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Neurocognitive testing

Yanna Si, Yuan Zhang, Liu Han, Lihai Chen, Yajie Xu, Fan Sun, Muhuo Ji, Jianjun Yang, Hongguang Bao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits could be alleviated by dexmedetomidine in young animal subjects. In the current study, we examine whether dexmedetomidine could also alleviate isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in senile animals. METHODS: Senile male C57BL/6 mice (20 months) received dexmedetomidine (50 μg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 minutes prior to isoflurane exposure (1.3% for 4 h). Cognitive function was assessed 19 days later using a 5-day testing regimen with Morris water maze...
2016: PloS One
Elvira Boere, Astrid M Kamperman, Arianne E van 't Hoog, Walter W van den Broek, Tom K Birkenhäger
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective treatment for major depression with melancholic features. However, neurocognitive side-effects such as anterograde amnesia still regularly occur. The present study aims to evaluate the severity and course of anterograde amnesia in severely depressed patients undergoing ECT. In a prospective naturalistic study, anterograde memory function was assessed among inpatients who underwent ECT (n = 11). Subjects met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder...
2016: PloS One
D D Correa, J C Root, M Kryza-Lacombe, M Mehta, S Karimi, M L Hensley, N Relkin
Women with ovarian cancer often undergo chemotherapy involving multiple agents. However, little is known about treatment-related central neurotoxicity in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess brain structure and function and neurocognitive abilities in patients with ovarian cancer following first-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer and eighteen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Serap Argun Baris, Dilek Tuncel, Cigdem Ozerdem, Huseyin Kutlu, Tugba Onyilmaz, Ilknur Basyigit, Hasim Boyaci, Fusun Yildiz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of neurocognitive dysfunctions, depression and anxiety and the effect of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on these alterations in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) patients. METHODS: Ten healthy normal and obese controls, 10 OHS and 10 OSAS patients were included in the study. Short form-36, Beck Depression Scale and State-Trade Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1-2) were performed. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOCA), Enhanced Cued Recall (ECR) and Mini Mental Test (MMT) were used for neurocognitive evaluation...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Kara R Vogel, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, K Michael Gibson
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU) remains dietary protein restriction. Developmental and neurocognitive outcomes for patients, however, remain suboptimal. We tested the hypothesis that mice with PKU receiving protein-restricted diets would reveal disruptions of brain amino acids that shed light on these neurocognitive deficits. METHOD: Phenylalanine hydroxylase-deficient (PKU) mice and parallel controls (both wild-type and heterozygous) were fed custom diets containing 18, 6, and 4 % protein for 3 weeks, after which tissues (brain, liver, sera) were collected for amino acid analysis profiling...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Shuenn-Jyi Sheu, Chung-Hsin Wu
In this study, we have reported the herbal formula B401 that has neuroprotective effects via multifunction, multitarget characteristics. It is possible that the herbal formula B401 may also provide new insights for AD. Here, we studied protective effects in the Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cell model and the APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic mouse model by the herbal formula B401. In in vitro experiments, we showed that the herbal formula B401 treatment effectively reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity in Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Svetlana A Dambinova, Joseph C Maroon, Alicia M Sufrinko, John David Mullins, Eugenia V Alexandrova, Alexander A Potapov
Concussion is a complex, heterogeneous process affecting the brain. Accurate assessment and diagnosis and appropriate management of concussion are essential to ensure that athletes do not prematurely return to play or others to work or active military duty, risking re-injury. To date, clinical diagnosis relies primarily on evaluating subjects for functional impairment using instruments that include neurocognitive testing, subjective symptom report, and neurobehavioral assessments, such as balance and vestibular-ocular reflex testing...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
R John Sawyer, S Marc Testa, Moira Dux
OBJECTIVE: Various research studies and neuropsychology practice organizations have reiterated the importance of developing embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) to detect potentially invalid neurocognitive test data. This study investigated whether measures within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R) could accurately classify individuals who fail two or more PVTs during routine clinical assessment. METHOD: The present sample of 109 United States military veterans (Mean age = 52...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Weiwei Dai, Joel Birkemeier, Rosa M Pasculli, Ivan Selesnick, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta, Janet C Rucker
OBJECTIVE: The King-Devick (KD) test, which is based on rapid number naming speed, is a performance measure that adds vision and eye movement assessments to sideline concussion testing. We performed a laboratory-based study to characterize ocular motor behavior during the KD test in a patient cohort with chronic concussion to identify features associated with prolonged KD reading times. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with a concussion history (mean age: 31) were compared to control participants with no concussion history (n = 42, mean age: 32)...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
M-N Babinet, C Rigard, É Peyroux, A-R Dragomir, I Plotton, H Lejeune, C Demily
INTRODUCTION: The Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic condition characterized by an X supernumerary sex chromosome in males. The syndrome is frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Indeed, the different areas of the executive sphere can be affected such as inhibition, cognitive flexibility but also attentional and visual-spatial domain. Social cognition disorders, predominantly on emotional recognition processes, have also been documented. In addition, the syndrome may be associated with psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Yu-Shu Huang, Christian Guilleminault, Fang-Ming Hwang, Chuan Cheng, Cheng-Hui Lin, Hsueh-Yu Li, Li-Ang Lee
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA.Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Raymond L Ownby, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Deborah L Jones, Sunil Sharma, Ritu Nehra, Adarsh M Kumar, Sudesh Prabhakar, Amarilis Acevedo, Mahendra Kumar
An evaluation of the effects of HIV infection on neurocognition over time is important for understanding disease progression. Changes in cognitive function can be evaluated longitudinally by using neuropsychological testing at repeated intervals. The assessment of change over time, however, is complicated by the potentially confounding influence of learning on repeated test administrations, often referred to as practice effect. In this study, we present data on testing of persons with or without HIV infection on a battery administered at study baseline and repeated 1 year later...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Sarah Sallon, Yahav Dory, Yazeed Barghouti, Tsewang Tamdin, Rigzin Sangmo, Jamyang Tashi, Sonam Yangdon, Tenzin Yeshi, Tsetan Sadutshang, Michal Rotenburg, Elinor Cohen, Yehudit Harlavan, Galit Sharabi, Tali Bdolah-Abram
Mercury an important therapeutic substance in Tibetan Medicine undergoes complex "detoxification" prior to inclusion in multi-ingredient formulas. In an initial cross-sectional study, patients taking Tibetan Medicine for various conditions were evaluated for mercury toxicity. Two groups were identified: Group 1, patients taking " TSOTHEL: " the most important detoxified mercury preparation and Group 2, patients taking other mercury preparations or mercury free Tibetan Medicine. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry of Tibetan Medicine showed mercury consumption 130 µg/kg/day (Group 1) and 30 µg/kg/day (Group 2) (P ≤ 0...
October 13, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
D Hernández-Bonilla, C Escamilla-Núñez, D Mergler, S Rodríguez-Dozal, M Cortez-Lugo, S Montes, L A Tristán-López, M Catalán-Vázquez, A Schilmann, Horacio Riojas-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal involved in multiple physiological functions. Environmental exposure to airborne Mn is associated with neurocognitive deficits in humans. Children, whose nervous system is in development, are particularly susceptible to Mn neurotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between Mn environmental exposure, and effects on visuoperception and visual memory in schoolchildren. METHODS: We assessed schoolchildren between 7 and 11 years old, with similar socioeconomic status, from the mining district of Molango (n=148) and Agua Blanca (n=119, non-mining area) in Hidalgo state, Mexico...
October 11, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ryan M Gardner, Aaron Yengo-Kahn, Christopher M Bonfield, Gary S Solomon
OBJECTIVES: Baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications are recognized as potential modifiers of performance on neurocognitive testing by the Concussion in Sport Group. Our goal was to assess whether individuals with ADHD perform differently on post-concussion testing and if this difference is related to the use of stimulants. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study in which 4373 athletes underwent baseline and post-concussion testing using the ImPACT battery...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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