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multiple sclerosis risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739605/genetic-variation-in-the-gene-lrp2-increases-relapse-risk-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Yuan Zhou, Jennifer S Graves, Steve Simpson, Jac C Charlesworth, Ingrid van der Mei, Emmanuelle Waubant, Lisa F Barcellos, Anita Belman, Lauren Krupp, Robyn Lucas, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Bruce V Taylor
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of prospective studies with longitudinal data on relapse, past genetic studies have not attempted to identify genetic factors that predict relapse risk (the primary endpoint of many pivotal clinical trials testing the efficacy of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying drugs) at a genome-wide scale. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genetic variants that predict MS relapse risk, using a three-stage approach...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739526/chronic-mild-stress-exacerbates-severity-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-association-with-altered-non-coding-rna-and-metabolic-biomarkers
#2
Brietta Gerrard, Vaibhav Singh, Olena Babenko, Isabelle Gauthier, V Wee Yong, Igor Kovalchuk, Artur Luczak, Gerlinde A S Metz
The causal factors determining the onset and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well understood. Here, we investigated the influence of chronic stress on clinical symptoms, metabolic and epigenetic manifestations of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a common animal model of MS. Lewis rats were immunized for monophasic EAE with MBP69-88 and were exposed to chronic stress for 37 days starting 7 days prior to immunization. The exposure to stress accelerated and exacerbated the clinical symptoms of EAE...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738749/an-update-on-multiple-sclerosis-in-children-diagnosis-therapies-and-prospects-for-the-future
#3
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Brenda Banwell
Abstrac Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is increasing being recognized in children and adolescents. Pediatric MS follows a relapsing-remitting course at onset, with a risk for early cognitive impairment. Areas Covered: In this review, we discuss the clinical features of acute demyelinating syndromes in children and risk factors that increase the likelihood of a diagnosis of MS. We also address the application of diagnostic criteria for MS in children, immunological features, therapeutic options and psychosocial considerations for children and adolescents with MS...
July 25, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737987/factors-associated-with-patient-preferences-for-disease-modifying-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Ana L Hincapie, Jonathan Penm, Craig F Burns
BACKGROUND: Treatment adherence in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is essential to reduce the rate of acute neurological attacks, severity of relapses, and hospitalizations and to slow its progression. Adherence rates in MS patients have been shown to be affected by multiple factors, including physical or cognitive difficulties, perceived lack of treatment efficacy, treatment-related adverse events, injection anxiety, and frequency of administration. OBJECTIVE: To elicit the preferences of MS patients for noneconomic and economic attributes of current disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)...
August 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737986/real-world-adherence-and-persistence-to-oral-disease-modifying-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-over-1-year
#5
Kristen M Johnson, Huanxue Zhou, Feng Lin, John J Ko, Vivian Herrera
BACKGROUND: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are indicated to reduce relapse rates and slow disease progression for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients when taken as prescribed. Nonadherence or non-persistence in the real-world setting can lead to greater risk for negative clinical outcomes. Although previous research has demonstrated greater adherence and persistence to oral DMTs compared with injectable DMTs, comparisons among oral DMTs are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare adherence, persistence, and time to discontinuation among MS patients newly prescribed the oral DMTs fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, or teriflunomide...
August 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731372/exploring-the-effect-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-the-anti-ebv-antibody-response-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Linda Rolf, Anne-Hilde Muris, Amandine Mathias, Renaud Du Pasquier, Inga Koneczny, Giulio Disanto, Jens Kuhle, Sreeram Ramagopalan, Jan Damoiseaux, Joost Smolders, Raymond Hupperts
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and vitamin D insufficiency are potentially interacting risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplements on antibody levels against the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and to explore any underlying mechanism affecting anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels. METHODS: This study utilized blood samples from a randomized controlled trial in RRMS patients receiving either vitamin D3 (14,000 IU/day; n = 30) or placebo ( n = 23) over 48 weeks...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729889/differential-methylation-at-mhc-in-cd4-t-cells-is-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-independently-of-hla-drb1
#7
Vicki E Maltby, Rodney A Lea, Katherine A Sanders, Nicole White, Miles C Benton, Rodney J Scott, Jeannette Lechner-Scott
BACKGROUND: Although many genetic variants have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, they do not explain all the disease risk and there remains uncertainty as to how these variants contribute to disease. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that can influence gene expression and has the potential to mediate the effects of environmental factors on MS. In a previous study, we found a differentially methylation region (DMR) at MHC HLA-DRB1 that was associated within relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients in CD4(+) T cells...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721050/the-use-of-natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Rachel Brandstadter, Ilana Katz Sand
Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts as an α4 integrin antagonist to prevent leukocyte trafficking into the central nervous system. It is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab demonstrated high efficacy in Phase III trials by reducing the annualized relapse rate, preventing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion accumulation on magnetic resonance imaging, and decreasing the probability of sustained progression of disability...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721023/persistence-to-disease-modifying-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-canadian-cohort
#9
Dessalegn Y Melesse, Ruth Ann Marrie, James F Blanchard, Bo Nancy Yu, Charity Evans
PURPOSE: To examine the long-term persistence to the first-line injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify the factors associated with nonpersistence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada. All adult subjects who were diagnosed with MS and dispensed a first-line injectable DMT (beta-interferon-1b, beta-interferon-1a, and glatiramer acetate) between 1996 and 2011 and had a minimum of 1 year of follow-up were included...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717432/multiple-sclerosis-a-disease-on-a-dramatically-rising-trend-in-iran-review-of-possible-reasons
#10
REVIEW
Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mohammad Sahebkar, Rouhullah Dehghani, Milad Derakhshan-Jazari, Vahid Kazami-Moghaddam, Ebrahim Kouchaki
There has been a global rising trend in recent years in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite being an MS low-risk region, this disease has also been recently on the rise in the Middle East. As part of the Middle East, Iran has not been spared either; however, the cause of this dramatic increase remains to be discovered. This study reviews possible reasons for this increase in Iran. Although many factors such as the increased rate of smoking, lifestyle changes, modernization, and contact with toxic solvents can be proposed as reasons for this sudden rise in the prevalence of MS in Iran, these factors cannot be taken as definite causes and further studies are required to prove their impact...
January 5, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716249/high-risk-of-early-conversion-to-multiple-sclerosis-in-clinically-isolated-syndromes-with-dissemination-in-space-at-baseline
#11
Lorenzo Gaetani, Fulvia Fanelli, Ilenia Riccucci, Paolo Eusebi, Paola Sarchielli, Carlo Pozzilli, Paolo Calabresi, Luca Prosperini, Massimiliano Di Filippo
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) usually presents at onset with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). According to 2010 McDonald criteria, a diagnosis of MS can be made if CIS patients satisfy clinical/MRI criteria of both dissemination in time (DIT) and space (DIS). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the follow-up data and possible prognostic factors of CIS patients satisfying DIS MRI criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study across 2 Italian centers...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716229/association-between-interleukin-32-polymorphism-and-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Zaher Morsaljahan, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan, Mahmoud Abedini, Masoumeh Pakseresht, Rezvan Khajavi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Environmental and genetic factors play a key role in the development of the disease. Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a cytokine inducing crucial inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and MIP-2. The present study was an attempt to reveal any association between IL-32 levels and C/T promoter SNP with susceptibility to MS. METHODS: This case control study recruited a total of 304 subjects including 132 MS patients and 172 sex- and age-matched healthy controls...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716070/comorbidity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-from-asturias-and-catalonia-spain
#13
Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Elena Ruíz-Beato, Ruth Navarro-Artieda, Jorge Maurino
BACKGROUND: The impact of comorbidity on multiple sclerosis (MS) is a new area of interest. Limited data on the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is currently available. The aim of this study was to estimate the presence of comorbid conditions and MetS in a sample of adult patients with MS. METHODS: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from 19 primary care centres in Catalonia and Asturias, Spain. The number of chronic diseases (diagnoses), the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the individual Case-mix Index were used to assess general comorbidity variables...
July 17, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712424/determinants-and-incidence-of-depression-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
S A Berzins, A G Bulloch, J M Burton, K S Dobson, G H Fick, S B Patten
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and explore potential determinants of incidence of depression in MS. METHODS: A prospective cohort study used a sample of 192 patients from the southern Alberta MS clinic registry. Participants completed baseline risk factor assessment questionnaires using either online, mail or telephone surveys, and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire every 2weeks for 6months to assess depressive symptoms in real time. Risk factors assessed included biopsychosocial variables such as socioeconomic status, illness-related factors, childhood risk factors, psychosocial factors, and health behaviors...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701499/breastfeeding-ovulatory-years-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Annette Langer-Gould, Jessica B Smith, Kerstin Hellwig, Edlin Gonzales, Samantha Haraszti, Corinna Koebnick, Anny Xiang
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether women who breastfeed their infants longer or have fewer ovulatory years are at lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We recruited women with newly diagnosed MS or its precursor, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n = 397), and matched controls (n = 433) into the MS Sunshine Study from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California. A structured in-person questionnaire was administered to collect the behavioral (pregnancies, breastfeeding, hormonal contraceptive use) and biological (age at menarche and menopause, amenorrhea) factors to make up ovulatory years...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681616/depression-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Scott B Patten, Ruth Ann Marrie, Mauro G Carta
Depressive disorders occur in up to 50% of people living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Prevalence estimates are generally 2-3-times higher than those of the general population. Myriad aetiologic factors may contribute to the aetiology of depression in MS including biological mechanisms (e.g. hippocampal microglial activation, lesion burden, regional atrophy), as well as the stressors, threats, and losses that accompany living with an unpredictable and often disabling disease. Some prominent risk factors for depression such as (younger) age, (female) sex, and family history of depression are less consistently associated with depression in MS than they are in the general population...
July 6, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681388/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-is-decreased-in-natalizumab-treated-multiple-sclerosis-patients-at-risk-for-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#17
Nicolas Fissolo, Béatrice Pignolet, Clara Matute-Blanch, Juan Carlos Triviño, Berta Miró, Miriam Mota, Santiago Perez-Hoyos, Alex Sanchez, Patrick Vermersch, Aurélie Ruet, Jérôme de Sèze, Pierre Labauge, Sandra Vukusic, Caroline Papeix, Laurent Almoyna, Ayman Tourbah, Pierre Clavelou, Thibault Moreau, Jean Pelletier, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Xavier Montalban, David Brassat, Manuel Comabella
OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers associated with the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab (NTZ). METHODS: Relapsing-remitting MS patients who developed PML under NTZ therapy (pre-PML) and non-PML NTZ-treated patients (NTZ-ctr) were included in the study. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum samples collected at baseline, at 1- and 2-year treated time points, and during PML were analyzed for gene expression by RNA sequencing and for serum protein levels by Luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671487/environmental-modifiable-risk-factors-for-multiple-sclerosis-report-from-the-2016-ectrims-focused-workshop
#18
Maria Pia Amato, Tobias Derfuss, Bernard Hemmer, Roland Liblau, Xavier Montalban, Per Soelberg Sørensen, David H Miller
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), most likely autoimmune in origin, usually beginning in early adulthood. The aetiology of the disease is not well understood; it is viewed currently as a multifactorial disease which results from complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors, of which a few are potentially modifiable. Improving our understanding of these factors can lead to new and more effective approaches to patient counselling and, possibly, prevention and management of the disease...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669032/immunosenescence-the-role-of-aging-in-the-predisposition-to-neuro-infectious-complications-arising-from-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Elena Grebenciucova, Joseph R Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights some of the important changes in the immune system that occur in the process of normal aging. Immunosenescence as a concept is directly relevant to the world of neuro-inflammation, as it may be a contributing factor to the risks associated with some of the current immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies used in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Profound qualitative and quantitative changes occur in the adaptive and innate immunity compartments during aging...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666966/aapt-diagnostic-criteria-for-central-neuropathic-pain
#20
Eva Widerström-Noga, John D Loeser, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Nanna Brix Finnerup
Central neuropathic pain, which is pain caused by a lesion or disease of the central somatosensory nervous system, is a serious consequence of spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions affecting the central nervous system. A collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks public-private partnership and the American Pain Society, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) initiative, invited a working group to develop diagnostic criteria for central neuropathic pain...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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