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multiple sclerosis risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093709/molecular-genetic-and-epigenetic-basis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Zohreh Hojati
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of spinal cord and brain. The initial event in MS occurs when activated CD4(+) T cells in periphery exacerbates immune responses by stimulating immune cells such as B cells, CD8(+) cells, mast cells, granulocytes and monocytes. These proinflammatory cells pass blood brain barrier by secreting proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and INF-γ which activate adhesion factors. APCs (antigen-presenting cells) reactivate CD4(+) T cells after infiltrating the CNS and CD4(+) T cells produce cytokines and chemokines...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093708/multiple-sclerosis-and-eif2b5-a-paradox-or-a-missing-link
#2
Insha Zahoor, Ehtishamul Haq, Ravouf Asimi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an encumbering inflammatory condition of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by axonal demyelination. There is sufficient evidence suggesting role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B) gene family encoding the five subunits of eIF2B complex-α, β, γ, δ and ε respectively, in causing vanishing white matter (VWM) disease of the brain. Incidentally researchers have proposed overlapping between MS and VWM in terms of clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects, which incited us to write this chapter to explore the association between EIF2B5 and MS...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078563/changes-in-first-line-injectable-disease-modifying-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis-predictors-of-non-adherence-switching-discontinuation-and-interruption-of-drugs
#3
Luca Degli Esposti, Carlo Piccinni, Diego Sangiorgi, Valentina Perrone, Lucia Aledda, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Fabio Lombardo
This study was aimed to describe changes of Disease-Modifying Treatments (DMT) in an Italian cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify predictors of therapeutic modifications. Patients with MS and treated with the first-line injectable DMT (interferons-IFNs or glatiramer) between 1/7/2009 and 31/10/2012 were selected from administrative databases of the MS Center of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). Socio-demographic, therapeutic, and clinical information was collected in the 6 months preceding the index date...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073764/causal-effect-of-genetic-variants-associated-with-body-mass-index-on-multiple-sclerosis-susceptibility
#4
Milena A Gianfrancesco, M Maria Glymour, Stefan Walter, Brooke Rhead, Xiaorong Shao, Ling Shen, Hong Quach, Alan Hubbard, Ingileif Jónsdóttir, Kári Stefánsson, Pernilla Strid, Jan Hillert, Anna Hedström, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Catherine Schaefer, Lars Alfredsson, Lisa F Barcellos
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies indicate that childhood and adolescent obesity double the risk of MS, but this association may reflect unmeasured confounders rather than causal effects of obesity. We used separate-sample Mendelian randomization to estimate the causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on susceptibility to MS. Using data from non-Hispanic white members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan of Northern California (KPNC) (2006-2014; 1,104 cases of MS and 10,536 controls) and a replication data set from Sweden (the Epidemiological Investigation of MS (EIMS) and the Genes and Environment in MS (GEMS) studies, 2005-2013; 5,133 MS cases and 4,718 controls), we constructed a weighted genetic risk score using 97 variants previously established to predict BMI...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067603/protective-personality-traits-high-openness-and-low-neuroticism-linked-to-better-memory-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Victoria M Leavitt, Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Matilde Inglese, James F Sumowski
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, although few risk/protective factors are known. OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships of personality to memory/non-memory cognition in MS. METHOD: 80 patients completed a cognitive battery and a personality scale measuring the "Big 5" traits: openness, neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness. RESULTS: Memory was most related to openness, with higher openness linked to better memory and lower risk for memory impairment, controlling for age, atrophy, education, and intelligence quotient (IQ)...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054824/beyond-binary-exploring-the-merits-of-three-depression-groups-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Margaret H Cadden, Jessica E Meyer, Peter A Arnett
OBJECTIVE: Depression has been traditionally explored in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) as a binary construct (depressed, not depressed). However, given the 50% lifetime prevalence rate of depression in MS, it may be useful to consider not only currently depressed versus nondepressed patients, but to evaluate groups that better characterize the complexity of MS depression. The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, cognitive, illness, and psychosocial variables thought to associate with depression in MS across 3 groups: currently depressed, remitted depression, and never been depressed...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054170/risk-factors-for-unprovoked-epileptic-seizures-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Sara Gasparini, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Michele Ascoli, Chiara Sueri, Vittoria Cianci, Concetta Russo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Pasquale Striano, Maurizio Elia, Ettore Beghi, Carmela Colica, Umberto Aguglia
The role of different factors in influencing the risk of seizures during multiple sclerosis (MS) is not known. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for epilepsy during MS. Pubmed, Google scholar, and Scopus databases were searched. Articles published in English (1986-2016) were included. Nine studies were included (3 retrospective cohort and 6 case-control) enrolling 2845 MS patients (217 with epilepsy; 7.6%). MS patients with epilepsy had a younger age at onset compared to MS patients without seizures (difference in means = -5...
January 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053559/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-links-risks-and-management-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Konstantinos Tselios, Dafna D Gladman, Murray B Urowitz
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the second highest prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), after systemic sclerosis, among the connective tissue diseases. SLE-associated PAH is hemodynamically defined by increased mean pulmonary artery pressure at rest (≥25 mmHg) with normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (≤15 mmHg) and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Estimated prevalence ranges from 0.5% to 17.5% depending on the diagnostic method used and the threshold of right ventricular systolic pressure in studies using transthoracic echocardiogram...
2017: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049398/infectious-agents-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-exploring-the-links
#9
Mohammad Zubair Alam, Qamre Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Asif Ahmad Jiman-Fatani, Esam I Azhar, Mohammad Azhar Khan, Absarul Haque
Recent studies have shown that bacterial and viral infections are risk factors for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Lyme disease (LD). However, it is still controversial how the infections play a role in neurological diseases progression. Infections in central nervous system may lead multiple damages in infected and neighboring cells. The infection leads to the activation of inflammatory processes and host immune responses, which acts as defense mechanism and also causes damage to the host neuronal functions and viability...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036121/study-of-the-anti-jcv-antibody-levels-in-a-spanish-multiple-sclerosis-cohort
#10
María I Dominguez-Mozo, Macarena Rus, Jose L Santiago, Guillermo Izquierdo, Ignacio Casanova, Victoria Galan, M Angel Garcia-Martinez, Ana M Arias-Leal, Marta García-Montojo, Silvia Pérez-Pérez, Rafael Arroyo, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente
One of the risk factor to develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) among natalizumab-treated patients is the presence and high levels of anti-JCV antibodies. Our purpose was to test the association of different clinical and demographic variables with the presence and levels of anti-JCV antibodies in a Spanish cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during natalizumab treatment MATERIALS AND METHODS: All MS patients from two hospitals with at least one measure of the anti-JCV antibodies levels (2011-2014) were recruited, among them two PML cases...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017424/predictors-of-long-term-visual-outcome-in-intermediate-uveitis
#11
Rachael L Niederer, Lazha Sharief, Asaf Bar, Sue L Lightman, Oren Tomkins-Netzer
PURPOSE: To describe factors that predict visual loss and complications in intermediate uveitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects with intermediate uveitis were identified from a database of 1254 uveitis patients seen in the clinic of a single consultant (S.L.L.) between 2011 and 2013. METHODS: Information was gathered from the clinical notes of all subjects examined in clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), moderate visual loss (MVL; ≤20/50), severe visual loss (SVL; ≤20/200)...
December 22, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017222/association-between-human-herpesvirus-human-endogenous-retrovirus-and-ms-onset-progression
#12
REVIEW
Chunrong Tao, Steve Simpson, Bruce V Taylor, Ingrid van der Mei
This review discusses the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in the onset and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although EBV has been established as one of the causal factors in MS onset, its role in MS progression is still uncertain. Moreover, interactions between EBV and other risk factor on MS development still need more investment. With less consistent evidence than EBV, HHV6 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS; moreover, it showed a closer connection with the disease activity...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999524/individual-and-co-occurring-snap-risk-factors-smoking-nutrition-alcohol-consumption-and-physical-activity-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Julia M Balto, Ipek Ensari, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Naiman Khan, Jennifer L Barnes, Robert W Motl
Background: Smoking, poor nutrition, excess alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity underlie most preventable causes of morbidity in the general population and may be associated with comorbidities and health outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the frequency of co-occurrence of these risk factors in people with MS remains unclear. Methods: Sixty-nine individuals with MS completed self-report measures of smoking status, nutrition, alcohol use, physical activity levels, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics...
November 2016: International Journal of MS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998160/risk-factors-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-relation-with-disease-severity-a-cross-sectional-study-from-iran
#14
Maryam Abbasi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Iman Ansari, Nikan Zerafatjou, Vahid Shayegannejad, Seyed Ehsan Mohammadianinejad, Mahdi Farhoudi, Abbas Noorian, Nazanin Razazian, Mahmoud Abedini, Fardin Faraji
BACKGROUND: Many risk factors have been investigated in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have focused on the association between risk factors and the disease severity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between some of these risk factors and MS severity in a population sample of Iranian patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 660 patients with MS. In addition to demographic variables, many potential risk factors were recorded...
December 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996340/geographic-variation-as-a-risk-factor-for-digital-ulcers-in-systemic-sclerosis-patients-a-multicentre-registry
#15
Ejr Souza, C S Muller, Amc Horimoto, R A Rezende, I Guimarães, H A Mariz, A T Dantas, I P Da Costa, Apt Del-Rio, J Sekiyama, C B Kahwage, C Kayser
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of geographic variation on the risk of digital ulcer (DU) development in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional, multicentre study evaluated patients with SSc from centres located in different geographic regions of Brazil (subtropical and tropical climate zones). Demographic and clinical data were collected. RESULTS: The study included 141 patients with SSc (26 from the subtropical and 115 from the tropical zone)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990499/obesity-and-multiple-sclerosis-susceptibility-a-review
#16
Milena A Gianfrancesco, Lisa F Barcellos
Several studies conducted around the world over the last decade have demonstrated that early childhood and adolescent obesity are significant risk factors for MS susceptibility. This association has been largely confirmed in females, while evidence supporting a strong role for obesity and risk of MS in males has been mixed. Further, interaction between increased body mass index and genetic as well as environmental factors in MS susceptibility has been proposed, and evidence of a causal relationship has recently been established...
2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976932/effects-of-controlled-whole-body-vibration-training-in-improving-fall-risk-factors-among-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-pilot-study
#17
Feng Yang, Marcia Finlayson, Francois Bethoux, Xiaogang Su, Loretta Dillon, Hector M Maldonado
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effect of an 8-week controlled whole-body vibration training on improving fall risk factors and the bone mineral density among people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: This study adopted a single group pre-test-post-test design. Twenty-five PwMS (50.3 years SD 14.1) received vibration training on a side-alternating vibration platform. Each training session was repeated three times every week for 8 weeks...
December 15, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966076/the-level-of-testosterone-vitamin-d-and-irregular-menstruation-more-important-than-omega-3-in-non-symptomatic-women-will-define-the-fate-of-multiple-scleroses-in-future
#18
Shima Tavakol, Sahar Shakibapour, Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli
Multiple sclerosis is one of the most salient degenerative disorders of CNS with dysregulated immune process that resulted in axonal damage and demyelination. In the present investigation, the serum level of testosterone was assessed in women who were struggling with multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, the level of omega-3, vitamin D, and the irregular menstruation in women 5 years before the onset MS symptoms were surveyed. Although the levels of omega-3 and vitamin D in women MS patients were non-significant and significantly less than the healthy ones, they were significantly less in the whole population of MS patients...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935793/co-occurring-risk-factors-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Julia M Balto, Ipek Ensari, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Naiman Khan, Jennifer L Barnes, Robert W Motl
OBJECTIVE: We examined individual and co-occurring risk factors as correlates of health outcomes in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Sixty-nine participants with MS completed measures of nutrition, physical activity levels, comorbidity and neuroperformance. The data were analyzed using t-test analyses in SPSS Statistics 22.0. RESULTS: Total number of comorbidities (z = 2.36, p = .02), cardiovascular disease symptoms (z = 2.63, p = ...
January 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934854/interactions-between-genetic-lifestyle-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Tomas Olsson, Lisa F Barcellos, Lars Alfredsson
Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) only explains a fraction of the disease risk; lifestyle and environmental factors are key contributors to the risk of MS. Importantly, these nongenetic factors can influence pathogenetic pathways, and some of them can be modified. Besides established MS-associated risk factors - high latitude, female sex, smoking, low vitamin D levels caused by insufficient sun exposure and/or dietary intake, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection - strong evidence now supports obesity during adolescence as a factor increasing MS risk...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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