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organ preservation

Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tsu-Hui Hubert Low, David Yeh, Tina Zhang, Rakhna Araslanova, J Alex Hammond, David Palma, Nancy Read, Varagur Venkatesan, S Danielle MacNeil, John Yoo, Anthony Nichols, Kevin Fung
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Common endpoints in reporting the outcomes for early glottic cancer do not highlight the importance of organ preservation. We evaluated the treatment outcomes among patients with T1aN0 laryngeal cancer with laryngectomy-free disease-specific survival (LFS-DSS), which is defined as time to total laryngectomy or time to death from cancer cause, against all other endpoints. STUDY DESIGN: Outcome research on an institutional database. METHODS: A retrospective review covered all consecutive patients from 2003 to 2013...
October 25, 2016: Laryngoscope
Evangelia Pardali, Timo Schmitz, Andreas Borgscheiper, Janette Iking, Lars Stegger, Johannes Waltenberger
BACKGROUND: Circulating white blood cells crucially contribute to maintenance and repair of solid organs. Therefore, certain cell populations such as monocytes are attractive targets for use in molecular imaging and cell imaging, e.g. after labelling with radionuclides, as well as for cell therapies. However, the preparation of monocytes may require freezing and thawing to preserve cells for timely and standardised applications. Additional modifications of these cells such as radioisotope labelling are necessary prior to their application in vivo...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Petr Handlos, Marek Dokoupil, Marie Staňková, Marek Joukal, Igor Dvořáček, Matěj Uvíra, Margita Smatanová
PURPOSE: In this paper we present a case report of two people who were found dead in a holiday cottage after a fire. The cause of death in these cases was clarified by the presence of blood in the left pleural cavity in both bodies. METHODS: An inspection of the bodies at the scene of the fire and subsequent examination by a medical examiner suggested the deaths were accidental. RESULTS: An autopsy showed that the bodies were those of a man and a woman with severe carbonization of the skin, soft tissues, brain, and some organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities...
October 25, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Motoo Nomura, Satoru Iwasa, Takahiro Tsushima, Ken Kato, Hirofumi Yasui, Narikazu Boku, Manabu Muto, Kei Muro
PURPOSE: The survival benefit of chemotherapy (CTx) compared with best supportive care (BSC) is unclear in patients with recurrent or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (R/M-ESCC) previously treated with fluorouracil (FU), platinum (PT), and taxane (TAX). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data of 283 consecutive patients with R/M-ESCC, who could not tolerate or whose tumor was refractory to all three agents (FU, PT, and TAX) between March 2003 and November 2014, were retrospectively reviewed...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Leonid E Fridlyand, Natalia A Tamarina, Andrew V Schally, Louis H Philipson
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mahendra Rai, Raksha Pandit, Swapnil Gaikwad, György Kövics
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are diverse group of natural proteins present in animals, plants, insects and bacteria. These peptides are responsible for defense of host from pathogenic organisms. Chemical, enzymatic and recombinant techniques are used for the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. These peptides have been found to be an alternative to the chemical preservatives. Currently, nisin is the only antimicrobial peptide, which is widely utilized in the preservation of food. Antimicrobial peptides can be used alone or in combination with other antimicrobial, essential oils and polymeric nanoparticles to enhance the shelf-life of food...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Mahmood Sasa, Manuel E Acevedo, Quetzal Dwyer, Jordi Durban, Alicia Pérez, Yania Rodriguez, Bruno Lomonte, Juan J Calvete
: Bothriechis is a genus of eleven currently recognized slender and arboreal venomous snakes, commonly called palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite dietary studies suggesting that palm-pitvipers are generalists with an ontogenetic shift toward endothermic prey, venom proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of the Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. To achieve a more complete picture of the venomic landscape across Bothriechis, the venom proteomes of biodiversity of the northern Middle American highland palm-pitvipers, B...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Chirag Bavishi, Sripal Bangalore, Franz H Messerli
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are first line anti-HTN drug classes that are potent, effective and largely safe. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) have shown similar blood pressure (BP) reduction but more side effects. The efficacy of ACEIs and ARBs (for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal protection) has been promoted to extend beyond what could be explained by BP reduction alone...
October 21, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Simon R Knight, Leanne Metcalfe, Katriona O'Donoghue, Simon T Ball, Angela Beale, William Beale, Rachel Hilton, Keith Hodkinson, Graham W Lipkin, Fiona Loud, Lorna P Marson, Peter J Morris
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the research priorities of those funding and performing research in transplantation may differ from those of end service users such as patients, carers and healthcare professionals involved in day-to-day care. The Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was established with the aim of involving all stakeholders in prioritising future research in the field. METHODS: The PSP methodology is as outlined by the James Lind Alliance...
2016: PloS One
Julia M Boll, Kenneth W Sharp, C Louis Garrard, Thomas C Naslund, John A Curci, R James Valentine
BACKGROUND: True aneurysms of the gastroduodenal (GDA) and pancreaticoduodenal (PDA) arteries have been attributed to increased collateral flow due to tandem celiac artery stenosis or occlusion. While GDA/PDA aneurysm exclusion is recommended because of the high reported risk of rupture, it remains uncertain whether simultaneous celiac artery reconstruction is necessary to preserve end-organ flow. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted 1996-2015 with true aneurysms of the GDA or PDA...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Varish Ahmad, Mohd Sajid Khan, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Mohammad A Alzohairy, Mohammad A Al Karaawi, Mughees Uddin Siddiqui
Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Fabrice Gritti, Michael Fogwill, Martin Gilar, Joseph A Jarrell
The rapid and complete baseline separation of both volatile (C5 to C16 alkanes in gasoline or terpenes in plant extracts) and non-volatile (>C20 alkanes) organic compounds was achieved by combining (1) low-density fluid chromatography (LDFC) using carbon dioxide at elevated temperature (>90°C) and low pressure (1500psi) designed to increase the retention of the most volatile compounds and (2) high-vacuum technology (<10(-4)Torr) in order to preserve the maximum efficiency of short analytical columns (3...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Zhuo Kang, Xueqin Zhang, Yongquan Chen, Muhammad Yasir Akram, Jun Nie, Xiaoqun Zhu
Composite scaffolds, especially polymer/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with porous structures are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. Depositing minerals on the surface of polymer scaffolds is a general method however, attachment between inorganic minerals and organic polymeric is a big challenge, because of the absence of strong interactions between the interfaces. In this work, polymer/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with good attachment were fabricated through introduction of calcium and alternate mineralization...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
In humans, three paraoxonase (PON1, PON2, and PON3) genes are clustered on chromosome 7 at a locus that spans a distance around 170 kb. These genes are highly homologous to each other and have a similar protein structural organization. PON2 is the intracellular enzyme, which is expressed in many tissues and organs, while two other members of PON gene family are produced by liver and associate with high density lipoprotein (HDL). The lactonase activity is the ancestral. Besides lactones and organic phosphates, PONs can hydrolyze and therefore detoxify oxidized low density lipoprotein and homocysteine thiolactone, i...
October 19, 2016: Biochimie
Noriko Hiraishi, Takahiro Maruno, Naoya Tochio, Ryohei Sono, Masayuki Otsuki, Tsutomu Takatsuka, Junji Tagami, Yuji Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: Dentin collagen can be modified by some plant-derived flavonoids to improve properties of dentin organic matrix. Hesperidin (HPN), a hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside flavonoid, has a potential of dentin modification for being based on evidence that a treatment with HPN may resist collagenase degradation and arrest demineralization of human dentin. In this study, biophysical and molecular-level information on the interaction of HPN and collagen was investigated. METHODS: HPN is extracted from citrus fruits...
October 19, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Fredrik Liedberg, Georg Jancke, Anne Sörenby, Päivi Kannisto
Radical cystectomy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the gold standard for treating muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Women subjected to radical cystectomy are frequently postmenopausal, and the median age for bladder cancer diagnosis in women in Sweden is currently 73 yr (Swedish National Bladder Cancer Register). Traditionally, most women treated with radical cystectomy have undergone simultaneous bilateral oophorectomy and hysterosalpingectomy to diminish the risk of later ovarian disease and ovarian bladder cancer recurrence, but also the belief that there is no impact on health or health-related quality of life associated with oophorectomy and the fact that it might be easier surgery to take the ovarian pedicles, rather than sparing the ovaries...
October 19, 2016: European Urology
Stephanie Robins, Helena J Barr, Rachel Idelson, Sylvie Lambert, Phyllis Zelkowitz
BACKGROUND: Many men lack knowledge about male infertility, and this may have consequences for their reproductive and general health. Men may prefer to seek health information online, but these sources of information vary in quality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine if online sources of information regarding male infertility are readable, suitable, and of appropriate quality for Internet users in the general population. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate online sources resulting from search engine queries...
October 21, 2016: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
A Ulges, E Schmitt, C Becker, T Bopp
The immune system has evolved to defend the organism against an almost infinite number of pathogens in a locally confined and antigen-specific manner while at the same time preserving tolerance to harmless antigens and self. Regulatory T (Treg) cells essentially contribute to an immunoregulatory network preventing excessive immune responses and immunopathology. There is emerging evidence that Treg cells not only operate in secondary lymphoid tissue but also regulate immune responses directly at the site of inflammation...
2016: Advances in Immunology
Sachin Kumar, Marie-Dominique Filippi
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides details of the cellular organization and ultrastructure. However, TEM analysis of rare cell populations, especially cells in suspension such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), remains limited due to the requirement of a high cell number during sample preparation. There are a few cytospin or monolayer approaches for TEM analysis from scarce samples, but these approaches fail to get significant quantitative data from the limited number of cells. Here, an alternative and novel approach for sample preparation in TEM studies is described for rare cell populations that enables quantitative analysis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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