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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918091/opposed-effects-of-dityrosine-formation-in-soluble-and-aggregated-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-fibril-growth
#1
Michael M Wördehoff, Hamed Shaykhalishahi, Luca Groß, Lothar Gremer, Matthias Stoldt, Alexander K Buell, Dieter Willbold, Wolfgang Hoyer
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn) in Lewy bodies, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased oxidative stress in the substantia nigra. Oxidative stress leads to several modifications of biomolecules including dityrosine (DiY)-crosslinking in proteins, which has recently been detected in α-syn in Lewy bodies from PD patients. Here we report that α-syn is highly susceptible to UV-induced DiY formation...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918019/dual-tumor-targeting-nanocarrier-system-for-sirna-delivery-based-on-prna-and-modified-chitosan
#2
Lin Li, Xiaoqin Hu, Min Zhang, Siyu Ma, Fanglin Yu, Shiqing Zhao, Nan Liu, Zhiyuan Wang, Yu Wang, Hua Guan, Xiujie Pan, Yue Gao, Yue Zhang, Yan Liu, Yang Yang, Xuemei Tang, Mingyuan Li, Cheng Liu, Zhiping Li, Xingguo Mei
Highly specific and efficient delivery of siRNA is still unsatisfactory. Herein, a dual tumor-targeting siRNA delivery system combining pRNA dimers with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPPs) was designed to improve the specificity and efficiency of siRNA delivery. In this dual delivery system, folate-conjugated and PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating pRNA dimers were used as the first class of delivery system and would selectively deliver intact pRNA dimers near or into target cells. pRNA dimers simultaneously carrying siRNA and targeting aptamer, the second class of delivery system, would specifically deliver siRNA into the target cells via aptamer-mediated endocytosis or proper particle size...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917967/synthesis-of-a-trisaccharide-repeating-unit-of-the-o-antigen-from-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-its-dimer
#3
Ningning Bi, Chenghe Xiong, Guoxia Jin, Zhongwu Guo, Guofeng Gu
The trisaccharide repeating unit of an O-antigen derived from Burkholderia cenocepacia and its dimer, i.e., α-L-Rhap-(1 → 3)-α-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 3)-β-D-GalpNAc-O(CH2)3N3 (1) and α-L-Rhap-(1 → 3)-α-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 3)-β-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 4)-α-L-Rhap-(1 → 3)-α-D-GalpNAc-(1 → 3)-β-D-GalpNAc-O(CH2)3N3 (2), respectively, were synthesized via a highly convergent strategy. Glycosylation of galactosaminyl acceptor 4 with galactosaminyl trichloroacetimidate donor 5 was followed by condensation of resulting disaccharide acceptor 12 with rhamnosyl imidate donor 6 to furnish stereoselectively trisaccharyl thioglycoside 3, which was used as a key and common glycosyl donor for the construction of both 1 and 2...
September 8, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917910/cota-laccase-abts-hydrogen-peroxide-system-an-efficient-approach-to-produce-active-and-decolorized-chitosan-genipin-films
#4
Idalina Gonçalves, Cláudia Nunes, Sónia Mendes, Lígia O Martins, Paula Ferreira, Manuel A Coimbra
Chitosan-genipin films present a bluish-green color due to the conjugated double bonds formed when monomeric or dimeric genipin residues bridge chitosan. This phenomenon limits their use when colorless materials are required. In this work, a two-step oxidation strategy was developed aiming to remove color from chitosan-genipin films while preserving their functional properties. A combined system using the recombinant CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis mediated by 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) followed by a H2O2 oxidation step was settled...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917897/reduction-of-au-iii-by-a-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-polymer-in-acid-medium-a-stated-unattainable-reaction
#5
Rudy Martin-Trasanco, Roberto Cao, Hilda Esperanza Esparza-Ponce, Maria Elena Montero-Cabrera, Ramiro Arratia-Pérez
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be prepared from the reduction of Au(III) with cyclodextrins acting as both, reducing and capping agent. It has been stated that a basic medium (pH=9-12) is a mandatory condition to achieve such reduction. We demonstrated, for the first time, the reduction of Au(III) by a crosslinked β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer (βCDP) in acid medium (pH ∼3). The coordination of Au(III) to the βCD in βCDP polymer required a βCD:[AuCl4](-) ratio of 4:1. The same ratio was necessary to achieve a 50% of the reduction of Au(III) to Au(0) within the first 24h of reaction...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917639/protein-oxidation-involved-in-cys-tyr-post-translational-modification
#6
Susan E Hromada, Adam M Hilbrands, Elysa M Wolf, Jackson L Ross, Taylor R Hegg, Andrew G Roth, Matthew T Hollowell, Carolyn E Anderson, David E Benson
Some post-translationally modified tyrosines can perform reversible redox chemistry similar to metal cofactors. The most studied of these tyrosine modifications is the intramolecular thioether-crosslinked 3'-(S-cysteinyl)-tyrosine (Cys-Tyr) in galactose oxidase. This Cu-mediated tyrosine modification in galactose oxidase involves direct electron transfer (inner-sphere) to the coordinated tyrosine. Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase enzymes also contain a Cys-Tyr that is formed, presumably, through outer-sphere electron transfer from a non-heme iron center ~6Å away from the parent residues...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917314/evaluation-of-cardiopulmonary-and-inflammatory-markers-in-dogs-with-heartworm-infection-treated-using-the-slow-kill-method
#7
W-K Yoon, Y-W Kim, S-I Suh, C Hyun
This study evaluated the changes in the levels of cardiac, hemostatic, and inflammatory biomarkers in 12 dogs with different severities of heartworm infection treated using the slow kill protocol, consisting of 6-10μg/kg of ivermectin and 10mg/kg of doxycycline combination. The serum levels of cardiac troponin-I, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were measured on the day of diagnosis (D0), after termination of doxycycline administration (D30), after termination of the slow kill treatment (D180), and 10 months after the initiation of therapy (D300)...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916764/rapid-and-reversible-epigenome-editing-by-endogenous-chromatin-regulators
#8
Simon M G Braun, Jacob G Kirkland, Emma J Chory, Dylan Husmann, Joseph P Calarco, Gerald R Crabtree
Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916751/understanding-cry2-interactions-for-optical-control-of-intracellular-signaling
#9
Liting Duan, Jen Hope, Qunxiang Ong, Hsin-Ya Lou, Namdoo Kim, Comfrey McCarthy, Victor Acero, Michael Z Lin, Bianxiao Cui
Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) can simultaneously undergo light-dependent CRY2-CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 hetero-dimerization, both of which have been widely used to optically control intracellular processes. Applications using CRY2-CIB1 interaction desire minimal CRY2 homo-oligomerization to avoid unintended complications, while those utilizing CRY2-CRY2 interaction prefer robust homo-oligomerization. However, selecting the type of CRY2 interaction has not been possible as the molecular mechanisms underlying CRY2 interactions are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#10
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916266/grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-stat3-regulates-the-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-through-interaction-with-pkr
#11
Liqiang Wang, Zhen Wu, Qingli Huang, Keyi Huang, Guoqin Qi, Chuxin Wu, Huiling Mao, Xiaowen Xu, Haizhou Wang, Chengyu Hu
In mammals, STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) plays an important role in growth, multiplication, differentiation and participates in inflammation, tumorigenesis, metabolic disorders and immune response. STAT3 is a protein that shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Compared to the STAT3 in cell nucleus, we did not know the function of STAT3 in cytoplasm for a long time. Some recent studies have shown that cytoplasmic STAT3 regulates autophagy through the interaction with the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which plays an important role in cellular antiviral response...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915738/re-examination-of-the-cs2-ground-singlet-x-1-%C3%AE-g-and-triplet-a-3-%C3%AE-u-states
#12
Vladimir B Sovkov, Feng Xie, A Marjatta Lyyra, Ergin H Ahmed, Jie Ma, Suotang Jia
This paper clarifies the disagreement in the depth of the potential energy curve of the cesium dimer singlet ground state which has lasted for nearly a decade. We point out that the origin of this disagreement must be a technical misprint in the values of the three binding energies reported by Danzl et al. [Science 321, 1062 (2008)], while the X(1)Σg(+) state potential reported by Coxon and Hajigeorgiou [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 094105 (2010)], based on experimental data by Amiot and Dulieu [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 5155 (2002)], is quite correct...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915348/activation-of-factor-xiii-is-accompanied-by-a-change-in-oligomerization-state
#13
Boris A Anokhin, Vilius Stribinskis, William L Dean, Muriel C Maurer
Factor XIII A (FXIIIA) is a member of the transglutaminase enzyme family that cross-links both intra- and extracellular protein substrates. To prevent undesired cross-linking, FXIIIA is expressed as an inactive zymogen and exists intracellularly as an A2 homodimer. In plasma, FXIII A2 is complexed with two protective factor XIII B subunits (A2 B2 ) that dissociate upon activation of the zymogen. Based on limited experimental data, activated FXIII was considered a dimer of two catalytically active A subunits...
September 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915259/a-novel-mechanism-of-antibody-mediated-enhancement-of-flavivirus-infection
#14
Denise Haslwanter, Dieter Blaas, Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is a well-described phenomenon that is based on the cellular uptake of infectious virus-antibody complexes following their interaction with Fcγ receptors expressed on myeloid cells. Here we describe a novel mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement of infection by a flavivirus (tick-borne encephalitis virus) in transformed and primary human cells, which is independent of the presence of Fcγ receptors. Using chemical cross-linking and immunoassays, we demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody (mab) A5, recognizing an epitope at the interface of the dimeric envelope protein E, causes dimer dissociation and leads to the exposure of the fusion loop (FL)...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915047/two-photon-absorption-in-pentacene-dimers-the-importance-of-the-tether-using-upconversion-as-an-indirect-route-to-singlet-fission
#15
Eleonora Garoni, Johannes Zirzlmeier, Bettina S Basel, Constantin Hetzer, Kenji Kamada, Dirk M Guldi, Rik R Tykwinski
In this proof of concept study, we show that intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) can be initiated from a singlet excited state accessed by two-photon absorption, rather than through a tradition route of direct one-photon excitation (OPE). Thus, iSF in pentacene dimers 2 and 3 is enabled through NIR irradiation at 775 nm, a wavelength where neither dimer exhibits linear absorption of light. The meta-phenylene and adamantyl tethers 2 and 3, respectively, are designed to feature superimposable geometry, which establishes that the electronic coupling between the two pentacenes is the significant structural feature that dictates iSF efficiency...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915039/a-first-principles-molecular-dynamics-study-of-the-solvation-shell-structure-vibrational-spectra-polarity-and-dynamics-around-a-nitrate-ion-in-aqueous-solution
#16
Sushma Yadav, Ashu Choudhary, Amalendu Chandra
A first-principles molecular dynamics study is presented for the structural, dynamical, vibrational, and dipolar properties of the solvation shell of a nitrate ion in deuterated water. A detailed description of the anisotropic structure of the solvation shell is presented through calculations of various structural distributions in different conical shells around the perpendicular axis of the ion. The nitrate ion-water dimer potential energies are also calculated for many different orientations of water. The average vibrational stretch frequency of OD modes in the solvation shell is found to be higher than that of other OD modes in the bulk, which signifies a weakening of hydrogen bonds in the hydration shell...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914989/encapsulating-active-pharmaceutical-ingredients-in-self-assembling-adamantanes-with-short-dna-zippers
#17
Clemens Richert, Helmut Griesser, Alexander Schwenger
Formulating pharmaceutically active ingredients for drug delivery is a challenge. There is a need for new drug delivery systems that take up therapeutic molecules and release them into biological systems. We propose a novel mode of encapsulation that involves matrices formed through co-assembly of drugs with adamantane hybrids that feature four CG dimers as sticky ends. Such adamantanes are accessible via inexpensive solution-phase syntheses, and the resulting materials show attractive properties for controlled release...
September 15, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914805/a-recombinant-hav-expressing-a-neutralization-epitope-of-hev-induces-immune-response-against-hav-and-hev-in-mice
#18
Kui Xiang, Yuri Kusov, Guan Ying, Wang Yan, Yi Shan, Wu Jinyuan, Yin Na, Zhou Yan, Li Hongjun, Sun Maosheng
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are causative agents of acute viral hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Both viruses place a heavy burden on the public health and economy of developing countries. To test the possibility that HAV could be used as an expression vector for the development of a combination vaccine against hepatitis A and E infections, recombinant HAV-HEp148 was created as a vector to express an HEV neutralization epitope (HEp148) located at aa 459-606 of the HEV capsid protein...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914789/phytochemical-constituents-health-benefits-and-industrial-applications-of-grape-seeds-a-mini-review
#19
REVIEW
Zheng Feei Ma, Hongxia Zhang
Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate...
September 15, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914449/insights-on-the-stilbenes-in-raboso-piave-grape-v-vinifera-l-as-a-consequence-of-post-harvest-vs-on-vine-dehydration
#20
Luca Brillante, Mirko De Rosso, Antonio Dalla Vedova, Itay Maoz, Riccardo Flamini, Diego Tomasi
BACKGROUND: Grape withering is a process used to produce reinforced wines and raisins. Dehydration is usually carried out post-harvest by keeping ripe grapes in special warehouses in controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air-flow. Alternatively, grape clusters can be left on the vines after the canes have been pruned. In general, dehydration increases stilbenes in grape, but there are few studies on the effects of on-vine withering. The stilbene profiles of Raboso Piave grape during post-harvest and on-vine dehydration were studied here...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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