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multiple sclerosis risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332010/oligogenic-genetic-variation-of-neurodegenerative-disease-genes-in-980-postmortem-human-brains
#1
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Juvid Aryaman, Ian Wilson, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Nick Jones, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that multiple rare genetic variants in genes causing monogenic forms of neurodegenerative disorders interact synergistically to increase disease risk or reduce the age of onset, but these studies have not been validated in large sporadic case series. METHODS: We analysed 980 neuropathologically characterised human brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease-dementia with Lewy bodies (PD-DLB), frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) and age-matched controls...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327284/treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-relapses-with-high-dose-methylprednisolone-reduces-the-evolution-of-contrast-enhancing-lesions-into-persistent-black-holes
#2
Maria Di Gregorio, Lorenzo Gaetani, Paolo Eusebi, Piero Floridi, Antonella Picchioni, Giovanni Rosi, Andrea Mancini, Chiara Floridi, Francesca Baschieri, Lucia Gentili, Paola Sarchielli, Paolo Calabresi, Massimiliano Di Filippo
INTRODUCTION: The MRI evidence of persistent black holes (pBHs) on T1-weighted images reflects brain tissue loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). The evolution of contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) into pBHs probably depends on the degree and persistence of focal brain inflammation. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of a single cycle of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP), as for MS relapse treatment, on the risk of CELs' evolution into pBHs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We selected 57 patients with CELs on the baseline MRI scan...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325110/impact-of-genetic-risk-loci-for-multiple-sclerosis-on-expression-of-proximal-genes-in-patients
#3
Tojo James, Magdalena Lindén, Hiromasa Morikawa, Sunjay Jude Fernandes, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Mikael Huss, Maya Brandi, Fredrik Piehl, Maja Jagodic, Jesper Tegnér, Mohsen Khademi, Tomas Olsson, David Gomez-Cabrero, Ingrid Kockum
Despite advancements in genetic studies, it is difficult to understand and characterize the functional relevance of disease-associated genetic variants, especially in the context of a complex multifactorial disease such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Since a large proportion of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are context-specific, we performed RNA-Seq in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MS patients (n = 145) to identify eQTLs in regions centered on 109 MS risk SNPs and seven associated HLA variants...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320952/fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-is-associated-with-disability-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#4
Riley Bove, Brain C Healy, Alexander Musallam, Pejvak Soltany, Camilo Diaz-Cruz, Neda Sattarnezhad, Bonnie I Glanz, Pia Kivisäkk, Karen K Miller, Tanuja Chitnis
BACKGROUND: Increased adiposity is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS) and is associated with increased disability scores. Adipokines may mediate the effects of adiposity on MS disease course. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the association between the adipokines (leptin and fatty acid binding protein-4, FABP4) and clinical course in individuals with MS. METHODS: Subjects (18-65 years) with relapsing-remitting MS or clinically isolated syndrome and <10 year disease duration were selected from a longitudinal clinical study...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311123/the-gut-microbiome-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Javier Ochoa-Repáraz, Trevor O Kirby, Lloyd H Kasper
The microbiome can be defined as the sum of the microbial and host's genome. Recent information regarding this complex organ suggests that in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), the composition of the gut microbiome can be altered, giving rise to both the effector and regulatory phases of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Experimental findings during the past decade in animal models of MS have provided clear evidence for the significant role of gut microbes in both the effector and regulatory phase of this condition...
January 8, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300420/lower-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-is-associated-with-higher-relapse-risk-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#6
C Wang, Z Zeng, B Wang, S Guo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between serum circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations and exacerbation risk in Chinese patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS). METHODS: From January 2014 to December 2014, consecutive RR-MS patients admitted to the Department of Neurology of our hospital were identified. Blood samples for 25(OH) D measurements were taken at admission. All included patients visited the outpatient clinic of our hospital 1 year after admission...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274834/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-neurology
#7
Rosa Burgos, Irene Bretón, Emanuele Cereda, Jean Claude Desport, Rainer Dziewas, Laurence Genton, Filomena Gomes, Pierre Jésus, Andreas Leischker, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Kalliopi-Anna Poulia, Jean Charles Preiser, Marjolein Van der Marck, Rainer Wirth, Pierre Singer, Stephan C Bischoff
Neurological diseases are frequently associated with swallowing disorders and malnutrition. Moreover, patients with neurological diseases are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency and dehydration. On the other hand, nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Multiple causes for the development of malnutrition in patients with neurological diseases are known including oropharyngeal dysphagia, impaired consciousness, perception deficits, cognitive dysfunction, and increased needs...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273846/intrathecal-oligoclonal-bands-synthesis-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-it-always-a-prognostic-factor
#8
Jessica Frau, Luisa Maria Villar, Claudia Sardu, Maria Antonietta Secci, Lucia Schirru, Diana Ferraro, Giancarlo Coghe, Lorena Lorefice, Giuseppe Fenu, Roberta Bedin, Patrizia Sola, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Eleonora Cocco
BACKGROUND: Oligoclonal IgM (OCMB) and IgG (OCGB) bands were found to be associated with poor multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of OCMB/OCGB in a cohort of Sardinian MS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited patients from the University of Cagliari. They underwent lumbar puncture for diagnostic purposes. Demographic and the following clinical data were recorded: clinical course; time to reach EDSS 3 and 6; EDSS at last follow-up; and MS treatments...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241142/unmet-needs-burden-of-treatment-and-patient-engagement-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-perspective-from-the-ms-in-the-21st-century-steering-group
#9
Peter Rieckmann, Diego Centonze, Irina Elovaara, Gavin Giovannoni, Eva Havrdová, Jurg Kesselring, Gisela Kobelt, Dawn Langdon, Sarah A Morrow, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Sven Schippling, Christoph Thalheim, Heidi Thompson, Patrick Vermersch, Karen Aston, Birgit Bauer, Christy Demory, Maria Paz Giambastiani, Jana Hlavacova, Jocelyne Nouvet-Gire, George Pepper, Maija Pontaga, Emma Rogan, Chrystal Rogalski, Pieter van Galen, Ali-Frédéric Ben-Amor
BACKGROUND: Patient engagement is vital in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to optimise outcomes for patients, society and healthcare systems. It is essential to involve all stakeholders in potential solutions, working in a multidisciplinary way to ensure that people with MS (PwMS) are included in shared decision-making and disease management. To start this process, a collaborative, open environment between PwMS and healthcare professionals (HCPs) is required so that similarities and disparities in the perception of key areas in patient care and unmet needs can be identified...
November 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223794/a-new-t2-lesion-in-a-patient-with-the-clinically-isolated-syndrome-does-not-necessarily-imply-a-conversion-to-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Fioravante Capone, Marco Puthenparampil, Carlo Augusto Mallio, Alessandra Ida Celia, Lucia Florio, Paolo Gallo, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
In the follow-up of patients with the clinically isolated syndrome, both clinical and MRI findings should be carefully evaluated by clinicians to avoid misinterpretation and inappropriate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. We describe a case of a patient with a previous diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome who developed a new asymptomatic brain lesion at the MRI follow-up. The careful evaluation of clinical history and radiological findings allowed the correct diagnosis of cocaine-associated ischemic stroke...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212866/acquired-haemophilia-a-complicating-alemtuzumab-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Georgia McCaughan, Jennifer Massey, Ian Sutton, Jennifer Curnow
Alemtuzumab is a highly efficacious therapy used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), but uncoupling of T and B cell repopulation during immune reconstitution associates with an increasing range of secondary B cell-mediated autoimmune complications. A 34-year-old woman developed Graves' disease 11 months following an initial course of alemtuzumab treatment for MS. Nine months following the second treatment with alemtuzumab, the patient presented with spontaneous intramuscular and subcutaneous haemorrhage due to development of an inhibitory autoantibody to coagulation factor VIII...
December 5, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210147/drug-exposure-and-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Heather Y Yong, Kyla A McKay, Cole G J Daley, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Several environmental and lifestyle factors have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, including some pharmacological treatments. We systematically reviewed the literature on prescription drug exposure and MS risk. METHODS: Six databases were searched for original observational studies reporting drug exposure and MS risk published before 2017. RESULTS: Thirteen articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Exposure to neither amiloride nor valproic acid was associated with MS (adjusted hazard ratio (adj...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209435/diseases-potentially-related-to-flammer-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Katarzyna Konieczka, Carl Erb
Flammer syndrome (FS) is a prevalent and mostly benign condition. Subjects with FS seem to have a good life expectancy. Nevertheless, FS subjects are at increased risk for certain diseases, mainly when they are challenged by psychological stress or other stimuli such as coldness. FS is related to ocular diseases, such as normal-tension glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, central serous chorioretinopathy, optic nerve compartment syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, arterial or venous occlusions in the retina, and choroid and optic nerve head, despite the absence of classical vascular risk factors...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209434/vitamin-d-in-the-prevention-prediction-and-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-and-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Priscilla Koduah, Friedemann Paul, Jan-Markus Dörr
Vitamin D research has gained increased attention in recent times due to its roles beyond bone health and calcium homeostasis, such as immunomodulation. In some parts of the brain and on immune cells, vitamin D hydroxylating enzymes and its receptors are located. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that deficiency of Vitamin D is relevant for disease risk and course in multiple sclerosis (MS) and presumably also in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204297/which-environmental-factor-is-correlated-with-long-term-multiple-sclerosis-incidence-trends-ultraviolet-b-radiation-or-geomagnetic-disturbances
#15
Seyed Aidin Sajedi, Fahimeh Abdollahi
Background: Insufficient received ultraviolet B radiation (UV) is regarded as the main environmental risk factor (RF) for MS in vitamin D deficiency hypothesis. Nevertheless, geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) has also been proposed as a potential trigger for MS in GMD hypothesis. The aim of this study was to investigate which of these mentioned RF is correlated with long-term ultradecadal MS incidence. Methods: After a systematic search, long-term incidence reports of the United Kingdom (UK), Denmark, Tayside County, Nordland County, the Orkney, and Shetland Islands were selected for this retrospective time-series study...
2017: Multiple Sclerosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195140/are-the-decrease-in-circulating-anti-%C3%AE-1-3-gal-igg-and-the-lower-content-of-galactosyl-transferase-a1-in-the-microbiota-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-novel-environmental-risk-factor-for-the-disease
#16
Emmanuel Montassier, Laureline Berthelot, Jean-Paul Soulillou
The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly the environmental component of the disease, remains speculative. Recent reports have suggested that alterations in the gut microbiota of MS patients could contribute to the etiology or pathophysiology of the disease. In this Viewpoint, using PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) to infer the functional content of the gut microbiota, we show that the gut microbiota of MS patients is characterized by a significant decrease in the relative abundance of the enzyme EC 2...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191793/combined-therapies-to-treat-complex-diseases-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Laura Calvo-Barreiro, Herena Eixarch, Xavier Montalban, Carmen Espejo
The commensal microbiota has emerged as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models have shown that the commensal microbiota is an essential player in triggering autoimmune demyelination. Likewise, the commensal microbiota modulates the host immune system, alters the integrity and function of biological barriers and has a direct effect on several types of central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Moreover, a characteristic gut dysbiosis has been recognized as a consistent feature during the clinical course of MS, and the MS-related microbiota is gradually being elucidated...
November 27, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179258/increased-risk-of-autoimmune-disorders-in-infertile-men-analysis-of-us-claims-data
#18
W D Brubaker, S Li, L C Baker, M L Eisenberg
Aberrations in reproductive fitness may be a harbinger of medical diseases in men. Existing data suggest that female infertility is associated with autoimmune disorders; however, this has not been examined in men. As immune surveillance and hormonal factors can impact male fertility and autoimmunity, we sought to determine the association between male infertility and incident autoimmune disorders. We analyzed subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan claims database from 2001 to 2008. Infertile men were identified through diagnosis and treatment codes...
January 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161697/age-period-cohort-modeling-of-multiple-sclerosis-incidence-rates-in-kuwait-1980-2014
#19
Saeed Akhtar, Jarrah Al-Abkal, Jasem Y Al-Hashel, Raed Alroughani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system with undefined etiology. Genetic predisposition and environmental factors play an imperative role in MS causation and its sustained increasing burden worldwide. This study examined the age, period, and cohort effects on MS incidence rates in Kuwait. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on MS cases diagnosed between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2014 and registered in National MS Registry and reference population were obtained...
November 21, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159928/the-immunogenetics-of-neurological-disease
#20
REVIEW
Maneesh K Misra, Vincent Damotte, Jill A Hollenbach
Genes encoding antigen-presenting molecules within the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) account for the highest component of genetic risk for many neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Myriad genetic, immunological and environmental factors may contribute to an individual's susceptibility to neurological disease. Here, we review and discuss the decades long research on the influence of genetic variation at the MHC locus and the role of immunogenetic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) loci in neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
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