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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331944/liver-sampling-a-vital-window-into-hbv-pathogenesis-on-the-path-to-functional-cure
#1
REVIEW
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
In order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331069/cellular-membrane-trafficking-machineries-utilized-by-the-hepatitis-viruses
#2
REVIEW
Jun Inoue, Masashi Ninomiya, Tooru Shimosegawa, Mark A McNiven
While the life cycles of hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses) have been modestly characterized, recent intensive studies have provided new insights. Because these viruses 'hijack' the membrane trafficking of the host cell machinery during replicative propagation, it is essential to determine and understand these specific cellular pathways. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are well known as a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While substantial inroads toward treating HCV patients have recently been made, patients with HBV continue to require life-long treatment, which makes a thorough understanding of the HBV life cycle essential...
January 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329305/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-switching-from-lamivudine-plus-adefovir-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-monotherapy-in-lamivudine-resistant-stable-hepatitis-b-patients
#3
Heon Ju Lee, Sang Jin Kim, Young Oh Kweon, Soo Young Park, Jeong Heo, Hyun Young Woo, Jae Seok Hwang, Woo Jin Chung, Chang Hyeong Lee, Byung Seok Kim, Jeong Ill Suh, Won Young Tak, Byoung Kuk Jang
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy from lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy (stable switching) in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is not clear. METHODS: In this non-inferiority trial, patients with LAM-resistant CHB and undetectable serum HBV DNA (<20 IU/mL) for >6 months after initiating LAM+ADV combination therapy were randomized (1:2) either to continue the combination therapy (LAM+ADV group, n = 58) or switched to TDF monotherapy (TDF group, n = 111)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328964/a-european-multicenter-study-on-the-analytical-performance-of-the-veris-hbv-assay
#4
Patrick Braun, Rafael Delgado, Monica Drago, Diana Fanti, Hervé Fleury, Jacques Izopet, Alessandra Lombardi, Alessandro Mancon, Maria Angeles Marcos, Karine Sauné, Siobhan O Shea, Alfredo Pérez-Rivilla, John Ramble, Pascale Trimoulet, Jordi Vila, Duncan Whittaker, Alain Artus, Daniel Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B viral load monitoring is an essential part of managing patients with chronic Hepatits B infection. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay for use on the fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System.1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical performance of the VERIS HBV Assay at multiple European virology laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: Precision, analytical sensitivity, negative sample performance, linearity and performance with major HBV genotypes/subtypes for the VERIS HBV Assay was evaluated...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328682/brief-report-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-in-u-s-air-force-basic-military-trainees-who-donated-blood-2013-2016
#5
Douglas F Taylor, Ryan S Cho, Jason F Okulicz, Bryant J Webber, John G Gancayco
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause significant morbidity in military service members. Prevalences of HBV and HCV infections among military recruits accessioning into the U.S. Air Force have not previously been described. The Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland Blood Donor Center was queried for the results of HBV and HCV screening tests among all basic military trainees who donated blood between 25 November 2013 and 16 April 2016. Other active and reserve component members were excluded...
December 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328380/role-of-the-pi3k%C3%A2-akt%C3%A2-mtor-pathway-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-replication
#6
Kunlun Xiang, Bin Wang
The replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be modulated by a variety of cell signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)‑RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase (AKT)‑serine/threonine‑protein kinase mTOR (mTOR) pathway. The aim of the present study was to determine the regulatory effects of this pathway on the infection and replication of HBV. The results indicated that the HBV entry process may activate the AKT pathway, as demonstrated by AKT phosphorylation in HBV natural infection...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327822/efficacy-and-safety-of-long-term-entecavir-therapy-in-a-european-population
#7
Alessandro Collo, Paola Belci, Sharmila Fagoonee, Lucia Loreti, Valeria Gariglio, Ramona Parise, Paola Magistroni, Marilena Durazzo
BACKGROUND: Therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients aims at improving their survival by preventing disease progression to cirrhosis and its complications. Entecavir (ETV) is currently a first line therapeutic agent recommended for the treatment of CHB. Our aim was to evaluate the long term outcome of a cohort of CHB patients treated with ETV. METHODS: Thirty-four patients treated with ETV for at least 6 months were included in this study. The virologic response was determined by the dosage of serum HBV-DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBe antibodies...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327728/diverse-modes-of-clonal-evolution-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-revealed-by-single-cell-genome-sequencing
#8
Meng Duan, Junfeng Hao, Sijia Cui, Daniel L Worthley, Shu Zhang, Zhichao Wang, Jieyi Shi, Longzi Liu, Xiaoying Wang, Aiwu Ke, Ya Cao, Ruibin Xi, Xiaoming Zhang, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Chong Li, Qiang Gao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer of substantial morphologic, genetic and phenotypic diversity. Yet we do not understand the relationship between intratumor heterogeneity and the associated morphologic/histological characteristics of the tumor. Using single-cell whole-genome sequencing to profile 96 tumor cells (30-36 each) and 15 normal liver cells (5 each), collected from three male patients with HBV-associated HCC, we confirmed that copy number variations occur early in hepatocarcinogenesis but thereafter remain relatively stable throughout tumor progression...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326804/occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-associated-genotypes-among-hbsag-negative-subjects-in-burkina-faso
#9
Birama Diarra, Albert Théophane Yonli, Pegdwendé Abel Sorgho, Tegwindé Rebeca Compaore, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Wendpagnangdé Arsène Zongo, Issoufou Tao, Lassina Traore, Serge Théophile Soubeiga, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Bolni-Marius Nagalo, Virginio Pietra, Rokia Sanogo, Jacques Simpore
Background: The presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals tested HBsAg negative by currently available assays is defined occult B Infection (OBI). It remains a potential transmission threat and risk to HBV chronic infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the OBI prevalence among HBsAg negative subjects and to characterize associated genotypes. Methods: Blood samples of 219 HBsAg-negative subjects tested by ELISA were collected...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325300/-clinical-significance-of-quantitative-level-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody
#10
Q Yuan, H You, N S Xia, J D Jia
Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) targets viral core protein and is produced in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and seroconversion occurs in the early stage of infection and often lasts for a lifetime. Qualitative detection of anti-HBc has been used in clinical practice for many years, while the clinical significance of its quantitative level remains unclear. A novel anti-HBc immunoassay based on double-antigen sandwich ELISA has been developed in recent years and lays a foundation for illustrating the change in the quantitative level of anti-HBc (qAnti-HBc) in HBV infection and its clinical significance...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325291/-hepatitis-b-core-antigen-promotes-invasion-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-line-hepg2-2-15-via-toll-like-receptor-4
#11
H R Hou, Y Kang, Y K Li, Y L Zeng, J F Wei, G G Ding, Z Peng, J Shang
Objective: To investigate the effect of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in promoting the invasion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.2.15 and the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the mechanism. Methods: TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells was measured by reverse transcription real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. HepG2.2.15 cells were transfected with TLR4 specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence TLR4 expression, and stimulated by recombinant HBcAg in culture...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325289/-optimal-treatment-regimen-for-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-after-suboptimal-response-to-24-weeks-of-peg-ifn-%C3%AE-2a
#12
X D Luo, X P Chen, X F Chen
Objective: To investigate the optimal treatment regimen for patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) after suboptimal response to 24 weeks of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) α-2a. Methods: A total of 188 patients with HBeAg-positive CHB who had suboptimal response to 24 weeks of Peg-IFN α-2a were randomly divided into entecavir group (n = 93) and telbivudine group (n = 95). The two groups received entecavir 0.5 mg/d and telbivudine 0.6 g/d, respectively, for 208 weeks. After 208 weeks of treatment, the following indices were assessed: HBeAg clearance rate and seroconversion rate, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA clearance rate (HBV DNA < 500 IU/ml), safety, and drug resistance rate...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325281/-value-of-hydrogen-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-the-determination-of-liver-triglyceride-in-patients-with-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-influencing-factors
#13
H J Qu, L Wang, P H Jin, Q Gao, J X Zhou, Y Song, J Wang, Y M Jiang, L Gong, G Y Chen, J P Ding, J P Shi
Objective: To investigate the value of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in determining the content of liver triglyceride in patients with fatty liver disease (FLD), as well as its influencing factors. Methods: A total of 124 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), or hepatitis B complicated by FLD who underwent liver biopsy in the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University were enrolled, and the clinical data, serological markers, FibroScan results, and (1)H-MRS results were collected...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325275/-qualitative-pathological-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-regression-after-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#14
Y M Sun, J L Zhou, L Wang, X N Wu, Y P Chen, H X Piao, L G Lu, W Jiang, Y Q Xu, B Feng, Y M Nan, W Xie, G F Chen, H W Zheng, H Li, H G Ding, H Liu, F D Lyu, C Shao, T L Wang, X J Ou, B Q Wang, S Y Chen, H You, J D Jia
Objective: To investigate the methods for qualitative pathological assessment of dynamic changes in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), since antiviral therapy can partially reverse liver fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B and semi-quantitative, rather than qualitative, pathological assessment is often used for the research on liver fibrosis regression. Methods: Previously untreated CHB patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were enrolled, and liver biopsy was performed before treatment and at 78 weeks after the antiviral therapy based on entecavir...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324587/linkage-to-care-of-hbsag-positive-and-anti-hcv-positive-patients-after-a-systematic-screening-approach-in-the-german-primary-care-setting
#15
Anja Lüllau, David Petroff, Olaf Bätz, Jan Kramer, Katrin Jedrysiak, Hannelore Tenckhoff, Thomas Berg, Ingmar Wolffram, Johannes Wiegand
BACKGROUND: Identification of previously unknown cases is important to lower the burden of chronic hepatitis B and C infection. However, a screening program in the primary care setting has not yet been established. Therefore, a systematic screening project was conducted in 21 008 patients (Wolffram and colleagues). Here, we describe linkage to care of identified HbsAg-positive and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive patients. METHODS: General practitioners characterized further medical care by a standardized questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324289/phylogenetic-analysis-reveals-three-distinct-epidemiological-profiles-in-dutch-and-flemish-blood-donors-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#16
Thijs J van de Laar, Véronique A Van Gaever, Peter van Swieten, An Muylaert, Veerle Compernolle, Hans L Zaaijer
During 2006-2016, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected in nearly 400 blood donors in the Netherlands and Flanders. Donor demographics and self-reported risk factors as disclosed during the donor exit interview were compared to HBV phylogenies of donor and reference sequences. First-time donors with chronic HBV-infection were often immigrants (67%) infected with genetically highly diverse strains of genotypes A (32%), B (8%), C (6%), D (53%) and E to H (1%). Each subtype was strongly associated with donor ethnicity...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322851/clinical-and-virological-implications-of-a1846t-and-c1913a-g-mutations-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genome-in-severe-liver-diseases
#17
Hong Zang, Zhihui Xu, Yan Liu, Xiaodong Li, Yihui Rong, Ling Jiang, Shaoli You, Jinhua Hu, Jun Zhao, Dongping Xu, Shaojie Xin
OBJECTIVE: Mutations occurring within different genes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome may have different clinical implications. This study aimed to observe the clinical and virological implications of the A1846T and C1913A/G mutations of HBV genome in the development and treatment outcome of severe liver diseases, which has not been previously determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 438 cases of patients with liver diseases were retrospectively reviewed, including 146 with mild chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB-M), 146 with severe chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB-S), and 146 with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF)...
January 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322774/visible-light-induced-decarboxylation-coupling-intramolecular-cyclization%C3%AF-a-one-pot-synthesis-for-4-aryl-2-quinolinone-derivatives
#18
Chenglong Wang, Jingyi Qiao, Xiaochong Liu, He Song, Zhizhong Sun, Wenyi Chu
A visible-light-induced decarboxylation coupling /intramolecular cyclization is reported. The one-pot synthesis system provides mild, efficient and atom economical access to the synthesis of 4-aryl-2-quinolinone derivatives. It is notable that the necessary oxidant in the traditional decarboxylation coupling is replaced by the visible-light-irradiation in this paper. In addition, the HBV inhibitor is synthesized by the one-pot synthesis system in an atom economical manner.
January 11, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322398/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Silvia Fabiani, Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Mario Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine disorder encompassing multifactorial mechanisms, and chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC) is a multifaceted disorder, associated with extrahepatic manifestations, including endocrinological disorders. CHC and T2DM are associated, but the subject remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating such association, searching on PubMed until February 29, 2016. Inclusion criteria were: 1) presence of at least one internal control group age- and gender-matched (non-hepatopathic controls; and/or hepatopathic, not HCV-positive, controls); 2) sufficient data to calculate odds ratio and relative risk...
January 11, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321963/a-critical-role-of-hepatitis-b-virus-polymerase-in-cirrhosis-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-steatosis
#20
Hea-Jong Chung, Xiao Chen, Yang Yu, Heui-Kwan Lee, Chang Ho Song, Han Choe, Seungkoo Lee, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Seong-Tshool Hong
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world; more than 350 million people are carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chronic HBV infection (CHB) leads to liver diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and steatosis. Despite its seriousness in terms of public health, the pathogenic mechanism of how CHB leads to liver diseases, especially cirrhosis and steatosis, remains unclear. We studied the role of HBV polymerase (HBp) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in association with the pathogenesis of liver diseases in CHB by developing transgenic mice expressing HBp or the RT domain of HBp...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
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