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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455584/hepes-activates-a-mit-tfe-dependent-lysosomal-autophagic-gene-network-in-cultured-cells-a-call-for-caution
#1
Marc J Tol, Martijn J C van der Lienden, Tanit L Gabriel, Jacob J Hagen, Saskia Scheij, Tineke Veenendaal, Judith Klumperman, Wilma E Donker-Koopman, Arthur J Verhoeven, Hermen Overkleeft, Johannes M Aerts, Carmen A Argmann, Marco van Eijk
In recent years, the lysosome has emerged as a highly dynamic, transcriptionally regulated organelle that is integral to nutrient-sensing and metabolic rewiring. This is coordinated by a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling nexus in which MTORC1 controls the subcellular distribution of the microphthalmia-transcription factor E (MiT/TFE) family of "master lysosomal regulators". Yet, despite the importance of the lysosome in cellular metabolism, the impact of traditional in vitro culture media on lysosomal dynamics and/or MiT/TFE localization has not been fully appreciated...
February 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453297/what-factors-mediate-the-inter-relationship-between-frailty-and-pain-in-cognitively-and-functionally-sound-older-adults-a-prospective-longitudinal-ageing-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#2
Jing-Hui Chiou, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Li-Ning Peng, Liang-Kung Chen
OBJECTIVES: The main aim was to investigate the complex inter-relationship between frailty and pain, and the mediating roles of cognitive function, morbidity and mood in this nexus. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: A prospective community-dwelling population-based cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 1682 adults age ≥50 years without evident cognitive or functional impairment, or history of cancer. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The mediating effect of depression, cognitive function and comorbidity on the nexus between pain and frailty among older and middle-aged adults...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448963/academic-medical-centers-as-innovation-ecosystems-to-address-population-omics-challenges-in-precision-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Patrick J Silva, Valerie M Schaibley, Kenneth S Ramos
While the promise of the Human Genome Project provided significant insights into the structure of the human genome, the complexities of disease at the individual level have made it difficult to utilize -omic information in clinical decision making. Some of the existing constraints have been minimized by technological advancements that have reduced the cost of sequencing to a rate far in excess of Moore's Law (a halving in cost per unit output every 18 months). The reduction in sequencing costs has made it economically feasible to create large data commons capturing the diversity of disease across populations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448813/biofouling-in-membrane-bioreactors-nexus-between-polyacrylonitrile-surface-charge-and-community-composition
#4
Lisendra Marbelia, Marie-Aline Hernalsteens, Shazia Ilyas, Basak Öztürk, Anthony Szymczyk, Dirk Springael, Ivo Vankelecom
The influence of membrane surface charge on biofouling community composition during activated sludge filtration in a membrane bioreactor was investigated in this study using polyacrylonitrile-based membranes. Membranes with different surface properties were synthesized by phase inversion followed by a layer-by-layer modification. Various characterization results showed that the membranes differed only in their surface chemical composition and charge, ie two of them were negative, one neutral and one positive...
February 15, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444615/the-mysterious-polyamines-the-enigmatic-barr-body-and-lupus-comment-on-the-article-by-kim-et-al
#5
W Brooks
"Polyamine patterns in plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and fever" by Kim et al. provides insight into possible involvement of polyamines in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The authors report decreases in N1-acetylspermidine, spermidine, spermine, and N1-acetylcadaverine and increased cadaverine in SLE. Polyamine involvement in many cellular processes and their unique characteristics (high charge, length, flexibility, and ubiquity) give polyamines importance in health and disease...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444453/efferocytosis-in-atherosclerotic-lesions-malfunctioning-regulatory-pathways-and-control-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Mehdi Rezaee, Petri T Kovanen, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Atherosclerosis is a dynamic and progressive inflammatory process in the intimal layer of large and medium-sized arteries, and it is the major contributor to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), the leading cause of death worldwide. In an atherosclerotic plaque, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells occurs through an intricate process designated efferocytosis. Defective efferocytosis has emerged as a causal factor in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its progression into overt ACVD. Both specialized phagocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells) and non-specialized cells with phagocytic capabilities (smooth muscle and endothelial cells) are involved in the efferocytotic process...
February 11, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438015/unraveling-the-cnot-a-new-player-in-the-autophagy-cell-death-nexus
#7
REVIEW
Saumya Das
Autophagy plays a context-dependent role in cardiac homeostasis. In this issue of Science Signaling , Yamaguchi et al delineate a role for CCR4-NOT-mediated mRNA deadenylation in preventing the autophagy factor Atg7 from coactivating p53-mediated transcription of cell death genes in the heart.
February 6, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428708/surface-water-flooding-groundwater-contamination-and-enteric-disease-in-developed-countries-a-scoping-review-of-connections-and%C3%A2-consequences
#8
REVIEW
L Andrade, J O'Dwyer, E O'Neill, P Hynds
Significant volumes of research over the past four decades has sought to elucidate the social, infrastructural, economic, and human health effects of climate change induced surface flooding. To date, epidemiological and public health studies of flooding events have focused on mental health effects, vector-borne diseases, and infectious enteric disease due to floodwater contact (i.e. typically low consumption rates). The inherent nature of groundwater (i.e. out of sight, out of mind) and the widely held belief that aquifers represent a pristine source of drinking water due to natural attenuation may represent the "perfect storm" causing direct consumption of relatively large volumes of surface flood-contaminated groundwater...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428212/computed-tomography-window-blending-feasibility-in-thoracic-trauma
#9
Jacob C Mandell, Jeremy R Wortman, Tatiana C Rocha, Les R Folio, Katherine P Andriole, Bharti Khurana
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of processing computed tomography (CT) images with a custom window blending algorithm that combines soft-tissue, bone, and lung window settings into a single image; to compare the time for interpretation of chest CT for thoracic trauma with window blending and conventional window settings; and to assess diagnostic performance of both techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adobe Photoshop was scripted to process axial DICOM images from retrospective contrast-enhanced chest CTs performed for trauma with a window-blending algorithm...
February 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427307/healthy-and-sustainable-diets-for-future-generations
#10
Hilary Green, Pierre Broun, Douglas Cook, Karen Cooper, Adam Drewnowski, Jessica Fanzo, Duncan Pollard, Gary Sweeney, Anne Roulin
Global food systems will face unprecedented challenges in the coming years. They will need to meet the nutritional needs of a growing population and feed an expanding demand for proteins. This is against a backdrop of increasing environmental challenges (water resources, climate change, soil health), and the need to improve farming livelihoods. Collaborative efforts by a variety of stakeholders are needed to ensure that future generations have access to healthy and sustainable diets. Food will play an increasingly important role in the global discourse on health...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426145/sunlight-irradiation-triggers-changes-in-the-fouling-potentials-of-natural-dissolved-organic-matter
#11
Zhongbo Zhou, Minghao Zhou, Xiaofang Yang, Junfeng Niu, Fangang Meng
Sunlight-initiated photodegradation has a great impact on the composition and properties of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic environments, which potentially changes the behavior and roles of DOM in water treatment facilities. Here, we explored the effect of sunlight irradiation on membrane fouling behavior of two natural DOM (i.e., Aldrich humic acid (AHA) and Suwannee River DOM (SRNOM)), particularly in the presence of calcium ion (Ca(II)). Results showed that a long-term exposure (3 months) to sunlight during the summer led to decreases in the chromophores and molecular size of both DOM...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426121/the-impact-of-human-activities-and-lifestyles-on-the-interlinked-microbiota-and-health-of-humans-and-of-ecosystems
#12
REVIEW
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417720/global-environmental-costs-of-china-s-thirst-for-milk
#13
Zhaohai Bai, Michael R F Lee, Lin Ma, Stewart Ledgard, Oene Oenema, Gerard L Velthof, Wenqi Ma, Mengchu Guo, Zhanqing Zhao, Sha Wei, Shengli Li, Xia Liu, Petr Havlík, Jiafa Luo, Chunsheng Hu, Fusuo Zhang
China has an ever-increasing thirst for milk, with a predicted 3.2-fold increase in demand by 2050 compared to the production level in 2010. What are the environmental implications of meeting this demand, and what is the preferred pathway? We addressed these questions by using a nexus approach, to examine the interdependencies of increasing milk consumption in China by 2050 and its global impacts, under different scenarios of domestic milk production and importation. Meeting China's milk demand in a business as usual scenario will increase global dairy-related (China and the leading milk exporting regions) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35% (from 565 to 764 Tg CO2eq ) and land use for dairy feed production by 32% (from 84 to 111 million ha) compared to 2010, while reactive nitrogen losses from the dairy sector will increase by 48% (from 3...
February 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416943/understanding-value-in-health-data-ecosystems-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-ways-forward
#14
Marjanovic Sonja, Ghiga Ioana, Yang Miaoqing, Knack Anna
The potential of health data to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health research and development, healthcare delivery, and health systems more widely is substantial. There are many initiatives across the EU that are experimenting with ways to capture value and address the nexus of technical, legal, ethics-related, governance and data protection-related, and cultural challenges to delivering potential benefits for society and the economy. The field of health data research and policy is highly dynamic and there is a need for further reflection, thematic learning and evaluation to better understand how to create and connect receptive places, to inform future interventions and to identify transferable lessons...
January 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411912/meeting-the-meiotic-challenge-specializations-in-mammalian-oocyte-spindle-formation
#15
REVIEW
Ashley L Severance, Keith E Latham
Oocytes uniquely accumulate cytoplasmic constituents to support early embryogenesis. This unique specialization is accompanied by acquisition of a large size and by execution of asymmetric meiotic divisions that preserve precious ooplasm through the expulsion of minimal size polar bodies. While often taken for granted, these basic features of oogenesis necessitate unique specializations of the meiotic apparatus. These include a chromatin-sourced RanGTP gradient that restricts spindle size by defining a spatial domain where meiotic spindles form, acentriolar centrosomes which relies on microtubule organizing centers to form spindle poles, and an actin-based mechanism for asymmetric spindle positioning...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409842/disturbed-sleep-and-diabetes-a-potential-nexus-of-dementia-risk
#16
Calliope Holingue, Alexandra Wennberg, Slava Berger, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, Adam P Spira
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and sleep disturbance (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) are prevalent conditions among older adults that are associated with cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Importantly, disturbed sleep is associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may increase the risk of T2D, and T2D-related complications (e.g., pain, nocturia) can negatively affect sleep. Despite these associations, little is known about how interactions between T2D and sleep disturbance might alter cognitive trajectories or the pathological changes that underlie dementia...
January 31, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409511/a-qualitative-study-of-use-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-llins-for-intended-and-unintended-purposes-in-adami-tullu-east-shewa-zone-ethiopia
#17
Zerihun Doda, Tarekegn Solomon, Eskindir Loha, Taye Gari, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: Malaria poses a significant public health threat globally, across Africa and in Ethiopia. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is currently a proven prevention mechanism. Evidence is building on what happens to LLINs following mass distribution campaigns, with mixed results from different studies, some reporting very low use for intended purposes, others an encouraging level of using for intended purposes. In Ethiopia, between 2005 and 2015, about 64 million LLINs were distributed through periodic mass campaigns with the aims to achieve 100% coverage and 80% utilization...
February 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406995/functional-neurological-symptom-disorder-conversion-disorder-a-role-for-microglial-based-plasticity-mechanisms
#18
Chris P Stephenson, Ian J Baguley
Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404877/o-glcnac-a-novel-regulator-of-immunometabolism
#19
REVIEW
Miranda Machacek, Chad Slawson, Patrick E Fields
The rapidly expanding field of immunometabolism focuses on how metabolism controls the function of immune cells. CD4+ T cells are essential for the adaptive immune response leading to the eradication of specific pathogens. However, when T cells are inappropriately over-active, they can drive autoimmunity, allergic disease, and chronic inflammation. The mechanisms by which metabolic changes influence function in CD4+ T cells are not fully understood. The post-translational protein modification, O-GlcNAc (O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine), dynamically cycles on and off of intracellular proteins as cells respond to their environment and flux through metabolic pathways changes...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403572/amcp-nexus-2017-highlights
#20
(no author information available yet)
The following summaries represent a small sample of real-world, evidence-based information presented at AMCP Nexus 2017, October 16-19, 2017, in Dallas, TX.
December 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
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