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Rodrigo Lopes de Lima, Rosenilde Carvalho de Holanda Afonso, Vivaldo Moura Neto, Ana Maria Bolognese, Marcos Fabio Henriques Dos Santos, Margareth Maria Gomes de Souza
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify and characterize dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) by analyzing expression of embryonic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells surface markers. Design Dental follicle cells (DFCs) were evaluated by immunocytochemistry using embryonic stem cells markers (OCT4 and SOX2), mesenchmal stem cells (MSCs) markers (Notch1, active Notch1, STRO, CD44, HLA-ABC, CD90), neural stem cells markers (Nestin and β-III-tubulin), neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) markers (p75 and HNK1) and a glial cells marker (GFAP)...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Ji-Huang Li, Zi-Xian Chen, Xiao-Guang Zhang, Yan Li, Wen-Ting Yang, Xia-Wei Zheng, Shuang Chen, Lin Lu, Yong Gu, Guo-Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to treat stroke for thousands of years. The objective of the study is to assess the current evidence for bioactive components of CHM as neurogenesis agent in animal models of ischemic stroke. METHODS: We searched PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals published from the inception up to November 2015. The primary measured outcome was one of neurogenesis biomarker, including Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Qian Jiao, Li Wang, Zhichao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Hanqi Yan, Wen Ma, Weilin Jin, Haixia Lu, Yong Liu
Different SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) have different levels of expression and diverse functions during neural development. Although srGAP2 is expressed in developmental brain tissue, little is known about its influence on cellular development of the nervous system. In the current study, dynamic expression of endogenous srGAP2 during neural stem cell/progenitor cell (NSC/NPC) differentiation in vitro was investigated in order to elucidate the association between the dynamic expression of srGAP2 and neural development...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Haolin Chen, Yiyan Wang, Renshan Ge, Barry R Zirkin
Adult Leydig cells develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal-like stem cells (stem Leydig cells, SLCs) present in the interstitial compartment of the early postnatal testis. Putative SLCs also have been identified in peritubular and perivascular locations of the adult testis. The latter cells, which normally are quiescent, are capable of regenerating new Leydig cells upon the loss of the adult cells. Recent studies have identified several protein markers to identify these cells, including nestin, PDGFRα, COUP-TFII, CD51 and CD90...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Oriana Trubiani, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models. Given the difficulty to harvest MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissues, research has been focused to find alternative resources for MSCs, such as oral-derived tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated the protective effects of MSCs obtained from healthy human periodontal ligament tissue (hPDLSCs) in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of conditioned medium obtained from hPDLSCs of Relapsing Remitting- Multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients on NSC34 mouse motoneurons stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Wenlong Liu, Xiuli Dan, Ting Wang, William Weijia Lu, Haobo Pan
The development of an optimal animal model which could provide fast assessments of the interaction between bone and orthopaedic implants is essential for both pre-clinical and theoretical researches in the design of novel biomaterials. Compared with other animal models, mice have superiority in accessing the well-developed transgenic modification techniques (e.g. cell tracing, knock-off, knock-in ect.) which serve as powerful tools in studying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we introduced the establishment of a mouse model which is specifically tailored for the assessment of bone-implant interaction in a load-bearing bone marrow microenvironment and could potentially allow the molecular mechanism study of biomaterials by using transgenic technologies...
October 12, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Nolan B Skop, Frances Calderon, Cheul H Cho, Chirag D Gandhi, Steven W Levison
Tissue engineering using stem cells is widely used to repair damaged tissues in diverse biological systems; however, this approach has met with less success in regenerating the central nervous system (CNS). In this study we optimized and characterized the surface chemistry of chitosan-based scaffolds for CNS repair. To maintain radial glial cell (RGC) character of primitive neural precursors, fibronectin was adsorbed to chitosan. The chitosan was further modified by covalently linking heparin using genipin, which then served as a linker to immobilize fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), creating a multifunctional film...
October 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Mitsuharu Endo, Guljahan Ubulkasim, Chiho Kobayashi, Reiko Onishi, Atsu Aiba, Yasuhiro Minami
Ror2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays crucial roles in developmental morphogenesis and tissue-/organo-genesis. In the developing brain, Ror2 is expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) and involved in the regulation of their stemness. However, it remains largely unknown about its role in the adult brain. In this study, we show that Ror2 is up-regulated in reactive astrocytes in the neocortices within 3 days following stab-wound injury. Intriguingly, Ror2-expressing astrocytes were detected primarily at the area surrounding the injury site, where astrocytes express Nestin, a marker of NPCs, and proliferate in response to injury...
October 11, 2016: Glia
Xingliang Dai, Cheng Ma, Qing Lan, Tao Xu
Glioma is still difficult to treat because of its high malignancy, high recurrence rate, and high resistance to anticancer drugs. An alternative method for research of gliomagenesis and drug resistance is to use in vitro tumor model that closely mimics the in vivo tumor microenvironment. In this study, we established a 3D bioprinted glioma stem cell model, using modified porous gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix. Glioma stem cells achieved a survival rate of 86.92%, and proliferated with high cellular activity immediately following bioprinting...
October 11, 2016: Biofabrication
Shuya Yano, Kiyoto Takehara, Hiroshi Tazawa, Hiroyuki Kishimoto, Yasuo Urata, Shunsuke Kagawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Robert M Hoffman
We previously demonstrated that quiescent cancer cells in a tumor are resistant to conventional chemotherapy as visualized with a fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI). We also showed that proliferating cancer cells exist in a tumor only near nascent vessels or on the tumor surface as visualized with FUCCI and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing tumor vessels. In the present study, we show the relationship between cell-cycle phase and chemotherapy-induced tumor angiogenesis using in vivo FUCCI real-time imaging of the cell cycle and nestin-driven GFP to detect nascent blood vessels...
August 11, 2016: Cell Cycle
Mariana Maier Gaelzer, Mariana Silva Dos Santos, Bárbara Paranhos Coelho, Alice Hoffman de Quadros, Fabrício Simão, Vanina Usach, Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma, Patrícia Setton-Avruj, Guido Lenz, Christianne G Salbego
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Hypoxia is a distinct feature in GBM and plays a significant role in tumor progression, resistance to treatment, and poor outcome. However, there is lack of studies relating type of cell death, status of Akt phosphorylation on Ser473, mitochondrial membrane potential, and morphological changes of tumor cells after hypoxia and reoxygenation. The rat glioma C6 cell line was exposed to oxygen deprivation (OD) in 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum-free media followed by reoxygenation (RO)...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Ivan Alić, Nina Kosi, Katarina Kapuralin, Dunja Gorup, Srećko Gajović, Roland Pochet, Dinko Mitrečić
To analyse events following transplantation of stem cells in the brain robust tools for tracing stem cells are required. Here we took advantage of the mouse strain B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)16Jrs/J (Thy1 YFP-16), where yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) is under control of the promoter of Thy1 gene. This allows visualising whole neurons, i.e. their cell body, axons and dendrites. In this work fluorescent cells were followed during embryonic development, in vitro differentiation, and after transplantation in the healthy and stroke-affected mouse brain...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Natalija Filipovic, Katarina Vukojevic, Ivana Bocina, Marijan Saraga, Merica Glavina Durdov, Boris Kablar, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Differentiation of human podocytes starts with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of the metanephric mesenchyme into the S-shaped nephrons. During further development, differentiating podocytes regain mesenchyme-like cell characteristics by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to formation of the terminally differentiated, non-dividing cell. Both MET and EMT processes involve changes in content and organization of cytoskeletal and actin filaments, accompanied by the increased glomerular vascularization...
October 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Meerim Park, Chan-Jeoung Park, Young Wook Cho, Seongsoo Jang, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Young Ho Lee
Hematopoiesis involves complex interactions between hematopoietic cells and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment; the specific causes and mechanisms underlying dysregulated hematopoiesis are unknown. Here, BM biopsy specimens from patients with aplastic anemia (AA), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and normal marrow were analyzed by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry to determine changes in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment and BM microenvironment. HSC levels were lowest in AA and highest in CML...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Jieun Jung, Jong-Wan Kim, Ho-Jin Moon, Jin Young Hong, Jung Keun Hyun
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have a high potency for differentiation to neurons and glial cells for replacement of damaged cells and paracrine effects for the regeneration and remyelination of host axons. Dental pulp is known to have a potential to differentiate into neural-like cells; therefore, dental pulp may be used as an autologous cell source for neural repair. In this study, we selectively expanded stem cells from human dental pulp in an initial culture using NSC media under xeno- and serum-free conditions...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ling-Lin Chen, Mei-Ling Wu, Feng Zhu, Jie-Jing Kai, Jing-Yin Dong, Xi-Mei Wu, Ling-Hui Zeng
AIMS: Previous study suggests that mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in epileptogenesis. The present work was designed to explore the contribution of raptor protein to the development of epilepsy and comorbidities. METHODS: Mice with conditional knockout of raptor protein were generated by cross-bred Rptor(flox/flox) mice with nestin-CRE mice. The expression of raptor protein was analyzed by Western blotting in brain tissue samples. Neuronal death and mossy fiber sprouting were detected by FJB staining and Timm staining, respectively...
September 28, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
September 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Youngmin Han, Kyoung-Tae Kim
OBJECTIVE: Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
A-M Shi, Z-Q Tao, X Wang, Y-Q Wang
"Intermediate filament Nestin and the cell motility in cancer - a review" by A.-M. Shi, Z.-Q. Tao, X. Wang, Y.-Q. Wang, published in Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016; 20 (12): 2598-2602 has been withdrawn.
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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