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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430937/high-sugar-but-not-high-fat-food-activates-supraoptic-oxytocin-neurones-in-the-male-rat
#1
Catherine Hume, Nancy Sabatier, John Menzies
Oxytocin is a potent anorexigen and is believed to have a role in satiety signalling. We developed rat models to study the activity of oxytocin neurones in response to voluntary consumption or oral gavage of foods using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiology.Using c-Fos expression as an indirect marker of neural activation, we showed that the percentage of magnocellular oxytocin neurones expressing c-Fos increased with voluntary consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM). To model the effect of food in the stomach, we gavaged anaesthetised rats with SCM...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430835/relationship-between-urinary-nitrate-excretion-and-blood-pressure-in-the-inchianti-cohort
#2
Miranda J Smallwood, Alessandro Ble, David Melzer, Paul G Winyard, Nigel Benjamin, Angela C Shore, Mark Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO) or consumed in the diet can be reduced to NO via a complex enterosalivary circulation pathway. The relationship between total nitrate exposure by measured urinary nitrate excretion and blood pressure in a large population sample has not been assessed previously. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary nitrate excretion was measured by spectrophotometry in the 919 participants from the InChianti cohort at baseline and blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429929/flexible-paper-like-free-standing-electrodes-by-anchoring-ultrafine-sns2-nanocrystals-on-graphene-nanoribbons-for-high-performance-sodium-ion-batteries
#3
Yang Liu, Yongzhen Yang, Xuzhen Wang, Yanfeng Dong, Yongchao Tang, Zhengfa Yu, Zongbin Zhao, Jieshan Qiu
Ultrafine SnS2 nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon paper (SnS2/RGONRP) has been created by a well-designed process including in situ reduction, evaporation induced self-assembly and sulfuration. The as formed SnS2 nanocrystals possess an average diameter of 2.3 nm and disperse on the surface of RGONRs uniformly. The strong capillary force formed during evaporation leads to a compact assembly of RGONRs to give flexible paper structure with high density of 0.94 g cm-3. The as-prepared SnS2/RGONRP composite could be directly used as free-standing electrode for sodium ion batteries...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428755/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-anti-epileptic-mechanisms-of-fenfluramine-in-scn1a-mutant-zebrafish
#4
Jo Sourbron, Ilse Smolders, Peter de Witte, Lieven Lagae
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and prominent co-morbidities (e.g., physical, intellectual disabilities). More than 85% of the DS patients carry an SCN1A mutation (sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit). Although numerous anti-epileptic drugs have entered the market since 1990, these drugs often fail to adequately control seizures in DS patients. Nonetheless, current clinical data shows significant seizure reduction in DS patients treated with the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) drug fenfluramine (FA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426260/the-effects-of-intermittent-use-of-the-sglt-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-in-overweight-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-japan-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Kanako Kato, Kunihiro Suzuki, Chie Aoki, Masaaki Sagara, Takafumi Niitani, Sho Wakamatsu, Kazunori Yanagi, Yoshimasa Aso
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of short-term administration of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on visceral fat area (VFA) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial, overweight patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to treatment with 5 mg dapagliflozin for the first (n = 27) or second 12-week study period (n = 29). The parameters evaluated at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks included blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body composition, VFA, and subcutaneous fat area (SFA)...
April 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422500/influence-of-13-c-isotopic-labeling-location-on-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-of-acetate
#6
Peter NIedbalski, Christopher Parish, Andhika Kiswandhi, Zoltán Kovács, Lloyd Laporca Lumata
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the dissolution method has alleviated the insensitivity problem in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by amplifying the signals by several thousand-fold. This NMR signal amplification process emanates from the microwave-mediated transfer of high electron spin alignment to the nuclear spins at high magnetic field and cryogenic temperature. Since the interplay between the electrons and nuclei is crucial, the chemical composition of a DNP sample such as the type of free radical used, glassing solvents, or the nature of the target nuclei can significantly affect the NMR signal enhancement levels that can be attained with DNP...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418497/course-of-sodium-iodate-induced-retinal-degeneration-in-albino-and-pigmented-mice
#7
Guy Chowers, Matan Cohen, Devora Marks-Ohana, Shelly Stika, Ayala Eijzenberg, Eyal Banin, Alexey Obolensky
Purpose: To characterize the course of sodium iodate (SI)-induced retinal degeneration in young adult albino and pigmented mice. Methods: Single intraperitoneal (IP) injections of SI (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were performed in 7- to 8-week-old BALB/c and C57Bl/6J mice. Retinal function and structure was assessed at baseline, 24 hours, 3 days, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postinjection by optokinetic tracking response, ERG, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histologic and immunohistochemical techniques...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418213/pain-thresholds-supra-threshold-pain-and-lidocaine-sensitivity-in-patients-with-erythromelalgia-including-the-i848tmutation-in-nav-1-7
#8
T Helås, D Sagafos, I P Kleggetveit, H Quiding, B Jönsson, M Segerdahl, Z Zhang, H Salter, M Schmelz, E Jørum
OBJECTIVES: Nociceptive thresholds and supra-threshold pain ratings as well as their reduction upon local injection with lidocaine were compared between healthy subjects and patients with erythromelalgia (EM). METHODS: Lidocaine (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 or 10 mg/mL) or placebo (saline) was injected intradermally in non-painful areas of the lower arm, in a randomized, double-blind manner, to test the effect on dynamic and static mechanical sensitivity, mechanical pain sensitivity, thermal thresholds and supra-threshold heat pain sensitivity...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417851/nuclear-medicine-techniques-in-pediatric-bone-imaging
#9
REVIEW
Laura A Drubach
An important mandate when imaging pediatric patients is the reduction of radiation exposure to the lowest possible level consistent with good quality diagnostic imaging, so individual selection of radiopharmaceutical dosage and imaging technique is essential. Although the logistics of image acquisition and the approach to interpretation mirror the more common use in adults, the challenges of imaging young children typically require greater attention to patient preparation, positioning, and supervision during imaging, with the use of parental or family engagement in the procedure, gentle restraint, and occasionally the need for sedation...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417649/internal-dysregulation-of-the-renin-system-in-patients-with-stable-liver-cirrhosis
#10
Annette Dam Fialla, Helle C Thiesson, Peter Bie, Ove B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Aleksander Krag
Sodium retention in cirrhosis is associated with changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We hypothesized that in cirrhosis the acute reactions of RAAS and SNS to volume expansion are qualitatively intact, but occurring from elevated baseline levels. Acute cardiovascular, neurohumoral and renal responses to central blood volume changes were studied in cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. In patients, baseline plasma renin concentration (PRC) was elevated 5-fold compared to controls (p < ...
April 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416857/compositional-variability-of-nutrients-and-phytochemicals-in-corn-after-processing
#11
P S Prasanthi, N Naveena, M Vishnuvardhana Rao, K Bhaskarachary
The result of various process strategies on the nutrient and phytochemical composition of corn samples were studied. Fresh and cooked baby corn, sweet corn, dent corn and industrially processed and cooked popcorn, corn grits, corn flour and corn flakes were analysed for the determination of proximate, minerals, xanthophylls and phenolic acids content. This study revealed that the proximate composition of popcorn is high compared to the other corn products analyzed while the mineral composition of these maize products showed higher concentration of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and low concentration of calcium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and sodium...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416316/effect-of-passive-ultrasonic-activation-on-organic-tissue-dissolution-from-simulated-grooves-in-root-canals-using-sodium-hypochlorite-with-or-without-surfactants-and-edta
#12
Roberto Estevez, Antonio J Conde, Oliver Valencia de Pablo, Francisco de la Torre, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Rafael Cisneros
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the porcine palatal mucosa dissolution from artificial grooves using a final rinse with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with or without a surfactant or ultrasonic activation (PUI). METHODS: The root canals of 130 human maxillary central incisors were chemomechanically prepared and the teeth split. A standardized longitudinal intracanal groove was created in 1 of the root halves. One hundred thirty porcine palatal mucosa samples were collected, adapted in order to fit into the grooves, and weighed...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416133/generation-of-a-cysteine-sulfinic-acid-analog-for-incorporation-in-peptides-using-solid-phase-peptide-synthesis
#13
Nixon Corpuz, Jason P Schwans
The sulfinic acid analog of aspartic acid, cysteine sulfinic acid, introduces a sulfur atom that perturbs the acidity and oxidation properties of aspartic acid. Cysteine sulfinic acids are often introduced in peptides and proteins by oxidation of cysteine, but this method is limited as all cysteine residues are oxidized and cysteine residues are often oxidized to sulfonic acids. To provide the foundation for the specific incorporation of cysteine sulfinic acids in peptides and proteins, we synthesized a 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) benzothiazole sulfone analog...
April 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413966/the-clinical-problems-of-hypertension-treatment-in-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Charalampos N Loutradis, Costas Tsioufis, Pantelis A Sarafidis
Hypertension (HT) is present in >80% of patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the inter-interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake, through modification of sodium level in the diet or in dialysis dialysate, are fundamental for HT control...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412019/renal-function-in-relation-to-sodium-intake-a%C3%A2-quantitative-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Kyoko Nomura, Kei Asayama, Lotte Jacobs, Lutgarde Thijs, Jan A Staessen
We undertook a quantitative literature review to search for evidence underpinning current guidelines proposing a reduction of sodium intake to less than 2.4 g/d for the management of chronic kidney disease. We searched PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published from January 1980 through May 2016. Two investigators screened 5072 publications and extracted data from 36, including 11 cross-sectional and 5 longitudinal observational studies and 20 intervention trials. Within-study effect sizes were pooled and standardized to a sodium gradient of 100 mmol/d by using inverse-variance weighted random effects models...
April 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411799/selective-detection-of-zno-nanoparticles-in-aqueous-suspension-by-capillary-electrophoresis-analysis-using-dithiothreitol-and-l-cysteine-adsorbates
#16
Samar Alsudir, Edward P C Lai
The UV detection sensitivity of ZnO nanoparticles in capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis was selectively enhanced, by 27 or 19 folds, after adsorption of dithiothreitol (DTT) or cysteine (Cys) in 10mM sodium phosphate buffer. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 90min for DTT but only 10min for Cys. The adsorption process was best modeled by the Langmuir isotherm, indicating the formation of a monolayer of DTT or Cys on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The selectivity of DTT and Cys towards ZnO nanoparticles was tested using alumina (Al2O3), ceria (CeO2), silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) nanoparticles...
July 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411705/mechanochemical-ablation-causes-endothelial-and-medial-damage-to-the-vein-wall-resulting-in-deeper-penetration-of-sclerosant-compared-with-sclerotherapy-alone-in-extrafascial-great-saphenous-vein-using-an-ex%C3%A2-vivo-model
#17
Mark S Whiteley, Scott J Dos Santos, Christopher T Lee, Jian-Mei Li
BACKGROUND: Nonthermal, tumescentless devices are the next generation of minimally invasive devices to treat varicose veins. We aimed to investigate the effects of mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) using ClariVein (Vascular Insights, Quincy, Mass) on ex vivo great saphenous vein with histology and immunofluorescent staining. METHODS: Extrafascial great saphenous veins were harvested during surgery for varicose veins and were treated ex vivo for 10 to 11 minutes with either liquid sclerotherapy or the use of ClariVein, with and without 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate...
May 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410235/cysteinyl-leukotriene-receptor-1-facilitates-tumorigenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#18
Janina Osman, Sayeh Savari, Naveen Kumar Chandrashekar, Kishan Bellamkonda, Desiree Douglas, Anita Sjölander
Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) has been shown to be up-regulated in the adenocarcinomas of colorectal cancer patients, which is associated with a poor prognosis. In a spontaneous model of colon cancer, CysLT1R disruption was associated with a reduced tumor burden in double-mutant female mice (ApcMin/+/Cysltr1-/-) compared to ApcMin/+ littermates. In the current study, we utilized a genetic approach to investigate the effect of CysLT1R in the induced azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) model of colitis-associated colon cancer...
March 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409413/impact-of-ammonium-nitrate-and-sodium-nitrate-on-tadpoles-of-alytes-obstetricans
#19
Núria Garriga, A Montori, G A Llorente
The presence of pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers negatively affect aquatic communities in general, and particularly amphibians in their larval phase, even though sensitivity to pollutants is highly variable among species. The Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) has experienced a decline of amphibian populations, possibly related to the reduction in water quality due to the high levels of farming activity, but also to habitat loss and alteration. We studied the effects of increasing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate levels on the survival and growth rate of Alytes obstetricans tadpoles under experimental conditions...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408826/durable-antibacterial-and-uv-protective-ag-tio2-fabrics-for-sustainable-biomedical-application
#20
Shuhui Li, Tianxue Zhu, Jianying Huang, Qingqing Guo, Guoqiang Chen, Yuekun Lai
A facile method was developed to endow cotton fabric with remarkable antibacterial and ultraviolet (UV)-protective properties. The flower-like TiO2 micro-nanoparticles were first deposited onto cotton fabric surface via hydrothermal deposition method. Then, the Ag NPs with a high deposition density were evenly formed onto TiO2@cotton surface by sodium hydroxide solution pretreatment and followed by in situ reduction of ANO3. This work focused on the influence of different hydrothermal reaction durations and the concentration of AgNO3 on antibacterial activity against relevant microorganisms in medicine as well as on the UV-blocking property...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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