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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923765/physiological-functions-of-ferroportin-in-the-regulation-of-renal-iron-recycling-and-ischemic-acute-kidney-injury
#1
Xueqiao Wang, Xiaoqing Zheng, Juanlian Zhang, Shifeng Zhao, Zhigang Wang, Fudi Wang, Wenjun Shang, Jonathan Barasch, Andong Qiu
Renal iron recycling preserves the filtered iron from urinary excretion. However, it remains debated whether ferroportin (FPN), the solely known iron exporter, is functionally involved in renal iron recycling, and whether renal iron recycling is required for systemic iron homeostasis. We deleted FPN in the whole nephrons using a Nestin-Cre and in the distal nephrons and collecting ducts using a Ksp-Cre, and investigated its impacts on renal iron recycling and systemic iron homeostasis. FPN deletion by Nestin-Cre but not by Ksp-Cre caused excess iron retention and increased ferritin heavy chain (FTH1) specifically in the proximal tubules, and resulted in the reduction of serum and hepatic iron...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921916/the-thrombin-receptor-restricts-subventricular-zone-neural-stem-cell-expansion-and-differentiation
#2
Chan-Il Choi, Hyesook Yoon, Kristen L Drucker, Monica R Langley, Laurel Kleppe, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Thrombin is frequently increased in the CNS after injury yet little is known regarding its effects on neural stem cells. Here we show that the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mice lacking the high affinity receptor for thrombin, proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1), show increased numbers of Sox2+ and Ki-67+ self-renewing neural stem cells (NSCs) and Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitors. SVZ NSCs derived from PAR1-knockout mice, or treated with a PAR1 small molecule inhibitor (SCH79797), exhibited enhanced capacity for self-renewal in vitro, including increases in neurosphere formation and BrdU incorporation...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920752/effects-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-stimulation-on-the-differentiation-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-neural-progenitor-cells
#3
Toshiaki Ishizuka, Ayako Ozawa, Mieko Katsuura, Sayaka Nomura, Yasushi Satoh
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs), which are expressed in various embryonic cells, may regulate neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we examined the effects of mAchR stimulation on the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Mouse iPS cells were cultured on ultra-low attachment dishes to induce embryoid body (EB) formation. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 3 µM) and/ or pilocarpine (10 or 100 µM), a mAchR agonist, were added to EB cultures for 4 days, following which the EBs were cultured on gelatin-coated plates for 7 days...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913410/incensole-acetate-prevents-beta-amyloid-induced-neurotoxicity-in-human-olfactory-bulb-neural-stem-cells
#4
Mohammed A El-Magd, Sara F Khalifa, Faisal Abdulrahman A Alzahrani, Abdelnaser A Badawy, Eman S El-Shetry, Lamess M Dawood, Mohammed M Alruwaili, Hedib A Alrawaili, Engi F Risha, Fathy M El-Taweel, Hany E Marei
β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a potent neurotoxic protein associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) which causes oxidative damage to neurons. Incensole acetate (IA) is a major constituent of Boswellia carterii resin, which has anti-inflammatory and protective properties against damage of a large verity of neural subtypes. However, this neuroprotective effect was not studied on human olfactory bulb neural stem cells (hOBNSCs). Herein, we evaluated this effect and studied the underlying mechanisms. Exposure to Aβ25-35 (5 and 10 μM for 24 h) inhibited proliferation (revealed by downregulation of Nestin and Sox2 gene expression), and induced differentiation (marked by increased expression of the immature neuronal marker Map2 and the astrocyte marker Gfap) of hOBNSCs...
June 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901281/silk-nanofibrous-electrospun-scaffold-enhances-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-like-cells-derived-from-testis-in-to-mature-neuron
#5
M Nazm Bojnordi, S Ebrahimi-Barough, E Vojoudi, H H Ghasemi
The scaffolds accompanied with stem cells have great potential for applications in neural tissue engineering. Fabrication of Nano fibrous scaffold similar to extracellular matrix is one of the applicable methods in neural tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was the fabrication of a silk Nano fibrous scaffold as a microenvironment for neural guiding differentiation of Embryonic stem like cells (ES Like cells) derived from testis toward neuron-like cells. ES Like derived from culturing of testicular cells in vitro, were seeded on Silk scaffolds and induced to neuronal phenotype using 4-/4± RA technique following culturing the cells in the neurobasal medium supplemented with 20 ng/ml bFGF,10 ng/ml EGF, B27 and N2 for 8-12 days...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901100/implications-of-nestin-in-breast-cancer-pathogenesis-review
#6
Aleksandra Nowak, Piotr Dziegiel
The aim of the present review was to summarize the current knowledge of the involvement of nestin in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis. Nestin is a member of the class VI family of intermediate filament proteins, originally identified as a marker of neural stem cells and subsequently demonstrated to be expressed in BC and other cancer types. In normal breast tissue, nestin is expressed in the basal/myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland. In BC, nestin identifies basal-like tumours and predicts aggressive behaviour and poor prognosis...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892213/neuronal-dysfunction-and-behavioral-abnormalities-are-evoked-by-neural-cells-and-aggravated-by-inflammatory-microglia-in-peroxisomal-%C3%AE-oxidation-deficiency
#7
Lien Beckers, Stijn Stroobants, Rudi D'Hooge, Myriam Baes
It is becoming evident that microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are active contributors in neurological disorders. Nevertheless, the impact of microgliosis on neuropathology, behavior and clinical decline in neuropathological conditions remains elusive. A mouse model lacking multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), a pivotal enzyme in peroxisomal β-oxidation, develops a fatal disorder characterized by motor problems similar to the milder form of human disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying neurological decline in men and mice remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874225/nestin-in-the-epididymis-is-expressed-in-vascular-wall-cells-and-is-regulated-during-postnatal-development-and-in-case-of-testosterone-deficiency
#8
Ansgar N Reckmann, Claudia U M Tomczyk, Michail S Davidoff, Tatyana V Michurina, Stefan Arnhold, Dieter Müller, Andrea Mietens, Ralf Middendorff
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), distinguished by the expression of the neuronal stem cell marker nestin, may represent stem cell-like progenitor cells in various organs including the testis. We investigated epididymal tissues of adult nestin-GFP mice, rats after Leydig cell depletion via ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS), rats and mice during postnatal development and human tissues. By use of Clarity, a histochemical method to illustrate a three-dimensional picture, we could demonstrate nestin-GFP positive cells within the vascular network...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871513/sequential-combined-treatment-of-pifithrin-%C3%AE-and-posiphen-enhances-neurogenesis-and-functional-recovery-after-stroke
#9
Flavia Turcato, Paul Kim, Austin Barnett, Yongming Jin, Mike Scerba, Anthony Casey, Warren Selman, Nigel H Greig, Yu Luo
OBJECTIVE: Although cerebral ischemia can activate endogenous reparative processes, such as proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ), the majority of these new cells die shortly after injury and do not appropriately differentiate into neurons, or migrate and functionally integrate into the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel strategy for treatment of stroke after injury by optimizing the survival of ischemia-induced endogenous NSCs in the SVZ and SGZ...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867343/complement-c3-affects-rac1-activity-in-the-developing-brain
#10
Anna Gorelik, Tamar Sapir, Lihi Ben-Reuven, Orly Reiner
The complement system, which is part of the innate immune response system, has been recently shown to participate in multiple key processes in the developing brain. Here we aimed to elucidate downstream signaling responses linking complement C3, a key molecule of the pathway, to small GTPases, known to affect the cytoskeleton. The expression pattern of the activated small GTPase Rac1 resembled that of complement C3. C3-deficient mice exhibited reduced Rac1 and elevated RhoA activity in comparison with control mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864896/therapeutic-efficacy-of-olfactory-stem-cells-in-rotenone-induced-parkinsonism-in-adult-male-albino-rats
#11
Mohammed Abdel-Rahman, Rania A Galhom, Wael Amin Nasr El-Din, Mona H Mohammed Ali, Alaa El-Din Saad Abdel-Hamid
BACKGROUND: Olfactory stem cells (OSCs) are found in the olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb and have the capacity to proliferate and differentiate along multiple tissue lineages. Rotenone; widely used insecticide has a neurodegenerative effect on the dopaminergic cells of substantia nigra (SN) of midbrain producing Parkinsonism. The aim of this study is to isolate rat OSCs from olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb, culture these OSCs in suitable medium to allow for their proliferation to be used in the treatment of Parkinsonism induced by rotenone...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807106/differentiation-of-neural-crest-stem-cells-from-nasal-mucosa-into-motor-neuron-like-cells
#12
Zohreh Bagher, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Rafieh Alizadeh, Mohammad Farhadi, Mahta Absalan, Masoumeh Falah, Faezeh Faghihi, Arash Zare-Sadegh, Ali Komeili
Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for repairing neuropathological and neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system by replacing the degenerated cells with new ones. Among a variety of stem cell candidates to provide these new cells, olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) have attracted a great attention due to their neural crest origin, easy harvest, high proliferation, and autologous transplantation. Since there is no report on differentiation potential of these cells into motor neuron-like cells, we evaluated this potential using Real-time PCR, flowcytometry and immunocytochemistry after the treatment with differentiation cocktail containing retinoic acid and Sonic Hedgehog...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805974/malignant-gliomas-as-second-neoplasms-in-pediatric-cancer-survivors-neuropathological-study
#13
Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa Bien, Joanna Stefanowicz, Edyta Szurowska, Ewa Szutowicz-Zielinska, Magdalena Koczkowska, Dawid Sigorski, Wojciech Kloc, Wojciech Rogowski, Elzbieta Adamkiewicz-Drozynska
This study presents a unique series of malignant supratentorial gliomas in children previously cured from non-CNS primary cancer. On neuroimaging these tumors were not specific, so the patients were suspected of cerebral recurrence of their primary neoplasm: leukemia in four children and sarcoma in one child. Histologically, the group contained four glioblastomas and one anaplastic astrocytoma. Three patients underwent neurosurgical resection, while the other two underwent stereotactic diagnostic biopsy only...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803225/indomethacin-promotes-survival-of-new-neurons-in-the-adult-murine-hippocampus-accompanied-by-anti-inflammatory-effects-following-mptp-induced-dopamine-depletion
#14
Elisabeth G Hain, Maria Sparenberg, Justyna Rasińska, Charlotte Klein, Levent Akyüz, Barbara Steiner
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic cell loss and inflammation in the substantia nigra (SN) leading to motor deficits but also to hippocampus-associated non-motor symptoms such as spatial learning and memory deficits. The cognitive decline is correlated with impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis resulting from dopamine deficit and inflammation, represented in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) mouse model of PD. In the inflammatory tissue, cyclooxygenase (COX) is upregulated leading to an ongoing inflammatory process such as prostaglandin-mediated increased cytokine levels...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803091/crizotinib-and-erlotinib-inhibits-growth-of-c-met-egfrviii-primary-human-glioblastoma-xenografts
#15
C Rory Goodwin, Prakash Rath, Olutobi Oyinlade, Hernando Lopez, Salman Mughal, Shuli Xia, Yunqing Li, Harsharan Kaur, Xin Zhou, A Karim Ahmed, Sandra Ho, Alessandro Olivi, Bachchu Lal
OBJECTIVES: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), such as c-Met and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), are implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastoma. Studies show that RTK systems can co-modulate distinct and overlapping oncogenic downstream signaling pathways. EGFRvIII, a constitutively activated EGFR deletion mutant variant, leads to increased tumor growth and diminishes the tumor growth response to HGF: c-Met pathway inhibitor therapy. Conversely, activation of the c-Met pathway diminishes the tumor growth response to EGFR pathway inhibitors...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786763/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-neural-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-through-targeting-dact1-and-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#16
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into neuronal lineages and gliocytes. NSCs have the ability to generate and regenerate the brain, indicating the possibility of cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. miR-124 has been demonstrated as a modulator in the survival, expansion, and differentiation of NSCs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-124 in NSC development are still far from being understood. The expressions of miR-124, dishevelled binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (DACT1), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), β-catenin, cyclinD1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined by qRT-PCR or western blot...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785739/in-vitro-formation-of-the-merkel-cell-neurite-complex-in-embryonic-mouse-whiskers-using-organotypic-co-cultures
#17
Kentaro Ishida, Tetsuichiro Saito, Toshiyuki Mitsui
A Merkel cell-neurite complex is a touch receptor composed of specialized epithelial cells named Merkel cells and peripheral sensory nerves in the skin. Merkel cells are found in touch-sensitive skin components including whisker follicles. The nerve fibers that innervate Merkel cells of a whisker follicle extend from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal ganglion. Whiskers as a sensory organ attribute to the complicated architecture of the Merkel cell-neurite complex, and therefore it is intriguing how the structure is formed...
May 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778085/braf-and-mek-inhibitor-therapy-eliminates-nestin-expressing-melanoma-cells-in-human-tumors
#18
Deon B Doxie, Allison R Greenplate, Jocelyn S Gandelman, Kirsten E Diggins, Caroline E Roe, Kimberly B Dahlman, Jeffrey A Sosman, Mark C Kelley, Jonathan M Irish
Little is known about the in vivo impacts of targeted therapy on melanoma cell abundance and protein expression. Here, 21 antibodies were added to an established melanoma mass cytometry panel to measure 32 cellular features, distinguish malignant cells, and characterize dabrafenib and trametinib responses in BRAFV 600mut melanoma. Tumor cells were biopsied before neoadjuvant therapy and compared to cells surgically resected from the same site after 4 weeks of therapy. Approximately 50,000 cells per tumor were characterized by mass cytometry and computational tools t-SNE/viSNE, FlowSOM, and MEM...
May 19, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775163/methylprednisolone-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-in-nonhuman-primates-with-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Jichao Ye, Yi Qin, Yong Tang, Mengjun Ma, Peng Wang, Lin Huang, Rui Yang, Keng Chen, Chaopeng Chai, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
OBJECTIVE The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of methylprednisolone on the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (ENSCs) in nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS A total of 14 healthy cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis) (4-5 years of age) were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (n = 6), SCI group (n = 6), and methylprednisolone therapy group (n = 2). Only laminectomy was performed in the control animals at T-10. SCI was induced in monkeys using Allen's weight-drop method (50 mm × 50 g) to injure the posterior portion of the spinal cord at T-10...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766535/deceptively-bland-cutaneous-angiosarcoma-on-the-nose-mimicking-hemangioma-a-clinicopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-analysis
#20
Christina Mitteldorf, Mar Llamas-Velasco, Hans-Joachim Schulze, Kai-Martin Thoms, Thomas Mentzel, Michael Tronnier, Heinz Kutzner
BACKGROUND: We investigated two cases of deceptively bland cutaneous angiosarcoma, which showed a uniform clinical presentation with a rapidly growing tumor on the nose. It remains unclear whether this was a primary cutaneous manifestation or a metastasis. Both tumors initially presented a high histologic overlap with a benign vascular tumor. The diagnosis was primarily based on the rapidly progressing clinical course and on the results of the staging procedures. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stains were performed for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and MNF116), CD31, ERG, CD34(HPCA1/my10), D2-40/podoplanin, LYVE-1, Ki67, PHH3, αSMA(1A4), MYC, FOS-B, CAMTA-1, TFE-3, WT1, nestin, VEGFR-2(KDR), VEGFR-3(FLT4), HHV8...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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