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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913845/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-are-involved-in-hepatocanalicular-dysfunction-and-cholestasis-induced-by-oxidative-stress
#1
Flavia D Toledo, Cecilia L Basiglio, Ismael R Barosso, Andrea C Boaglio, Andrés E Zucchetti, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi, Marcelo G Roma
In previous studies, we showed that the pro-oxidant model agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH) induces alterations in hepatocanalicular secretory function by activating Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C isoforms (cPKC), via F-actin disorganization followed by endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters relevant to bile formation (Mrp2, Bsep). Since mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) may be downstream effectors of cPKC, we investigated here the involvement of the MAPKs of the ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38(MAPK) types in these deleterious effects...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910802/near-infrared-spectroscopy-evaluated-cerebral-oxygenation-during-anesthesia
#2
Henrik Sørensen
Likely, maintained organ and notably cerebral perfusion, secures rapid recovery following anesthesia. To secure cerebral blood flow (CBF) at least mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) need to be considered. CBF is "autoregulated", i.e. stays more or less stable within a MAP of 50-150 mmHg, but the lower limit appears to depend on the central blood volume and/or cardiac output, illustrated by a decrease in CBF at a MAP of 80 mmHg with a compromised central blood volume, while CBF remains constant with a MAP < 40 mmHg, if the central blood volume is maintained...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901159/a-portable-and-reconfigurable-multi-organ-platform-for-drug-development-with-onboard-microfluidic-flow-control
#3
J R Coppeta, M J Mescher, B C Isenberg, A J Spencer, E S Kim, A R Lever, T J Mulhern, R Prantil-Baun, J C Comolli, J T Borenstein
The drug development pipeline is severely limited by a lack of reliable tools for prediction of human clinical safety and efficacy profiles for compounds at the pre-clinical stage. Here we present the design and implementation of a platform technology comprising multiple human cell-based tissue models in a portable and reconfigurable format that supports individual organ function and crosstalk for periods of up to several weeks. Organ perfusion and crosstalk are enabled by a precision flow control technology based on electromagnetic actuators embedded in an arrayed format on a microfluidic platform...
November 30, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894918/laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-and-oxygen-to-see-for-assessing-microcirculatory-liver-blood-flow-changes-following-different-volumes-of-hepatectomy
#4
Chong Hui Li, Xin Lan Ge, Ke Pan, Peng Fei Wang, Yi Nan Su, Ai Qun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Portal hyperperfusion after extended hepatectomy or small-for-size liver transplantation may induce organ dysfunction and failure. This study was designed to monitor and characterize the hepatic microcirculatory perfusion following different volumes of hepatectomy in rats by using laser speckle contrast image (LSCI) and Oxygen to See (O2C), a spectrometric device. METHODS: The microcirculatory liver blood flow of the rats that underwent 68%, 85% and 90% hepatectomy (68PH, 85PH and 90PH) was monitored with LSCI and O2C before and following the hepatectomy...
November 25, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881031/cavitation-enhances-coagulated-size-during-pulsed-high-intensity-focussed-ultrasound-ablation-in-an-isolated-liver-perfusion-system
#5
Lu-Yan Zhao, Shan Liu, Zong-Gui Chen, Jian-Zhong Zou, Feng Wu
PURPOSE: To investigate whether cavitation enhances the degree of coagulation during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) in an isolated liver perfusion system. METHODS: Isolated liver was treated by pulsed HIFU or continuous-wave HIFU with different portal vein flow rates. The cavitation emission during exposure was recorded, and real-time ultrasound images were used to observe changes in the grey scale. The coagulation size was measured and calculated...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878478/liver-resection-after-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-with-yttrium-90-is-safe-and-feasible-a-bi-institutional-analysis
#6
G Paul Wright, J Wallis Marsh, Manish K Varma, Michael G Doherty, David L Bartlett, Mathew H Chung
BACKGROUND: Treatment with yttrium-90 (Y90) microspheres has emerged as a viable liver-directed therapy for patients with unresectable tumors and those outside transplantation criteria. A select number of patients demonstrate a favorable response and become candidates for surgical resection. METHODS: Patients who underwent selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with Y90 microspheres at two institutions were reviewed. Patients who underwent liver resection were included in the study...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875906/the-therapeutic-effects-of-cholecystokinin-octapeptide-on-rat-liver-and-kidney-microcirculation-disorder-in-endotoxic-shock
#7
Dong Zhang, Hui Li, Jing Geng, Yingmin Li, Shujin Li, Chunling Ma, Bin Cong, Xiaojing Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Our previous studies demonstrated that pretreatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) could alleviate endothelial cell injury and reverse abnormal vascular reactivity as well as reduce LPS-induced inflammation cascades, which suggested that CCK-8 plays a potential role in anti-endotoxic shock. The present study aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of CCK-8 on rat liver and kidney microcirculatory perfusion disorder under endotoxic shock (ES) conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to lethal endotoxic shock by an injection of LPS...
November 22, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875319/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-metoprolol-with-gallic-acid-and-ellagic-acid-in-male-wistar-rats-involvement-of-cyp2d6-inhibition
#8
Bhargavi Latha Athukuri, Prasad Neerati
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the CYP450 mixed function oxidase system, is an important CYP isoform with regard to herbal-drug interactions and is responsible for the metabolism of nearly 25% of drugs. Until now, studies on the effects of various phytochemicals on CYP2D6 activity in vivo have been very rare. Gallic acid and ellagic acid are natural polyphenols which are widely distributed in fruits and medicinal plants. In the present study, the effects of gallic acid and ellagic acid pretreatment on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of metoprolol were investigated...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867949/continuous-monitoring-of-the-liver-graft-temperature-relationship-between-bacterial-contamination-of-the-perfusion-fluid-and-early-outcome
#9
Giovanni Battista Levi Sandri, Roberto Luca Meniconi, Marco Colasanti, Nicola Guglielmo, Edoardo de Werra, Gianluca Mascianà, Giovanni Tortorelli, Daniele Ferraro, Mirco Burocchi, Alessandra Campanelli, Andrea Scotti, Ubaldo Visco-Comandini, Roberto Santoro, Pasquale Lepiane, Giovanni Vennarecci, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre
BACKGROUND: A potential mechanism of the infection would be an infected donor, contamination at the time of the infusion and/or packaging, back-table procedure, and finally during the transplantation, all are potential sources of infection. The aim of our study is to analyze the incidence and significance of infection in the preservation solution according with the graft temperature. The second aim was to analyze the impact graft temperature on the clinical infections and the ischemia reperfusion injury...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867357/machine-perfusion-of-porcine-livers-with-oxygen-carrying-solution-results-in-reprogramming-of-dynamic-inflammation-networks
#10
David Sadowsky, Ruben Zamora, Derek Barclay, Jinling Yin, Paulo Fontes, Yoram Vodovotz
Background:Ex vivo machine perfusion (MP) can better preserve organs for transplantation. We have recently reported on the first application of an MP protocol in which liver allografts were fully oxygenated, under dual pressures and subnormothermic conditions, with a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) solution specifically developed for ex vivo utilization. In those studies, MP improved organ function post-operatively and reduced inflammation in porcine livers. Herein, we sought to refine our knowledge regarding the impact of MP by defining dynamic networks of inflammation in both tissue and perfusate...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865032/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-diffusion-weighted-mri-of-the-abdomen-the-effect-of-fitting-algorithms-on-the-accuracy-and-reliability-of-the-parameters
#11
Hyo Jung Park, Yu Sub Sung, Seung Soo Lee, Yedaun Lee, Hyunhee Cheong, Yeong Jae Kim, Moon-Gyu Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of fitting methods on the accuracy and reliability of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters, with a particular emphasis on the constraint function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging data were analyzed using IVIM-based full-fitting (simultaneous fit of all parameters) and segmented-fitting (step-by-step fit of each parameter), each with and without the constraint function, to estimate the molecular diffusion coefficient (Dslow ), perfusion fraction (f), and flow-related diffusion coefficient (Dfast )...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862590/hepatic-gadoxetic-acid-uptake-as-a-measure-of-diffuse-liver-disease-where-are-we
#12
REVIEW
Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Nina Bastati, Andreas Wibmer, Romana Fragner, Jacqueline C Hodge, Michael Trauner, Christian J Herold, Mustafa R Bashir, Bernard E Van Beers
: MRI has emerged as the most comprehensive noninvasive diagnostic tool for focal liver lesions and diffuse hepatobiliary disorders. The introduction of hepatobiliary contrast agents, most notably gadoxetic acid (GA), has expanded the role of MRI, particularly in the functional imaging of chronic liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). GA-enhanced MRI (GA-MRI) may help to distinguish between the two subgroups of NAFLD, simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862079/discarded-livers-find-a-new-life-engineered-liver-grafts-using-hepatocytes-recovered-from-marginal-livers
#13
Basak E Uygun, Maria-Louisa Izamis, Maria Jaramillo, Yibin Chen, Gavrielle Price, Sinan Ozer, Martin L Yarmush
Treatment for end-stage liver failure is restricted by the critical shortage of donor organs; about 4000 people die in the USA while waiting for a transplantable organ. This situation has been a major driving force behind the rise of tissue engineering to build artificial tissues/organs. Recent advancements in creating transplantable liver grafts using decellularized liver scaffolds bring the field closer to clinical translation. However, a source of readily available and highly functional adult hepatocytes in adequate numbers for regenerative liver therapies still remains unclear...
November 8, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860296/impact-of-subnormothermic-machine-perfusion-preservation-in-severely-steatotic-rat-livers-a-detailed-assessment-in-an-isolated-setting
#14
Y Okamura, K Hata, H Tanaka, H Hirao, T Kubota, O Inamoto, S Kageyama, I Tamaki, N Yermek, J Yoshikawa, S Uemoto
Current drastic shortage of donor organs has led to acceptance of extended-criteria donors for transplantation, despite higher risk of primary non-function. Here, we report the impact of subnormothermic machine perfusion (SMP) preservation on the protection of >50% macro-steatotic livers. Dietary hepatic steatosis was induced in Wistar rats via 2-day fasting and subsequent 3-day re-feeding with a fat-free, carbohydrate-rich diet. This protocol induces 50-60% macrovesicular steatosis, which should be discarded when preserved via cold storage (CS)...
November 10, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858703/chronic-liver-disease-quantitative-mri-vs%C3%A2-ceus-based-microperfusion
#15
M Haimerl, S Poelsterl, L P Beyer, I Wiesinger, C Nießen, C Stroszczynski, P Wiggermann, E-M Jung
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of MRI-based T1 relaxometry with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-based liver microcirculation for evaluation of liver function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 22 patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with T1 relaxometry and previous or consecutive CEUS examinations. A transverse 3D VIBE sequence with an inline T1 calculation was acquired and the reduction rate of T1 relaxation time (rrT1) was evaluated. For CEUS measurements (1-6 MHz), a bolus injection of 1...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837413/machine-perfusion-versus-cold-storage-of-livers-a-meta-analysis
#16
Sushun Liu, Qing Pang, Jingyao Zhang, Mimi Zhai, Sinan Liu, Chang Liu
Different organ preservation methods are key factors influencing the results of liver transplantation. In this study, the outcomes of experimental models receiving donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers preserved through machine perfusion (MP) or static cold storage (CS) were compared by conducting a meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to compare pooled data from two animal species. Twenty-four studies involving MP preservation were included in the meta-analysis...
November 11, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835640/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-comparison-of-liver-grafts-from-donors-after-circulatory-death-dcd-and-donors-after-brain-death-dbd-used-in-human-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#17
Olga Hrydziuszko, M Thamara P R Perera, Richard Laing, Jennifer Kirwan, Michael A Silva, Douglas A Richards, Nick Murphy, Darius F Mirza, Mark R Viant
Use of marginal liver grafts, especially those from donors after circulatory death (DCD), has been considered as a solution to organ shortage. Inferior outcomes have been attributed to donor warm ischaemic damage in these DCD organs. Here we sought to profile the metabolic mechanisms underpinning donor warm ischaemia. Non-targeted Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry metabolomics was applied to biopsies of liver grafts from donors after brain death (DBD; n = 27) and DCD (n = 10), both during static cold storage (T1) as well as post-reperfusion (T2)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830409/perioperative-cardiovascular-evaluation-for-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
Robert J Donovan, Calvin Choi, Asghar Ali, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Anthony A Bavry, Ion S Jovin
Patients with advanced liver disease have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, but many of them are asymptomatic. Cardiovascular risk stratification prior to liver transplant can be done by dobutamine stress echocardiography, stress myocardial perfusion imaging, cardiac computer tomography, and coronary angiography, but there are no clear recommendations regarding what method should be used and who should be screened. Because of this and because of inherent risk profile in this population, the variations in practice are significant...
November 9, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819194/role-of-doppler-ultrasonography-in-defining-normal-and-abnormal-graft-hemodynamics-after-living-donor-liver-transplant
#19
Omar Abdelaziz, Sally Emad-Eldin, Ahmed Hussein, Ayman M A Osman
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the early changes that occur after graft perfusion in living-donor liver transplant by Doppler ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated liver grafts of 30 patients who underwent living-donor liver transplant during an 18-month period and who were followed for 1 year postoperatively. The hepatic artery peak systolic velocity, resistivity index, portal vein velocity, portal vein anastomotic velocity ratio, and hepatic vein pattern were compared after excluding patients who developed vascular complications and acute rejection episodes...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815464/retrograde-oxygen-persufflation-of-kidney-experiment-on-an-animal
#20
Jiri Moláček, Václav Opatrný, Roman Matějka, Jan Baxa, Vladislav Třeška
AIM: There is still a lack of organs for transplantation purposes. In the field of kidney and liver transplantation, one available solution is the use of organs from so-called marginal donors. These donors can be e.g. non-heart-beating donors. In these cases, perfusion and preservation of organs intended for transplantation is generally more difficult. Retrograde oxygen persufflation (ROP) may be a possible solution to this issue. This method is based on retrograde perfusion by oxygen through the renal vein thus reconditioning the organ...
November 2016: In Vivo
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