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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934557/a-safety-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-treating-type-2-diabetes
#1
Baptist Gallwitz
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) and sodium-glucose-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are oral antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic parameters and possess a very low intrinsic hypoglycemia risk and favorable cardiovascular data. Areas covered: An overview on the clinical studies investigating the combination therapy with the DPP-4i linagliptin and the SGLT-2i empagliflozin is given. The clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of free combinations as well as for their fixed dose combinations is presented...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934223/ursodeoxycholic-acid-prevents-ventricular-conduction-slowing-and-arrhythmia-by-restoring-t-type-calcium-current-in-fetuses-during-cholestasis
#2
Oladipupo Adeyemi, Anita Alvarez-Laviada, Francisca Schultz, Effendi Ibrahim, Michael Trauner, Catherine Williamson, Alexey V Glukhov, Julia Gorelik
BACKGROUND: Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated. METHODS: High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933481/bowl-shaped-deformation-in-a-planar-aromatic-polycycle-upon-reduction-li-and-na-separated-dianions-of-the-aromatic-polycycle-5-6-11-12-di-o-phenylene-tetracene
#3
T Wombacher, R Goddard, C W Lehmann, J J Schneider
Herein we report the synthesis and crystal structures of three light alkali metal salts of the dianion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 5,6:11,12-di-o-phenylenetetracene (LDOPT). The compounds are obtained by reaction of LDOPT with an excess of lithium or sodium metal in different O-donor solvents (DME, diglyme) and crystallize as naked, solvated-cation separated dianions exhibiting no interaction between the alkali metal ion and the aromatic π-system of LDOPT. Depending on the aprotic etheral solvent and the hardness of the alkaline metal agent a significant structural perturbation of the conjugated carbon framework of LDOPT is observed resulting in a bowl shaped curvature of the anionic π-perimeter, in contrast to its fully planar neutral state...
September 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932838/engineered-biomimetic-nanovesicles-show-intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#4
Claudia Corbo, Walter E Cromer, Roberto Molinaro, Naama E Toledano Furman, Kelly A Hartman, Enrica De Rosa, Christian Boada, Xin Wang, David C Zawieja, Marco Agostini, Francesco Salvatore, Bincy P Abraham, Ennio Tasciotti
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Currently, it is treated with immunosuppressant or biologics that often induce severe adverse effects. Thus, there is an urgent clinical need for more specific treatments. To provide a valid therapeutic tool for IBD therapy, in this work we developed biomimetic nanovesicles by manipulating leukocyte membranes to exploit mechanisms of T-cell recruitment during inflammation...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930524/hypertension-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#5
Ivan Tasic, Dragan Lovic
Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929336/melatonin-alters-amino-acid-metabolism-and-inflammatory-responses-in-colitis-mice
#6
Gang Liu, Qian Jiang, Shuai Chen, Jun Fang, Wenkai Ren, Jie Yin, Kang Yao, Yulong Yin
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This study explored the hypothesis that melatonin has beneficial functions in the mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), with a specific focus on the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines and the serum levels of amino acids. The results revealed that mice with melatonin supplementation had a reduction in weight loss and disease index induced by DSS treatment. Melatonin stifled the expression of colonic IL-17 in mice with DSS-induced colitis...
September 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928093/effect-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-on-weight-loss-is-partly-mediated-by-liver-brain-adipose-neurocircuitry
#7
Yoshikazu Sawada, Yoshihiko Izumida, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Nobuhiro Wada, EnXu Li, Yuki Murayama, Xiaoying Piao, Akito Shikama, Yukari Masuda, Makiko Nishi-Tatsumi, Midori Kubota, Motohiro Sekiya, Takashi Matsuzaka, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Yoko Sugano, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Hiroaki Yagyu, Yasushi Kawakami, Takashi Kadowaki, Hitoshi Shimano, Naoya Yahagi
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-obesity effect remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that the glycogen depletion signal triggers lipolysis in adipose tissue via liver-brain-adipose neurocircuitry. In this study, therefore, we investigated whether the anti-obesity mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor is mediated by this mechanism. Diet-induced obese mice were subjected to hepatic vagotomy (HVx) or sham operation and loaded with high fat diet containing 0...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928059/garlic-extract-increases-non-clipped-kidney-tubular-natriuresis-and-diuresis-in-the-2-kidney-1-clip-rat-model-significance-in-hypertension
#8
Khaled K Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Muslim Ali
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. METHOD: 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb...
September 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927008/can-more-nanoparticles-induce-larger-viscosities-of-nanoparticle-enhanced-wormlike-micellar-system-newms
#9
Mingwei Zhao, Yue Zhang, Chenwei Zou, Caili Dai, Mingwei Gao, Yuyang Li, Wenjiao Lv, Jianfeng Jiang, Yining Wu
There have been many reports about the thickening ability of nanoparticles on the wormlike micelles in the recent years. Through the addition of nanoparticles, the viscosity of wormlike micelles can be increased. There still exists a doubt: can viscosity be increased further by adding more nanoparticles? To answer this issue, in this work, the effects of silica nanoparticles and temperature on the nanoparticles-enhanced wormlike micellar system (NEWMS) were studied. The typical wormlike micelles (wormlike micelles) are prepared by 50 mM cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and 60 mM sodium salicylate (NaSal)...
September 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926257/how-to-control-the-discharge-products-in-na-o2-cells-direct-evidence-toward-the-role-of-functional-groups-at-the-air-electrode-surface
#10
Hossein Yadegari, Christopher J Franko, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Qian Sun, Ruying Li, Gillian R Goward, Xueliang Sun
Sodium-oxygen batteries have received a significant amount of research attention as a low-overpotential alternative to lithium-oxygen. However, the critical factors governing the composition and morphology of the discharge products in Na-O2 cells are not thoroughly understood. Here we show that oxygen containing functional groups at the air electrode surface have a substantial role on the electrochemical reaction mechanisms in Na-O2 cells. Our results show that presence of functional groups at the air electrode surface conducts the growth mechanism of discharge products toward a surface-mediated mechanism, forming a conformal film of products at the electrode surface...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925291/isolation-of-a-novel-compound-mimo2-from-the-methanolic-extract-of-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protective-effects-against-vanadium-induced-cytotoxity
#11
Olumayowa O Igado, Jan Glaser, Mario Ramos-Tirado, Ezgi Eylül Bankoğlu, Foluso A Atiba, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Helga Stopper, James O Olopade
Moringa oleifera is reported to be a miracle plant, with positive effects on practically every system in the animal body. The methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was fractionated using liquid-liquid fractionation, column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay guided fractionation using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was used to determine the fraction with the highest antioxidative power. Chemical structure was elucidated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
September 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924618/optical-studies-of-the-solution-phase-reduction-and-stabilization-of-indigo-tetrasulfonate-in-polyelectrolyte-complexes
#12
Becca Hoene, Dion Rivera
Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used to characterize the polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formed when potassium indigo tetrasulfonate (ITS) interacts with poly diallydimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) through columbic attraction in the presence of the reducing agent sodium bisulfite, NaHSO3. The PDADMAC facilitates both the reduction of the ITS and the stabilization of the reduced state of the ITS in an atmospheric oxygen environment. Dilutions of the dye solution show that the PEC is stable to dilutions of at least 1 to 1000...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924478/a-rare-cause-of-metabolic-acidosis-ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-lactating-woman
#13
Gordon Sloan, Amjad Ali, Jonathan Webster
Ketoacidosis occurring during lactation has been described infrequently. The condition is incompletely understood, but it appears to be associated with a combination of increased metabolic demands during lactation, reduction in carbohydrate intake and acute illness. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman, 8 weeks post-partum, who was exclusively breastfeeding her child whilst following a low carbohydrate diet. She developed gastroenteritis and was unable to tolerate an oral diet for several days. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis on admission with a blood 3-hydroxybutyrate of 5...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924149/antisite-occupation-induced-single-anionic-redox-chemistry-and-structural-stabilization-of-layered-sodium-chromium-sulfide
#14
Zulipiya Shadike, Yong-Ning Zhou, Lan-Li Chen, Qu Wu, Ji-Li Yue, Nian Zhang, Xiao-Qing Yang, Lin Gu, Xiao-Song Liu, Si-Qi Shi, Zheng-Wen Fu
The intercalation compounds with various electrochemically active or inactive elements in the layered structure have been the subject of increasing interest due to their high capacities, good reversibility, simple structures, and ease of synthesis. However, their reversible intercalation/deintercalation redox chemistries in previous compounds involve a single cationic redox reaction or a cumulative cationic and anionic redox reaction. Here we report an anionic redox chemistry and structural stabilization of layered sodium chromium sulfide...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923239/a-novel-formulation-of-inhaled-sodium-cromoglicate-pa101-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-chronic-cough-a-randomised-double-blind-proof-of-concept-phase-2-trial
#15
Surinder S Birring, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, Sanjay Agrawal, Jan W K van den Berg, Helen Stone, Toby M Maher, Ahmet Tutuncu, Alyn H Morice
BACKGROUND: Cough can be a debilitating symptom of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is difficult to treat. PA101 is a novel formulation of sodium cromoglicate delivered via a high-efficiency eFlow nebuliser that achieves significantly higher drug deposition in the lung compared with the existing formulations. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of inhaled PA101 in patients with IPF and chronic cough and, to explore the antitussive mechanism of PA101, patients with chronic idiopathic cough (CIC) were also studied...
September 8, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#16
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922064/erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet-laser-activated-sodium-hypochlorite-irrigation-a-promising-procedure-for-minimally-invasive-endodontics
#17
Xiaogang Cheng, Tiantian Tian, Yu Tian, Doudou Xiang, Jun Qiu, Xiaohua Liu, Qing Yu
OBJECTIVE: This study was to evaluate the potential of Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet laser-activated sodium hypochlorite irrigation (Er:YAG + NaOCl) for minimally invasive endodontics (MIE). BACKGROUND DATA: Er:YAG laser irradiation can dramatically enhance the penetration of NaOCl, which may be a promising protocol for MIE. METHODS: Extracted human teeth were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis for 4 weeks. The infected canals were then shaped to different apical terminal working widths (ATWW, 15#/0...
September 14, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921040/euro-esli-a-european-audit-of-real-world-use-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-as-a-treatment-for-partial-onset-seizures
#18
Vicente Villanueva, Martin Holtkamp, Norman Delanty, Juan Rodriguez-Uranga, Rob McMurray, Patricia Santagueda
The Euro-Esli study was an exploratory pooled analysis of data from 14 European clinical practice studies, which was conducted to audit the real-world effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as an adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures. Retention and effectiveness were assessed after 3, 6, and 12 months of ESL treatment, and at the final visit. Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout ESL treatment by evaluating adverse events (AEs) and ESL discontinuation due to AEs...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920628/fluoroquinolones-as-imaging-agents-for-bacterial-infection
#19
Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Karl Drlica
Diagnosis of deep-seated bacterial infection is difficult, as neither standard anatomical imaging nor radiolabeled, autologous leukocytes distinguish sterile inflammation from infection. Two recent imaging efforts are receiving attention: (1) radioactive derivatives of sorbitol show good specificity with Gram-negative bacterial infections, and (2) success in combining anatomical and functional imaging for cancer diagnosis has rekindled interest in (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-based imaging. With the latter, computed tomography (CT) would be combined with single-photon-emission-computed tomography (SPECT) to detect (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-bacterial interactions...
September 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919532/performance-of-cellulose-acetate-ferric-oxide-nanocomposite-supported-metal-catalysts-toward-the-reduction-of-environmental-pollutants
#20
Esraa M Bakhsh, Shahid Ali Khan, Hadi M Marwani, Ekram Y Danish, Abdullah M Asiri, Sher Bahadar Khan
Water contamination by toxic compounds has become one of the most serious problems worldwide. Catalytic reduction using metal nanoparticles offer opportunities for environmental benefits. In this study, cellulose acetate-ferric oxide nanocomposite (CA/Fe2O3) was prepared and used as support for metal nanoparticles. After adsorption of Ag, Cu or Ni ions from aqueous solutions, metal ions associated with CA/Fe2O3 were treated with sodium borohydride to prepare Ag, Cu and Ni nanoparticles loaded CA/Fe2O3. The CA/Fe2O3 supported Ag, Cu or Ni nanoparticles was evaluated as a catalyst for pollutants degradation...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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