specific symptoms or cognitive domains...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Lisa G Sorensen, Katie Neighbors, Regina M Hardison, Kathleen M Loomes, James W Varni, Vicky L Ng, Robert H Squires, Estella M Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF). STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective study was conducted. At 6 and 12 months after PALF presentation, surveys of HRQoL were completed for 2- to 19-year-olds and executive functioning for ages 2-16 years. At 12 months, patients 3-16 years of age completed neurocognitive testing. HRQoL scores were compared with a healthy, matched sample...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Josefine Starnberg, Mikael Norman, Björn Westrup, Magnus Domellöf, Staffan K Berglund
BACKGROUND: Being born with very low birth weight (<1500 g) is associated with poorer neurocognition later in life. The aim of this study was to explore neurodevelopmental functions in those born with marginally low birth weight (LBW; 2000-2500 g). METHODS: This was originally a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of early iron supplementation in 285 marginally LBW children. Herein, we explored the combined marginally LBW group and compared their results to 95 normal birth weight (NBW; 2501-4500 g) controls in an observational design...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Christopher A Abeare, Isabelle Messa, Brandon G Zuccato, Bradley Merker, Laszlo Erdodi
Importance: Estimated base rates of invalid performance on baseline testing (base rates of failure) for the management of sport-related concussion range from 6.1% to 40.0%, depending on the validity indicator used. The instability of this key measure represents a challenge in the clinical interpretation of test results that could undermine the utility of baseline testing. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing and to assess whether the prevalence varies as a function of age and validity indicator...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Akhgar Ghassabian, Paul S Albert, Mady Hornig, Edwina Yeung, Sara Cherkerzian, Risë B Goldstein, Stephen L Buka, Jill M Goldstein, Stephen E Gilman
Gestational inflammation may contribute to brain abnormalities associated with childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. Limited knowledge exists regarding the associations of maternal cytokine levels during pregnancy with offspring neurocognitive development. We assayed the concentrations of five cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10) up to four times in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy using stored prenatal sera from 1366 participants in the New England Family Study (enrollment 1959-1966)...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Rami A El Shafie, Angela Paul, Denise Bernhardt, Henrik Hauswald, Thomas Welzel, Tanja Sprave, Adriane Hommertgen, Johannes Krisam, Daniela Schmitt, Sebastian Klüter, Kai Schubert, Christina Klose, Meinhard Kieser, Jürgen Debus, Stefan Rieken
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical resection is recommended for symptomatic brain metastases, in oligometastatic patients or for histology acquisition. Without adjuvant radiotherapy, roughly two-thirds of the patients relapse at the resection site within 24 mo, while the risk of new metastases in the untreated brain is around 50%. Adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) can reduce the risk of both scenarios of recurrence significantly, although the associated neurocognitive toxicity is substantial, while stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) improves local control at comparably low toxicity...
March 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Marta Kubera, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of IgA/IgM responses to plasma tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the current study, supervised pattern recognition methods, including logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), were used to examine whether deficit schizophrenia is a discrete diagnostic class with respect to Consortium To Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests and IgA/IgM responses to noxious (NOX) and generally more protective (PRO) TRYCATs...
March 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Anas Z Abidin, Adora M DSouza, Mahesh B Nagarajan, Lu Wang, Xing Qiu, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
HIV is capable of invading the brain soon after seroconversion. This ultimately can lead to deficits in multiple cognitive domains commonly referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Clinical diagnosis of such deficits requires detailed neuropsychological assessment but clinical signs may be difficult to detect during asymptomatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore neuroimaging biomarkers are of particular interest in HAND. In this study, we constructed brain connectivity profiles of 40 subjects (20 HIV positive subjects and 20 age-matched seronegative controls) using two different methods: a non-linear mutual connectivity analysis approach and a conventional method based on Pearson's correlation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Chia-Liang Tsai, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová, Ming-Chyi Pai
Although exercise is an effective way to decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, the biological basis for such benefits from the different exercise modes remains elusive. The present study thus aimed (i) to investigate the effects of acute aerobic or resistance exercise on neurocognitive performances and molecular markers when performing a cognitive task involving executive functioning in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and (ii) to explore relationships of acute exercise-induced neurocognitive changes with changes in circulating levels of neuroprotective growth factors (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Michael J Boivin, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Kimberley Walhof, Esther M van der Lugt, Robert O Opoka, Bruno Giordani
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive rehabilitation training (CCRT) may be beneficial for alleviating persisting neurocognitive deficits in Ugandan severe malaria survivors. We completed a randomized controlled trial of CCRT for both severe malaria and non-malaria cohorts of children. METHODS: 150 school-age severe malaria and 150 non-malaria children were randomized to three treatment arms: 24 sessions of Captain's Log CCRT for attention, working memory and nonverbal reasoning, in which training on each of 9 tasks difficulty increased with proficiency; a limited CCRT arm that did not titrate to proficiency but randomly cycled across the simplest to moderate level of training; and a passive control arm...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Narahari Rishitha, Arunachalam Muthuraman
BACKGROUND: Quercetin is a major flavonoid in various plants. It possesses the multiple pharmacological actions like vascular integrity and regulatory action of the blood-brain barrier. AIMS: The present study is focused on evaluating the role of solid lipid nanoparticle of quercetin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced cognitive impairment of Danio rerio species. MAIN METHODS: The memory impairment of zebrafish was induced by exposing of PTZ in 7...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Douglas B Cooper, Glenn Curtiss, Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Heather G Belanger, David F Tate, Matthew Reid, Amy O Bowles, Carmen S Velez, Jan E Kennedy, Rodney D Vanderploeg
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53)...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Rainbow T H Ho, Ted C T Fong, Tiffany Hon, Wai Chi Chan, Joseph S K Kwan, Patrick K C Chiu, Linda C W Lam
OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to an early but abnormal state of cognitive impairment with minimal functional impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) as a measure of episodic memory function. METHOD: The study sample included 204 Chinese older adults with cognitive impairments. The participants completed five recall trials and a delayed trial in FOME, neurocognitive measures on digit spans and trail making, and daily functioning...
March 8, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Tobias Luck, Alexander Pabst, Francisca S Rodriguez, Matthias L Schroeter, Veronica Witte, Andreas Hinz, Anja Mehnert, Christoph Engel, Markus Loeffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVE: To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. METHOD: Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology
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