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intestinal microecology

Pengfei Gao, Chen Ma, Zheng Sun, Lifeng Wang, Shi Huang, Xiaoquan Su, Jian Xu, Heping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. RESULTS: Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared...
August 3, 2017: Microbiome
Xiaoyu Gao, Qiuhong Xie, Ling Liu, Ping Kong, Jun Sheng, Hongyu Xiang
The aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (LM-A) is reported to have many health beneficial bioactivities and no obvious toxicity, but have mild adverse effects. Little is known about the mechanism of these reported adverse effects. Notably, there has been no report about the influence of LM-A on intestinal microecology. In this study, animal experiments were performed to explore the relationships between metabolic adaptation to an LM-A-supplemented diet and gut microbiota changes. After 8-week feeding with normal chow diet, the body weight of mice entered a stable period, and one of the group received daily doses of 750-mg/kg body weight LM-A by gavage for 4 weeks (assigned as LM); the other group received the vehicle (assigned as NCD)...
April 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Hongli Yan, Jianmei Lu, Yanfang Wang, Wen Gu, Xingxin Yang, Jie Yu
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota has been reported to play a critical role in metabolic diseases, including in diabetes. Polygonatum kingianum has been used in the treatment of diabetes and related diseases in China for centuries. Total saponins (TSPK) and total polysaccharides (PSPK) were reported to be major types of active constituents of P. kingianum. This research aims at investigation of their therapeutical mechanisms on diabetes based on the regulation of gut microbiota. STUDY DESIGN: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats were induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin-injection from male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
March 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Alexander V Oleskin, Boris A Shenderov, Vladimir S Rogovsky
This work is concerned with the role of evolutionary conserved substances, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones, within the complex framework of the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis in the human or animal organism. Although the operation of each of these systems per se is relatively well understood, their combined effects on the host organism still await further research. Drawing on recent research on host-produced and microbial low-molecular-weight neurochemicals such as biogenic amines, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we suggest that these mediators form a part of a universal neurochemical "language...
February 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Jun Jiang, Qiyi Chen
For chronic transit constipation (STC), surgery should be considered when all pharmacological interventions, biofeedback, and sacral nerve stimulation failed to relieve severe symptoms. Chronic functional constipation can be subdivided into three subtypes: colonic slow-transit constipation, outlet obstruction and mixed refractory constipation. The pathological changes of colonic slow transit and outlet obstruction constipation can influence each other. Mixed refractory constipation accounts for 90.2% of chronic constipation...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Carmelo Scarpignato, Anna Bertelé, Antonio Tursi
Changes in the colonic microbiota are critical to the pathogenesis of diverticular complications such as diverticulitis and peridiverticular abscesses. However, more subtle changes in microbiota composition may well be important to the more chronic manifestations of diverticulosis. Some studies have shown the presence of bacterial overgrowth in subgroups of patients with diverticular disease and recent studies, using molecular biology techniques, found an increase of proteobacteria and actinobacteria in patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), compared with healthy controls...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Xiaolong Ge, Hongliang Tian, Chao Ding, Lili Gu, Yao Wei, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal microbiota and soluble dietary fiber play an important role in intestinal microecology, which is closely related to gut motility. Regulating intestinal microecology comprised of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or fiber supplementation is becoming a novel therapy for functional gastrointestinal disease. We launched this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FMT combined with fiber for slow transit constipation (STC). METHODS: We performed a study of 21 patients with STC...
April 2016: Archives of Medical Research
M N Gapon, L N Ternovskaya
AIM: Evaluation of dysbiotic condition of intestine based on determination of local antioxidant index (LAI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 155 patients with bacteriologically confirmed intestine dysbacteriosis were examined: 20 individuals with normobiocenosis of the intestine served as control. Feces dilution 10⁻² was used for biochemical study. Catalase, superoxide-dismutase activity and level of malonic dialdehyde was evaluated photometrically by the value of optical density of the samples...
March 2016: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Xiaolin Gao, Ruizhen Jia, Liang Xie, Linghan Kuang, Ling Feng, Chaomin Wan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Guan-Nan Li, Xue-Juan Xia, Wen-Chao Tang, Yong Zhu
The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is an ideal model of Lepidoptera. However, the diversity and function of the intestinal microbiota in the gut of silkworm remain largely unknown. Changes in the intestinal microecology in fluoride-resistant strain T6 and fluoride-susceptible strain 734 of the silkworm in response to fluoride exposure were investigated. T6 and 734 were treated with 200 mg/kg fluoride (designated as T6-T and 734-T groups) and deionized water (designated as T6-C and 734-C groups). Culture-dependent approach revealed that the numbers of intestinal bacteria in the 734-T group significantly decreased compared with that in the 734-C group (4...
August 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Guo-lin Wu, Guo-you Yu, Wen-wen Lu
The ralationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and intestinal microecology is increasingly being given more and more attention. Combined with the devolopment of intestinal microecology disciplines, effects of TCM on regulation of intestinal microecology have been gradually explained. Both clinical studies and animal experiments have confirmed that TCM can maintain the balance of intestinal microecology and regulate the intestinal flora. The author arrangemented the documents related to Chinese herbal compound adjusting intestinal flora in the recent ten years, summarized that the Chinese herbal compound which can strength spleen and replenish Qi, relax bowels and regulate Qi, dissipate dampness and check diarrhea, clear away heat and toxic materials, promote digestion and relieve stasis had certain regulation effects on intestinal microecology, providing basis for revealing the TCM essence of intestinal microecology...
September 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xin Zhang, Yang Yang, Zufang Wu, Peifang Weng
In order to investigate the modulatory effect of purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) on human intestinal microbiota, PSPAs were prepared by column chromatography and their influence on intestinal microbiota was analyzed by monitoring the bacterial populations and analyzing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations at different time points. The numbers (log10 cell/mL) of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Bacteroides-Prevotella, Clostridium histolyticum, and total bacteria after 24 h of culture in anaerobic fermentation broth containing PSPAs were 8...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rui Zhao, Maowei Chen
Microorganism distributes in the organs of human body which connect with external environment, especially those organs in the gastrointestinal tracts, and it also plays a fundamental role in the physiopathology of the host's body. Because the microorganism is very small and has a great variety, it is difficult to reveal the significance of microorganism in the human physiopathology comprehensively and deeply. With the development of molecular biology, genomics, bioinformatics and other disciplines, the microbiome research will be more possible and easier...
October 2015: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Mateusz Rawski, Bartosz Kierończyk, Jakub Długosz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Damian Józefiak
Probiotics are widely used in nutrition, and their mode of action is intensively studied in mammals and birds; however, it is almost unknown in reptiles. In the present study, Trachemys scripta scripta and Sternotherus odoratus were used to assess the effects of dietary probiotics on chelonian gastrointestinal tract microecology. In the first, 20-week experiment, 40 young T. s. scripta were randomly distributed to four experimental groups: 1st, (CON)--with no additives; 2nd, (SSPA) with Bacillus subtilis PB6; 3rd, (MSP)--with multiple strain probiotic; and 4th, (SSPB) with Bacillus subtilis C-3102...
2016: PloS One
Thanawat Pattananandecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Yodsawee Duangjitcharoen, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Prasit Suwannalert, Sartjin Peerajan, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
Context Inulin, a non-digestible carbohydrate isolated from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae), has been shown to alter the gut beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria. Inulin also influences the activities of intestinal microbiota that could prevent the colon cancer development. Objective This study determines the effect of hydrolysed inulin with different degrees of polymerisation on alteration of intestinal microbiota and their activities on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Hongzhang Shen, Fuqiang Ye, Lu Xie, Jianfeng Yang, Zhen Li, Peisong Xu, Fei Meng, Lei Li, Ying Chen, Xiaochen Bo, Ming Ni, Xiaofeng Zhang
Despite the high worldwide prevalence of gallstone disease, the role of the biliary microbiota in gallstone pathogenesis remains obscure. Next-generation sequencing offers advantages for systematically understanding the human microbiota; however, there have been few such investigations of the biliary microbiome. Here, we performed whole-metagenome shotgun (WMS) sequencing and 16S rRNA sequencing on bile samples from 15 Chinese patients with gallstone disease. Microbial communities of most individuals were clustered into two types, according to the relative enrichment of different intestinal bacterial species...
December 2, 2015: Scientific Reports
O V Bukharin, E V Ivanova, N B Perunova, I N Chainikova, I A Nikoforov, T A Bondarenko
AIM: Evaluate immune regulatory properties of bifidobacteria metabolites during eubiosis and dysbiosis of the human colon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-cytokine activity of metabolites of bifidobacteria clinical strains and their ability to influence the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy humans was studied, taking into account microecological state of the human intestine. Determination of final concentration of cytokines in experimental and control samples was carried out by EIA...
July 2015: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Lin-lin Shi, Yuan Wang, Yi Feng
For understanding the effect of MDG-1, a water-soluble β-D-fructan polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicas, on intestinal microecological balance, especially on the changes of lactobacillus, sixty 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were given a high-fat diet for six weeks and were also gavaged with saline once a day simultaneously. Then the mice which is below 30 grams or dropped more than 10% through lavage were eliminated and the rest were randomly divided into four groups: diet-induced obese (DIO) model group (n = 12, gavaged with saline), low-dose MDG-1 group (n = 12, gavaged with MDG-1, 75 mg · kg(-1)) , medial-dose MDG- 1 group (n = 12, gavaged with 150 mg · kg(-1)), and high-dose MDG-1 group (n = 12, gavaged with 300 mg · kg(-1)) according to the weight and blood glucose; the model group and MDG-1 group were placed on a high-fat diet while the normal control group (n = 12, gavaged with saline) were kept on a low-fat diet through the experiment...
February 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
M F Savchenkov, E B Rakova, S M Popkova, L V Serdyuk
The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of the formation of intestinal microbiocenosis in children residing in the industrial cities of Siberia. The study included 168 healthy children. There is presented the medical and hygienic assessment of the examined area with bearing in mind the degree and specificity of the man-made pollution of the atmosphere. There were revealed distinctive features of formation of intestinal microecology, specific for the each of the examined groups (diversity of species of transient microorganisms, rated characteristics of opportunistic pathogens, "indicator" species)...
July 2014: Gigiena i Sanitariia
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