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Lara K Abramowitz, John A Hanover
O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification important for integrating metabolism with cell physiology. Using diverse model systems, studies of this evolutionarily conserved intracellular glycosylation have highlighted its role in stem cell maintenance, lineage specification and disease. Although discovered over 30 years ago, the study of O-GlcNAc continues to evolve and uncover surprising roles for O-GlcNAc and the enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA)...
June 14, 2018: FEBS Letters
Alexandre Caron, David M Briscoe, Denis Richard, Mathieu Laplante
DEP domain-containing mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is an important modulator of mTOR, a kinase at the center of two important protein complexes named mTORC1 and mTORC2. These highly studied complexes play essential roles in regulating growth, metabolism, and immunity in response to mitogens, nutrients, and cytokines. Defects in mTOR signaling have been associated with the development of many diseases, including cancer and diabetes, and approaches aiming at modulating mTOR activity are envisioned as an attractive strategy to improve human health...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Julie-Anne Martyn, Jackie Scott, Jasper H van der Westhuyzen, Dale Spanhake, Sally Zanella, April Martin, Ruth Newby
Objective. Continuing education (CE) is essential for a healthcare workforce, but in regional areas of Australia there are challenges to providing and accessing relevant, reliable and low-cost opportunities. The aim of the present study was to collaborate with the local regional healthcare workforce to design, deliver and evaluate an interdisciplinary CE (ICE) program. Methods. A participatory action research (PAR) model combined with an appreciative inquiry (AI) framework was used to design, deliver and evaluate an ICE program...
June 12, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Blaise A Clarke, Charles C Lee
The medial geniculate body (MGB) is the target of excitatory and inhibitory inputs from several neural sources. Among these, the inferior colliculus (IC) is an important nucleus in the midbrain that acts as a nexus for auditory projections, ascending and descending, throughout the rest of the central auditory system and provides both excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the MGB. In our study, we assessed the relative contribution from presumed excitatory and inhibitory IC neurons to the MGB in mice. Using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin beta subunit (CTβ)-Alexa Fluor 594 injected into the MGB of transgenic, vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-Venus mice, we quantitatively analyzed the projections from both the ipsilateral and contralateral IC to the MGB...
June 9, 2018: Brain Sciences
Miriam Gross
During the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-76), Chairman Mao fundamentally reformed medicine so that rural people received medical care. His new medical model has been variously characterised as: revolutionary Maoist medicine, a revitalised form of Chinese medicine; and the final conquest by Western medicine. This paper finds that instead of Mao's vision of a new 'revolutionary medicine', there was a new medical synthesis that drew from the Maoist ideal and Western and Chinese traditions, but fundamentally differed from all of them...
July 2018: Medical History
M R Bilad, A S Azizo, M D H Wirzal, L Jia Jia, Z A Putra, N A H M Nordin, M O Mavukkandy, M J F Jasni, A R M Yusoff
Microalgae technology, if managed properly, has promising roles in solving food-water-energy nexus. The Achilles' heel is, however, to lower the costs associated with cultivation and harvesting. As a favorable technique, application of membrane process is strongly limited by membrane fouling. This study evaluates performance of nylon 6,6 nanofiber membrane (NFM) to a conventional polyvinylidene fluoride phase inverted membrane (PVDF PIM) for filtration of Chlorella vulgaris. Results show that nylon 6,6 NFM is superhydrophilic, has higher size of pore opening (0...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrea Schäfer, Bernadette Mekker, Medhavi Mallick, Viviana Vastolo, Emil Karaulanov, Dominik Sebastian, Carina von der Lippen, Bernd Epe, Damien J Downes, Carola Scholz, Christof Niehrs
Changes in DNA methylation are among the best-documented epigenetic alterations accompanying organismal aging. However, whether and how altered DNA methylation is causally involved in aging have remained elusive. GADD45α (growth arrest and DNA damage protein 45A) and ING1 (inhibitor of growth family member 1) are adapter proteins for site-specific demethylation by TET (ten-eleven translocation) methylcytosine dioxygenases. Here we show that Gadd45a/Ing1 double-knockout mice display segmental progeria and phenocopy impaired energy homeostasis and lipodystrophy characteristic of Cebp ( CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ) mutants...
June 8, 2018: Genes & Development
Meghna R Malik, Jihong Tang, Nirmala Sharma, Claire Burkitt, Yuanyuan Ji, Marie Mykytyshyn, Karen Bohmert-Tatarev, Oliver Peoples, Kristi D Snell
The rapid assessment of metabolic engineering strategies in plants is aided by crops that provide simple, high throughput transformation systems, a sequenced genome, and the ability to evaluate the resulting plants in field trials. Camelina sativa provides all of these attributes in a robust oilseed platform. The ability to perform field evaluation of Camelina is a useful, and in some studies essential benefit that allows researchers to evaluate how traits perform outside the strictly controlled conditions of a greenhouse...
June 7, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Gabriel E Machovsky-Capuska, Mark G R Miller, Fabiola R O Silva, Christophe Amiot, Karen A Stockin, Alistair M Senior, Rob Schuckard, David Melville, David Raubenheimer
1.Our understanding of the niche concept will remain limited while the quantity and range of different food types eaten remains a dominant proxy for niche breadth, as this does not account for the broad ecological context that governs diet. Linking nutrition, physiology and behaviour are critical to predict the extent to which a species adjusts its nutritional niche breadth at the levels of prey ("prey composition niche", defined as the range of prey compositions eaten), and diet ("realized nutritional niche" is the range of diets composed through feeding on the prey)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Eric O Verger, Marlene Perignon, Jalila El Ati, Nicole Darmon, Marie-Claude Dop, Sophie Drogué, Sandrine Dury, Cédric Gaillard, Carole Sinfort, Marie-Josèphe Amiot
Mediterranean countries are undergoing dietary and nutritional changes that affect their inhabitants' health, while facing massive environmental challenges. The increasing demand of water in agriculture, the capacity to maintain local food production, and the growing dependence on food imports are interconnected issues that must be addressed to ensure food security and nutrition in the Mediterranean region. Here, we present the conceptual framework and methodologies developed by the MEDINA-Study Group for rethinking food systems toward sustainable consumption and production modes...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Matthew J Fogarty
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron (MN) disease and is clinically characterised by the death of corticospinal motor neurons (CSMNs), spinal and brainstem MNs and the degeneration of the corticospinal tract. Degeneration of CSMNs and MNs leads inexorably to muscle wastage and weakness, progressing to eventual death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. The CSMNs, located within layer V of the primary motor cortex, project axons constituting the corticospinal tract, forming synaptic connections with brainstem and spinal cord interneurons and MNs...
June 2, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Brian McDonald, Stuart McKeen, Yu Yan Cui, Ravan Ahmadov, Si-Wan Kim, Gregory J Frost, Ilana Pollack, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B Ryerson, John Holloway, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B Gilman, Joost A de Gouw, Jennifer Kaiser, Frank N Keutsch, Thomas F Hanisco, Glenn Wolfe, Michael Trainer
Recent studies suggest overestimates in current U.S. emission inventories of nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2). Here, we expand a previously developed Fuel-based Inventory of motor-Vehicle Emissions (FIVE) to the continental U.S. for the year 2013, and evaluate our estimates of mobile source emissions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI) interpolated to 2013. We find that mobile source emissions of NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) in the NEI are higher than FIVE by 28% and 90%, respectively...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nikos Koundouros, George Poulogiannis
Metabolic rewiring and the consequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are necessary to promote tumorigenesis. At the nexus of these cellular processes is the aberrant regulation of oncogenic signaling cascades such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and AKT (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which is one of the most frequently dysregulated pathways in cancer. In this review, we examine the regulation of ROS metabolism in the context of PI3K-driven tumors with particular emphasis on four main areas of research. (1) Stimulation of ROS production through direct modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics, activation of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), and metabolic byproducts associated with hyperactive PI3K/Akt signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Alfredo Erazo-Oliveras, Natividad R Fuentes, Rachel C Wright, Robert S Chapkin
The cell plasma membrane serves as a nexus integrating extra- and intracellular components, which together enable many of the fundamental cellular signaling processes that sustain life. In order to perform this key function, plasma membrane components assemble into well-defined domains exhibiting distinct biochemical and biophysical properties that modulate various signaling events. Dysregulation of these highly dynamic membrane domains can promote oncogenic signaling. Recently, it has been demonstrated that select membrane-targeted dietary bioactives (MTDBs) have the ability to remodel plasma membrane domains and subsequently reduce cancer risk...
June 2, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Torsten B Neilands, Shari L Dworkin, Deepalika Chakravarty, Chadwick K Campbell, Patrick A Wilson, Anu Manchikanti Gomez, Kirk K Grisham, Colleen C Hoff
Few researchers have quantitatively explored the relationship power-HIV risk nexus in same-sex male couples. We developed and validated the Power Imbalance in Couples Scale (PICS) to measure relationship power among men in same-sex, committed relationships and its association with sexual risk behaviors. We recruited three independent and diverse samples of male couples in the greater San Francisco and New York City metropolitan areas and conducted qualitative interviews (N1 = 96) to inform item development, followed by two quantitative surveys (N2 = 341; N3 = 434) to assess the construct, predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity of the PICS...
May 30, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Rudiger Hardeland
Several recent developments in melatonin research deserve attention and divulgation. The role of melatonin in the brain has been extended to its synthesis in the cerebellum as a response to inflammation, findings that exceed the earlier demonstration of aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase expression. The release of melatonin via the pineal recess into the third ventricle appears to be more important than previously believed and has been discussed as a strong direct signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The mitochondrial role of melatonin has been substantially extended by the demonstration of the melatonin receptor MT1 in this organelle and evidence for melatonin synthesis in mammalian mitochondria, in addition to the previously shown uptake into these organelles...
May 30, 2018: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
David A Dik, Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The importance of the cell wall to the viability of the bacterium is underscored by the breadth of antibiotic structures that act by blocking key enzymes that are tasked with cell-wall creation, preservation, and regulation. The interplay between cell-wall integrity, and the summoning forth of resistance mechanisms to deactivate cell-wall-targeting antibiotics, involves exquisite orchestration among cell-wall synthesis and remodeling and the detection of and response to the antibiotics through modulation of gene regulation by specific effectors...
May 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
M Peces, S Astals, P D Jensen, W P Clarke
The impact of the starting inoculum on long-term anaerobic digestion performance, process functionality and microbial community composition remains unclear. To understand the impact of starting inoculum, active microbial communities from four different full-scale anaerobic digesters were each used to inoculate four continuous lab-scale anaerobic digesters, which were operated identically for 295 days. Digesters were operated at 15 days solid retention time, an organic loading rate of 1 g COD Lr -1 d-1 (75:25 - cellulose:casein) and 37 °C...
May 17, 2018: Water Research
Li Jin, Paul G Whitehead, Kwasi Appeaning Addo, Barnabas Amisigo, Ian Macadam, Tamara Janes, Jill Crossman, Robert J Nicholls, Matthew McCartney, Harvey J E Rodda
As the scientific consensus concerning global climate change has increased in recent decades, research on potential impacts of climate change on water resources has been given high importance. However in Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have fully evaluated the potential implications of climate change to their water resource systems. The Volta River is one of the major rivers in Africa covering six riparian countries (mainly Ghana and Burkina Faso). It is a principal water source for approximately 24 million people in the region...
May 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A Abdelkader, A Elshorbagy, M Tuninetti, F Laio, L Ridolfi, H Fahmy, A Y Hoekstra
This paper introduces a modeling framework for the analysis of real and virtual water flows at national scale. The framework has two components: (1) a national water model that simulates agricultural, industrial and municipal water uses, and available water and land resources; and (2) an international virtual water trade model that captures national virtual water exports and imports related to trade in crops and animal products. This National Water, Food & Trade (NWFT) modeling framework is applied to Egypt, a water-poor country and the world's largest importer of wheat...
May 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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