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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239337/globose-basal-cells-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#1
Durai Murugan Muniswami, Indirani Kanakasabapathy, George Tharion
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with loss of motor and sensory functions below the injury level. Cell based therapies are experimented in pre-clinical studies around the world. Neural stem cells are located intra-cranially in subventricular zone and hippocampus which are highly invasive sources. The olfactory epithelium is a neurogenic tissue where neurogenesis takes place throughout the adult life by a population of stem/progenitor cells. Easily accessible olfactory neuroepithelial stem/progenitor cells are an attractive cell source for transplantation in SCI...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239336/neural-progenitor-cells-but-not-astrocytes-respond-distally-to-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#2
Tara Nguyen, Yilin Mao, Theresa Sutherland, Catherine Anne Gorrie
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9), sham surgery (n = 8), or no surgery (n = 8)...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239333/nigral-dopaminergic-neuron-replenishment-in-adult-mice-through-ve-cadherin-expressing-neural-progenitor-cells
#3
Abir A Rahman, Nathan K Lai, Joshua E Albright, Paige E Urquhart, Abby R Webb, Brad E Morrison
The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2- neural progenitor cells...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238518/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neuronal-stem-cells-through-inactivating-notch-pathway
#4
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Background: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are able to differentiate into neurons and astroglia. miRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. However, the exact role of miR-124 in the development of NSCs and its underlying mechanism remain to be explored. Methods: Primary NSCs were isolated from embryos of Wistar rats. Immunocytochemistry was used to stain purified NSCs. miR-124, Delta-like 4 (DLL4), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), HES1, HEY2, and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expressions were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230807/a-comparative-study-of-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-in-the-adult-hypothalamus-of-human-mouse-rat-and-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#5
Giuliana Pellegrino, Claire Trubert, Jérémy Terrien, Fabien Pifferi, Danièle Leroy, Anne Loyens, Martine Migaud, Marc Baroncini, Claude-Alain Maurage, Christian Fontaine, Vincent Prévot, Ariane Sharif
The adult brain contains niches of neural stem cells that continuously add new neurons to selected circuits throughout life. Two niches have been extensively studied in various mammalian species including humans, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Recently, studies conducted mainly in rodents have identified a third neurogenic niche in the adult hypothalamus. In order to evaluate whether a neural stem cell niche also exists in the adult hypothalamus in humans, we performed multiple immunofluorescence labeling to assess the expression of a panel of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers (Sox2, nestin, vimentin, GLAST, GFAP) in the human hypothalamus and compared them with the mouse, rat and a non-human primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229874/induction-of-morphological-and-functional-differentiation-of-human-neuroblastoma-cells-by-mir-124
#6
Samaneh Sharif, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Masoud Soleimani
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour in children, and differentiation is considered its most appropriate therapy. In this work, we studied effects of miR-124 overexpression on differentiation in M17 cell line as a model of neuroblastoma cancer. Influence of miR-124 overexpression on differentiation in M17 cells was studied. M17 cells were infected with lentivirus that contained miR-124 precursor sequence and followed for 2 weeks to differentiate. Ectopic expression of miR-124 in M17 cells changed the shape of spherical undifferentiated cells to cells with extended neurites that formed neuronal networks...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222037/diabetes-as-risk-factor-for-pancreatic-cancer-hyperglycemia-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-stem-cell-properties-in-pancreatic-ductal-epithelial-cells
#7
Sascha Rahn, Vivien Zimmermann, Fabrice Viol, Hendrike Knaack, Kerstin Stemmer, Lena Peters, Lennart Lenk, Hendrik Ungefroren, Dieter Saur, Heiner Schäfer, Ole Helm, Susanne Sebens
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with hyperglycemia and a risk to develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most fatal malignancies. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are essential for initiation and maintenance of tumors, and acquisition of CSC-features is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). The present study investigated whether hyperglycemia promotes EMT and CSC-features in premalignant and malignant pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDEC). Under normoglycemia (5 mM d-glucose), Panc1 PDAC cells but not premalignant H6c7-kras cells exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype along with pronounced colony formation...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218080/whether-cd44-is-an-applicable-marker-for-glioma-stem-cells
#8
Hsiao-Han Wang, Chen-Chieh Liao, Nan-Haw Chow, Lynn Ling-Huei Huang, Jih-Ing Chuang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Jyh-Wei Shin
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant and aggressive brain tumors with great amount of hyaluronan (HA) secretion and CD44 overexpression (HA receptor). CD44 has been suggested as a cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. However, several clinical studies have indicated that CD44low glioma cell exhibit CSCs traits. Additionally, our previous study indicated that more CD44 expression was associated with a better prognosis in GBM patients. To determine whether CD44 is an appropriate marker of glioma stem cells (GSCs), we manipulated CD44 expression using intrinsic (CD44 knockdown, CD44kd) and extrinsic (HA supplement, HA+) methods...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213290/effect-of-isolation-technique-and-location-on-the-phenotype-of-human-corneal-stroma-derived-cells
#9
Richárd Nagymihály, Zoltán Veréb, Andrea Facskó, Morten C Moe, Goran Petrovski
Purpose: To determine the effect of the isolation technique and location upon the phenotype of human corneal stroma-derived cells (CSCs). Methods: CSCs were isolated from the corneal stroma center and periphery using the explant or enzymatic digestion technique. The native tissue was stained for functional markers, while cultured cells were analysed by FACS. PCR was used to determine gene expression in the cultured versus native cells. Results: The native stroma was positive for α-actinin, ALDH1A1, CD31, CD34, Collagen I, and Vimentin...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205104/coup-tf1-modulates-thyroid-hormone-action-in-an-embryonic-stem-cell-model-of-cortical-pyramidal-neuronal-differentiation
#10
Xiaochun Teng, Yan-Yun Liu, Weiping Teng, Gregory A Brent
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone is critical for normal brain development and acts in a spatial and temporal specific pattern. Thyroid hormone excess, or deficiency, can lead to irreversible impairment of brain and sensory development. COUP-TF1, expressed early in neuronal development, is essential to achieve normal brain structure. Thyroid hormone stimulation of gene expression is inversely correlated with the level of COUP-TF1 expression. METHODS: We utilized an in vitro method of differentiating mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells into cortical neurons to study the influence of COUP-TF1 on thyroid hormone signaling in brain development...
December 5, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203899/661w-is-a-retinal-ganglion-precursor-like-cell-line-in-which-glaucoma-associated-optineurin-mutants-induce-cell-death-selectively
#11
Zuberwasim Sayyad, Kapil Sirohi, Vegesna Radha, Ghanshyam Swarup
A photoreceptor cell line, 661W, derived from a mouse retinal tumor that expresses several markers of cone photoreceptor cells has been described earlier. However, these cells can be differentiated into neuronal cells. Here, we report that this cell line expressed certain markers specific to retinal ganglion cells such as Rbpms, Brn3b (Pou4f2), Brn3c (Pou4f3), Thy1 and γ-synuclein (Sncg), and some other markers of neuronal cells (beta-III tubulin, NeuN and MAP2). These cells also expressed Opn1mw, a cone-specific marker and nestin, a marker for neural precursor cells...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203817/high-expression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-contributes-to-the-crizotinib-resistant-phenotype-in-the-stem-like-cell-population-in-neuroblastoma
#12
Abdulraheem Alshareef, Nidhi Gupta, Hai-Feng Zhang, Chengsheng Wu, Moinul Haque, Raymond Lai
ALK has been identified as a novel therapeutic target in neuroblastoma (NB), but resistance to ALK inhibitors (such as crizotinib) is well recognized. We recently published that the crizotinib sensitivity in NB cells strongly correlates with the crizotinib-ALK binding, and β-catenin effectively hinders this interaction and confers crizotinib resistance. Here, we asked if these observations hold true for the stem-like cells in NB cells, which were purified based on their responsiveness to a Sox2 reporter. Compared to bulk, reporter unresponsive (RU) cells, reporter responsive (RR) cells had significantly higher neurosphere formation ability, expression of CD133/nestin and chemo-resistance...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188530/histopathological-vascular-investigation-of-the-peritumoral-brain-zone-of-glioblastomas
#13
Ryota Tamura, Kentaro Ohara, Hikaru Sasaki, Yukina Morimoto, Kazunari Yoshida, Masahiro Toda
To date, no histopathological vascular investigation focusing on peritumoral brain zone (PBZ) has been reported for glioblastoma. We analyzed 10 newly diagnosed cases of glioblastomas. For these PBZs, histopathological investigation was performed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry was analyzed for CD31, CD34, Factor VIII, VEGF, VEGFR-1/2, Ki67, p53 and nestin. Although it was difficult to identify PBZ by H&E, Ki67 and p53 staining, there were apparent differences in nestin staining among PBZ, tumor core (TC), and normal zone (NZ)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184052/notch-transactivates-rheb-to-maintain-the-multipotency-of-tsc-null-cells
#14
Jun-Hung Cho, Bhaumik Patel, Santosh Bonala, Sasikanth Manne, Yan Zhou, Surya K Vadrevu, Jalpa Patel, Marco Peronaci, Shanawaz Ghouse, Elizabeth P Henske, Fabrice Roegiers, Krinio Giannikou, David J Kwiatkowski, Hossein Mansouri, Maciej M Markiewski, Brandon White, Magdalena Karbowniczek
Differentiation abnormalities are a hallmark of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) manifestations; however, the genesis of these abnormalities remains unclear. Here we report on mechanisms controlling the multi-lineage, early neuronal progenitor and neural stem-like cell characteristics of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and angiomyolipoma cells. These mechanisms include the activation of a previously unreported Rheb-Notch-Rheb regulatory loop, in which the cyclic binding of Notch1 to the Notch-responsive elements (NREs) on the Rheb promoter is a key event...
November 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181082/sox10-mitf-pathway-activity-in-melanoma-cells
#15
Karol B Tudrej, Edyta Czepielewska, Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska
Melanoma is one of the most dangerous and lethal skin cancers, with a considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance. It involves a malignant transformation of melanocytes. The exact course of events in which melanocytes become melanoma cells remains unclear. Nevertheless, this process is said to be dependent on the occurrence of cells with the phenotype of progenitor cells - cells characterized by expression of proteins such as nestin, CD-133 or CD-271. The development of these cells and their survival were found to be potentially dependent on the neural crest stem cell transcription factor SOX10...
October 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176876/neuroprotection-and-neuroregeneration-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-after-intravitreal-carbon-monoxide-release
#16
Julia Stifter, Felix Ulbrich, Ulrich Goebel, Daniel Böhringer, Wolf Alexander Lagrèze, Julia Biermann
PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia induces apoptosis leading to neurodegeneration and vision impairment. Carbon monoxide (CO) in gaseous form showed cell-protective and anti-inflammatory effects after retinal ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI). These effects were also demonstrated for the intravenously administered CO-releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186. This article summarizes the results of intravitreally released CO to assess its suitability as a neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent. METHODS: Water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (25 μg), PBS, or inactivated ALF (iALF) (all 5 μl) were intravitreally applied into the left eyes of rats directly after retinal IRI for 1 h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174383/intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-impairs-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-functions-via-regulating-neuroinflammation-and-insulin-signaling-in-adult-rats
#17
Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Sonu Singh, Shubha Shukla, Rakesh Shukla
Neurogenesis is a complex process involved in memory formation and is known to be altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroinflammation and insulin signaling dysfunction, key players during intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced dementia variedly affects neurogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the variation in neurogenic process associated with AD in ICV STZ induced dementia. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180-200 g were given two different doses of ICV STZ (3 mg/kg on Day 1 and 3, & 1 mg/kg on Day 1) in two different experimental setup...
November 21, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169271/differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neuron-like-cells-using-composite-3d-scaffold-combined-with-valproic-acid-induction
#18
Sadegh Ghorbani, Taki Tiraihi, Masoud Soleimani
The nervous system has little capacity for self-repair after injury because neurons cannot proliferate owing to lack of suitable microenvironment. Therefore, neural tissue engineering that combines neural stem, scaffolds, and growth factors may improve the chance of restoration of damaged neural tissues. A favorable niche for neural regeneration would be both fibrous and electrically conductive scaffolds. Human Wharton jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on wet-electrospun 3D scaffolds composed of poly lactic acid coated with natural polymers including alginate and gelatin, followed by a multi-wall carbon nanotube coating...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168665/the-clinicopathological-parameters-significance-of-cd133-and-nestin-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#19
Lili Zhao, Jun Li, Manli Liu, Hongrun Zhou, Hong Zou, Yutao Wei, Kunming Sun, Ganxiong Li, Shugang Li, Lijuan Pang
This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of CD133 and Nestin with epithelial ovarian cancer. Databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang) were searched for relevant studies updated in August 2017. CD133 and Nestin expression were estimated by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by RevMan. A total of 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis. High expression of both CD133 and Nestin was associated with late International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (p < 0...
November 23, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167725/transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-oligoprogenitor-cells
#20
Ardeshir Moayeri, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Sara Haratizadeh, Amir Esmaeilnejad-Moghadam, Rafieh Alizadeh, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Introduction: The nerve fibers in central nervous system are surrounded by myelin sheet which is formed by oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy based on oligodendrocytes and their precursors transplantation can hold a promising alternative treatment for myelin sheet repair in demyelinating diseases. Methods: Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) are noninvasive, autologous and easy available source with multipotency characteristics, so they are in focus of interest in regenerative medicine...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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