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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921283/choices-have-consequences-the-nexus-between-dna-repair-pathways-and-genomic-instability-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Sonali Bhattacharjee, Saikat Nandi
BACKGROUND: The genome is under constant assault from a multitude of sources that can lead to the formation of DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are cytotoxic lesions, which if left unrepaired could lead to genomic instability, cancer and even cell death. However, erroneous repair of DSBs can lead to chromosomal rearrangements and loss of heterozygosity, which in turn can also cause cancer and cell death. Hence, although the repair of DSBs is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity the process of repair need to be well regulated and closely monitored...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920634/frontonasal-dysplasia-towards-an-understanding-of-molecular-and-developmental-aetiology
#2
REVIEW
Peter G Farlie, Naomi L Baker, Patrick Yap, Tiong Y Tan
The complex anatomy of the skull and face arises from the requirement to support multiple sensory and structural functions. During embryonic development, the diverse component elements of the neuro- and viscerocranium must be generated independently and subsequently united in a manner that sustains and promotes the growth of the brain and sensory organs, while achieving a level of structural integrity necessary for the individual to become a free-living organism. While each of these individual craniofacial components is essential, the cranial and facial midline lies at a structural nexus that unites these disparately derived elements, fusing them into a whole...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902706/a-qualitative-study-of-medical-oncologists-experiences-of-their-profession-and-workforce-sustainability
#3
Alex Broom, W K Tim Wong, Emma Kirby, David Sibbritt, Deme Karikios, Rosemary Harrup, Zarnie Lwin
BACKGROUND: Medical oncology is a steadily evolving field of medical practice and professional pathway for doctors, offering value, opportunity and challenge to those who chose this medical specialty. This study examines the experiences of a group of Australian medical oncologists, with an emphasis on their professional practice, career experiences, and existing and emerging challenges across career stages. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 medical oncologists, including advanced trainees, early-career consultants and senior consultants, focusing on: professional values and experiences; career prospects and pathways; and, the nexus of the characteristics of the profession and delivery of care...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894802/variation-in-the-urban-vegetation-surface-temperature-air-temperature-nexus
#4
Sheri A Shiflett, Liyin L Liang, Steven M Crum, Gudina L Feyisa, Jun Wang, G Darrel Jenerette
Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894608/brucellosis-in-cattle-and-micro-scale-spatial-variability-of-pastoral-household-income-from-dairy-production-in-south-western-uganda
#5
Pius Mbuya Nina, Samuel Mugisha, Herwig Leirs, Gilbert Isabirye Basuta, Patrick Van Damme
Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda...
November 25, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893380/area-determination-of-diabetic-foot-ulcer-images-using-a-cascaded-two-stage-svm-based-classification
#6
Lei Wang, Peder Pedersen, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu
It is standard practice for clinicians and nurses to primarily assess patients' wounds via visual examination. This subjective method can be inaccurate in wound assessment and also represents a significant clinical workload. Hence, computer-based systems, especially implemented on mobile devices, can provide automatic, quantitative wound assessment and can thus be valuable for accurately monitoring wound healing status. Out of all wound assessment parameters, the measurement of the wound area is the most suitable for automated analysis...
November 23, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892686/tobacco-and-the-malays-ethnicity-health-and-the-political-economy-of-tobacco-in-malaysia
#7
Simon Barraclough, Martha Morrow
OBJECTIVES: To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. DESIGN: Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports...
November 28, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886592/the-intersection-of-climate-environment-food-nutrition-and-health-crisis-and-opportunity
#8
REVIEW
Daniel J Raiten, Ashley M Aimone
Climate/environmental change (C-E-C) is affecting human health and quality of life. Significant attention has been given to the impact of C-E-C on food supply, and food as a vehicle for exposure. However, C-E-C has been superimposed on prevalent malnutrition, infectious and non-communicable diseases. We discuss why nutrition is not synonymous with food and must be viewed as a biological variable that affects and is affected by both C-E-C as well as the current global health challenges. The nexus of C-E-C, food, nutrition and health must be considered in the development of safe and efficacious interventions...
November 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885527/insights-into-mortality-patterns-and-causes-of-death-through-a-process-point-of-view-model
#9
James J Anderson, Ting Li, David J Sharrow
Process point of view (POV) models of mortality, such as the Strehler-Mildvan and stochastic vitality models, represent death in terms of the loss of survival capacity through challenges and dissipation. Drawing on hallmarks of aging, we link these concepts to candidate biological mechanisms through a framework that defines death as challenges to vitality where distal factors defined the age-evolution of vitality and proximal factors define the probability distribution of challenges. To illustrate the process POV, we hypothesize that the immune system is a mortality nexus, characterized by two vitality streams: increasing vitality representing immune system development and immunosenescence representing vitality dissipation...
November 24, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884600/steaps-comprise-a-novel-inflammatory-nexus-in-pustular-skin-disorders
#10
Yun Liang, Xianying Xing, Maria A Beamer, William R Swindell, Mrinal K Sarkar, Liza Wolterink Roberts, John J Voorhees, J Michelle Kahlenberg, Paul W Harms, Andrew Johnston, Johann E Gudjonsson
BACKGROUND: Pustular skin disorders are a category of difficult-to-treat and potentially life threatening conditions that involve the appearance of neutrophil rich pustules. The molecular basis of most pustular skin conditions has remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the molecular basis of three pustular skin disorders, generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed to profile genome-wide gene expression of skin biopsies obtained from GPP, PPP, AGEP patients and normal controls...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882833/evaluation-of-real-world-experience-with-tofacitinib-compared-with-adalimumab-etanercept-and-abatacept-in-ra-patients-with-1-previous-biologic-dmard-data-from-a-u-s-administrative-claims-database
#11
James Harnett, Robert Gerber, David Gruben, Andrew S Koenig, Connie Chen
BACKGROUND: Real-world data comparing tofacitinib with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics, treatment patterns, and costs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving tofacitinib versus the most common bDMARDs (adalimumab [ADA], etanercept [ETN], and abatacept [ABA]) following a single bDMARD in a U.S. administrative claims database. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients aged ≥ 18 years with an RA diagnosis (ICD-9-CM codes 714...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879632/fish-immunoglobulins
#12
REVIEW
Sara Mashoof, Michael F Criscitiello
The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception...
November 21, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879405/does-citrulline-sit-at-the-nexus-of-metformin-s-pleotropic-effects-on-metabolism-and-mediate-its-salutatory-effects-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Brian A Irving, Guillaume Spielmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878709/is-income-relevant-for-health-expenditure-and-economic-growth-nexus
#14
Nadide Sevil Halıcı-Tülüce, İbrahim Doğan, Cüneyt Dumrul
This paper examines the relationship between health expenditure and economic growth using panel data consisting low and high-income countries. Using dynamic panel data methodology, we analyze twenty five high-income and nineteen low-income economies for the periods of 1995-2012 and 1997-2009, respectively. We find reciprocal relationship between health expenditure and economic growth in the short run and one-way causality from economic growth to public health expenditure in the long-run. In high-income countries, there is a two-way causality for both private and public health expenditures in the short-run, while in the long-run there is a one-way causality between economic growth and private health expenditures...
March 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865849/evaluation-of-existing-q-sar-models-for-skin-and-eye-irritation-and-corrosion-to-use-for-reach-registration
#15
Geert R Verheyen, Els Braeken, Koen Van Deun, Sabine Van Miert
The performance of the (Q)SAR models Derek Nexus, Toxtree and Case Ultra for the prediction of skin and eye irritation/corrosion is investigated. For irritation and corrosion of the skin, 117 compounds and for the eye, 125 compounds were listed. The balance between the groups positive and negative for irritation and corrosion was maintained. The obtained predictions were compared with experimental data and the numbers of true and false positives and negatives were determined. Based on these results several performance parameters of the tested (Q)SAR models were calculated...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863398/unique-epigenetic-gene-profiles-define-human-breast-cancers-with-poor-prognosis
#16
Samuel Peña-Llopis, Yihong Wan, Elisabeth D Martinez
Epigenetic enzymes are at the nexus of cellular regulatory cascades and can drive cancer-specific deregulation at all stages of the oncogenic process, yet little is known about their prognostic value in human patients. Here, we used qRT-PCR to profile at high resolution the expression of fifty-five epigenetic genes in over one hundred human breast cancer samples and patient-matched benign tissues. We correlated expression patterns with clinical and histological parameters and validated our findings in two independent large patient cohorts (TCGA and METABRIC)...
November 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855486/yin-yang-actions-of-histone-methylation-regulatory-complexes-in-the-brain
#17
Patricia Marie Garay, Margarete Aryanka Wallner, Shigeki Iwase
Dysregulation of histone methylation has emerged as a major driver of neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders. Histone methyl writer and eraser enzymes generally act within multisubunit complexes rather than in isolation. However, it remains largely elusive how such complexes cooperate to achieve the precise spatiotemporal gene expression in the developing brain. Histone H3K4 methylation (H3K4me) is a chromatin signature associated with active gene-regulatory elements...
November 18, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842904/yield-of-computed-tomography-of-the-cervical-spine-in-cases-of-simple-assault
#18
Matthew L Uriell, Jason W Allen, Brendan P Lovasik, Marc D Benayoun, Robert M Spandorfer, Chad A Holder
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine (C-spine) is routinely ordered for low-impact, non-penetrating or "simple" assault at our institution and others. Common clinical decision tools for C-spine imaging in the setting of trauma include the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) and the Canadian Cervical Spine Rule for Radiography (CCR). While NEXUS and CCR have served to decrease the amount of unnecessary imaging of the C-spine, overutilization of CT is still of concern...
October 29, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837351/biomanufacturing-history-and-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Yi-Heng Percival Zhang, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing that utilizes biological systems (e.g., living microorganisms, resting cells, animal cells, plant cells, tissues, enzymes, or in vitro synthetic (enzymatic) systems) to produce commercially important biomolecules for use in the agricultural, food, material, energy, and pharmaceutical industries. History of biomanufacturing could be classified into the three revolutions in terms of respective product types (mainly), production platforms, and research technologies...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834757/databases-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-nexus-of-opportunity-and-obligation
#20
EDITORIAL
James K Kirklin, James D St Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
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