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Neurocognitive testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805447/performance-on-naturalistic-virtual-reality-tasks-depends-on-global-cognitive-functioning-as-assessed-via-traditional-neurocognitive-tests
#1
Jorge Oliveira, Pedro Gamito, Daniyal M Alghazzawi, Habib M Fardoun, Pedro J Rosa, Tatiana Sousa, Luís Felipe Picareli, Diogo Morais, Paulo Lopes
This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT...
August 14, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803767/semantic-control-deficits-impair-understanding-of-thematic-relationships-more-than-object-identity
#2
Hannah Thompson, James Davey, Paul Hoffman, Glyn Hallam, Rebecca Kosinski, Sarah Howkins, Emma Wooffindin, Rebecca Gabbitas, Elizabeth Jefferies
Recent work has suggested a potential link between the neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the retrieval of events and thematic associations (i.e., knowledge about how concepts relate in a meaningful context) and semantic control processes that support the capacity to shape retrieval to suit the circumstances. Thematic associations and events are inherently flexible: the meaning of an item changes depending on the context (for example, lamp goes with reading, bicycle and police). Control processes might stabilise weak yet currently-relevant interpretations during event understanding...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803087/effect-of-prophylactic-fentanyl-buccal-tablet-on-episodic-exertional-dyspnea-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
David Hui, Kelly Kilgore, Susan Frisbee-Hume, Minjeong Park, Diane Liu, Diwakar D Balachandran, Eduardo Bruera
CONTEXT: Episodic dyspnea is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult-to-treat symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a pilot study to examine the effect of prophylactic FBT on exercise-induced dyspnea. METHODS: In this parallel, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, opioid-tolerant patients were asked to complete a 6 minute walk test (6MWT) at baseline, then a second 6MWT 30 minutes after a single dose of FBT (equivalent to 20-50% of their total opioid dose) or matching placebo...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800740/neurocognitive-sparing-of-desktop-microbeam-irradiation
#4
Soha Bazyar, Christina R Inscoe, Thad Benefield, Lei Zhang, Jianping Lu, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
BACKGROUND: Normal tissue toxicity is the dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy. Spatial fractionation irradiation techniques, like microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), have shown promising results in sparing the normal brain tissue. Most MRT studies have been conducted at synchrotron facilities. With the aim to make this promising treatment more available, we have built the first desktop image-guided MRT device based on carbon nanotube x-ray technology. In the current study, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of MRT on the rodent normal brain tissue using our device and compare it with the effect of the integrated equivalent homogenous dose...
August 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800423/relationship-of-executive-functioning-deficits-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-naa-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder
#5
Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Xian-Feng Shi, Andrew P Prescot, Elaine Clark, Perry F Renshaw, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder (BD) have been repeatedly observed, our understanding of these impairments at a mechanistic level remains limited. Few studies that investigated cognitive impairments in bipolar illness have examined the association with brain biochemistry. This pilot study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to evaluate the relationship between neurocognitive performance and brain metabolites in youth with BD. METHODS: Thirty participants, twenty depressed BD participants and ten healthy comparison participants, ages 13-21, completed mood and executive function measures...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797021/personalized-risk-index-for-neurocognitive-decline-among-people-with-well-controlled-hiv-infection
#6
Tracy Yuen, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Lesley K Fellows, Ronald J Ellis, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Nancy Mayo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the predictors of neurocognitive decline in HIV+ individuals with good virological control. Identification of modifiable risk factors would allow targeted interventions to reduce the risk of decline in higher risk individuals. The objective of this study was to develop a risk index to predict neurocognitive decline over 3 years in aviremic HIV+ individuals. METHODS: As part of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, HIV+ adults completed clinical evaluation and neuropsychological tests every 6 months...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792291/executive-function-in-cancer-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Juan Yang, Juncheng Guo, Xiangling Jiang
Background Cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder can lead to their noncompliant behaviors. However, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of posttraumatic stress disorder in general cancer types or patient populations. The current study attempted to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships with executive function in individuals with cancer. Methods A total of 285 cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and 150 healthy individuals were recruited for the present study...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791662/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-improves-cognitive-performance-and-functional-connectivity-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-individuals
#8
Yuchuan Zhuang, Xing Qiu, Lu Wang, Qing Ma, Mark Mapstone, Amneris Luque, Miriam Weber, Madalina Tivarus, Eric Miller, Roberto C Arduino, Jianhui Zhong, Giovanni Schifitto
Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm(3)) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783374/hiv-and-cognitive-impairment-in-clinical-practice-the-evaluation-of-a-stepwise-screening-protocol-in-relation-to-clinical-outcomes-and-management
#9
Charlotte S Hakkers, Jordan M Kraaijenhof, Esther B van Oers-Hazelzet, Anne J M A Visser-Meily, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends, Roos E Barth
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is an increasingly important comorbidity in an ageing HIV+ population. Despite the lack of available treatment modalities, screening for NCI is recommended. In the UMC Utrecht, yearly NCI screening is done using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool and the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate this screening protocol in relation to clinical outcomes and management. A retrospective cohort study was performed in suppressed adult HIV+ patients...
August 7, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782983/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-addiction-testing-hypotheses-of-diffuse-versus-selective-phenotypic-dysfunction-with-a-classification-based-approach
#10
Warren K Bickel, Lara N Moody, Celia R Eddy, Christopher T Franck
Neurocognitive dysfunctions are frequently identified in the addictions. These dysfunctions may indicate either diffuse dysfunction or may represent separate facets that have differential importance to the addiction phenotype. In a sample (n = 260) of alcohol and/or stimulant users and controls we measured responses across 7 diverse neurocognitive measures. These measures were Continuous Performance, Delay Discounting, Iowa Gambling, Stroop, Tower, Wisconsin Card Sorting, and Letter Number Sequencing. Comparisons were then made between the drug-dependent groups and controls using analysis of variance and also using a machine learning approach to classify participants based on task performance as substance-dependent or controls in 1 tree and as alcohol and/or stimulant users or controls in a second tree...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782457/prospective-memory-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection
#11
Lynnette L Harris, Miriam C Chernoff, Sharon L Nichols, Paige L Williams, Patricia A Garvie, Cenk Yildirim, Stephen R McCauley, Steven Paul Woods
Youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) are at increased risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Prospective memory (PM) is a complex neurocognitive function that has been shown to be impaired in adults with HIV disease and independently associated with poorer daily living skills, including medication nonadherence. The current study sought to determine the presence and extent of PM deficits in youth with PHIV. Participants included 173 youth with PHIV and 85 youth perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU), mean age 14...
August 7, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774365/-neurocognitive-function-of-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-long-term-disease-free-survival-and-related-influencing-factors
#12
Xiao-Yan Fu, Xiao-Tian Xie, Yan Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neurocognitive function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and long-term disease-free survival and related influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 40 ALL children with long-term disease-free survival were enrolled as study group, and 40 healthy children were enrolled as control group. The Chinese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC), continuous performance test (CPT), and Stroop test software were used for the evaluation of all children...
August 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771870/the-perception-and-attention-functions-test-battery-as-a-measure-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-suspected-central-disorders-of-hypersomnolence
#13
Markus Ramm, Arsalan Jafarpour, Matthias Boentert, Nelly Lojewsky, Peter Young, Anna Heidbreder
The aim of the current study was to evaluate an attention test as a discriminative tool to measure neurocognitive impairment in patients with disorders of hypersomnolence. Chronic excessive daytime sleepiness is the main symptom in central disorders of hypersomnolence. For diagnostic purposes and treatment evaluation, reliable assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness is required. Thirty-six patients with central disorders of hypersomnolence were compared with 20 healthy controls. All participants performed the 'Perception and Attention Functions' (WAF) of the Vienna Test System...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771032/reliability-of-computerized-neurocognitive-tests-for-concussion-assessment-a-meta-analysis
#14
James L Farnsworth, Lucas Dargo, Brian G Ragan, Minsoo Kang
OBJECTIVE:   Although widely used, computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) have been criticized because of low reliability and poor sensitivity. A systematic review was published summarizing the reliability of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores; however, this was limited to a single CNT. Expansion of the previous review to include additional CNTs and a meta-analysis is needed. Therefore, our purpose was to analyze reliability data for CNTs using meta-analysis and examine moderating factors that may influence reliability...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770543/feasibility-and-safety-of-virtual-reality-based-early-neurocognitive-stimulation-in-critically-ill-patients
#15
Marc Turon, Sol Fernandez-Gonzalo, Mercè Jodar, Gemma Gomà, Jaume Montanya, David Hernando, Raquel Bailón, Candelaria de Haro, Victor Gomez-Simon, Josefina Lopez-Aguilar, Rudys Magrans, Melcior Martinez-Perez, Joan Carles Oliva, Lluís Blanch
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-neurotoxic-effects-of-efavirenz-are-greater-than-those-of-other-common-antiretrovirals
#16
Vincent T Ciavatta, Edyta K Bichler, Iris A Speigel, Courtney C Elder, Shavonne L Teng, William R Tyor, Paul S García
Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced the incidence of severe dementia associated with HIV infection, there has been a rise in milder neurocognitive complaints. Data from HIV patients taking ARVs have shown measurable neurocognitive improvements during drug cessation, suggesting a neurotoxic role of the therapy itself. Mechanisms underlying potential ARV neurotoxicity have not been thoroughly investigated, however pathologic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suspected. Using DIV 16 primary rat cortical neuron culture, we tested eight ARVs from the three most commonly prescribed ARV classes: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) for effects on neuron viability and morphology after 24 h of drug exposure...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769544/personality-characteristics-and-neurocognitive-functions-in-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yuejing Wu, Sherrie Wang, Yi Huang, Tao Li
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in children and the huge family burdens have caused concern in the academic field as well as society. AIM: To study the personality characteristics and neurocognitive functions in the Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compare them with the parents of well-developed children. METHOD: This study recruited 41 Chinese children who met the diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-IV (DSM-IV)...
February 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768147/production-of-human-recombinant-phenylalanine-hydroxylase-in-lactobacillus-plantarum-for-gastrointestinal-delivery
#18
Aura María Ramírez, Alexander Rodriguez-López, Andrea Ardila, Laura Beltran, Camilo Andres Patarroyo, Adelina Del Pilar Melendez, Oscar Fernando Sánchez, Carlos Javier Alméciga-Díaz
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defective phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which catalyzes the hydroxylation of l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) to l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) in presence of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Defective PAH causes accumulation of phenylalanine, which has neurotoxic effects and leads to dermatological, behavioral, and neurocognitive problems. Treatments for this disease consist in life-long diets that are hard for patients to keep, or supplementation with BH4...
July 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764939/exercise-related-cognitive-effects-on-sensory-motor-control-in-athletes-and-drummers-compared-to-non-athletes-and-other-musicians
#19
V Bianco, M Berchicci, R L Perri, F Quinzi, F Di Russo
Both playing a musical instrument and playing sport produce brain adaptations that might affect sensory-motor functions. While the benefits of sport practice have traditionally been attributed to aerobic fitness, it is still unknown whether playing an instrument might induce similar brain adaptations, or if a specific musical instrument like drums might be associated to specific benefits because of its high energy expenditure. Since the aerobic costs of playing drums was estimated to be comparable to those of average sport activities, we hypothesized that these two groups might show both behavioral and neurocognitive similarities...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758167/joint-data-harmonization-and-group-cardinality-constrained-classification
#20
Yong Zhang, Sang Hyun Park, Kilian M Pohl
To boost the power of classifiers, studies often increase the size of existing samples through the addition of independently collected data sets. Doing so requires harmonizing the data for demographic and acquisition differences based on a control cohort before performing disease specific classification. The initial harmonization often mitigates group differences negatively impacting classification accuracy. To preserve cohort separation, we propose the first model unifying linear regression for data harmonization with a logistic regression for disease classification...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
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