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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414331/a-new-fate-mapping-system-reveals-context-dependent-random-or-clonal-expansion-of-microglia
#1
Tuan Leng Tay, Dominic Mai, Jana Dautzenberg, Francisco Fernández-Klett, Gen Lin, Sagar, Moumita Datta, Anne Drougard, Thomas Stempfl, Alberto Ardura-Fabregat, Ori Staszewski, Anca Margineanu, Anje Sporbert, Lars M Steinmetz, J Andrew Pospisilik, Steffen Jung, Josef Priller, Dominic Grün, Olaf Ronneberger, Marco Prinz
Microglia constitute a highly specialized network of tissue-resident immune cells that is important for the control of tissue homeostasis and the resolution of diseases of the CNS. Little is known about how their spatial distribution is established and maintained in vivo. Here we establish a new multicolor fluorescence fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics during steady state and disease. Our findings suggest that microglia establish a dense network with regional differences, and the high regional turnover rates found challenge the universal concept of microglial longevity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403904/pre-existing-chronic-interstitial-pneumonia-is-a-poor-prognostic-factor-of-goodpasture-s-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Hiroki Tashiro, Koichiro Takahashi, Yuki Ikeda, Saori Uchiumi, Makoto Fukuda, Miyazono Motoaki, Shinya Kimura, Naoko Sueoka-Aragane
BACKGROUND: Goodpasture's syndrome is a rare disease that is characterized by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old Japanese man who had chronic interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed as having Goodpasture's syndrome. Both anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody and myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were increased. Despite intensive treatments, including mechanical ventilation, he died from respiratory failure...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401006/genomic-and-proteomic-characterization-of-arid1a-chromatin-remodeller-in-ampullary-tumors
#3
Anca Nastase, Jin Yao Teo, Hong Lee Heng, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Swe Swe Myint, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Jia Liang Loh, Ser Yee Lee, London Lucien Ooi, Alexander Yaw Fui Chung, Pierce Kah Hoe Chow, Peng Chung Cheow, Wei Keat Wan, Rafy Azhar, Avery Khoo, Sam Xin Xiu, Syed Muhammad Fahmy Alkaff, Ioana Cutcutache, Jing Quan Lim, Choon Kiat Ong, Vlad Herlea, Simona Dima, Dan G Duda, Bin Tean Teh, Irinel Popescu, Tony Kiat Hon Lim
AT rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in a broad variety of tumors. The mechanisms that involve ARID1A in ampullary cancer progression remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the frequency of ARID1A and KRAS mutations in ampullary adenomas and adenocarcinomas and in duodenal adenocarcinomas from two cohorts of patients from Singapore and Romania, correlated with clinical and pathological tumor features, and assessed the functional role of ARID1A. In the ampullary adenocarcinomas, the frequency of KRAS and ARID1A mutations was 34...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361331/anca-associated-vasculitis-pathogenesis-a-commentary
#4
REVIEW
Eric J Gapud, Philip Seo, Brendan Antiochos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ANCA-associated vasculitides are a group of small vessel vasculitides characterized by autoantibodies recognizing the neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens PR3 and MPO. We examine the current clinical and molecular immunology understanding of ANCA-associated vasculitides and discuss the current needs in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of these rare diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of efforts to understand the pathogenesis of these diseases have focused on dissecting neutrophil biology because the neutrophil is the primary expressor of ANCA autoantigens...
April 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316335/complement-in-anca-associated-vasculitis-mechanisms-and-implications-for-management
#5
REVIEW
Min Chen, David R W Jayne, Ming-Hui Zhao
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of potentially life-threatening autoimmune diseases. The main histological feature in the kidneys of patients with AAV is pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with little immunoglobulin and complement deposition in the glomerular capillary walls. The complement system was not, therefore, initially thought to be associated with the development of AAV. Accumulating evidence from animal models and clinical observations indicate, however, that activation of the complement system - and the alternative pathway in particular - is crucial for the development of AAV, and that the complement activation product C5a has a central role...
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255017/cdk6-contributes-to-cytoskeletal-stability-in-erythroid-cells
#6
Iris Z Uras, Ruth M Scheicher, Karoline Kollmann, Martin Glösmann, Michaela Prchal-Murphy, Anca S Tigan, Daniela A Fux, Sandro Altamura, Joana Neves, Martina Muckenthaler, Keiryn L Bennett, Stefan Kubicek, Philip W Hinds, Marieke von Lindern, Veronika Sexl
Mice lacking Cdk6 kinase activity suffer from mild anemia accompanied by elevated numbers of Ter119+ cells in the bone marrow. The animals show hardly any alterations in erythroid development, indicating that Cdk6 is not required for proliferation and maturation of erythroid cells. There is also no difference in stress erythropoiesis following hemolysis in vivo. However, Cdk6-/- erythrocytes have a shortened lifespan and are more sensitive to mechanical stress in vitro, suggesting differences in the cytoskeletal architecture...
March 2, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229991/a-novel-mutation-in-the-pyrin-domain-of-the-nod-like-receptor-family-pyrin-domain-containing-protein-3-in-muckle-wells-syndrome
#7
Jian Hu, Yun Zhu, Jian-Zhong Zhang, Rong-Guang Zhang, Hou-Min Li
BACKGROUND: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a group of rare, heterogeneous autoinflammatory disease characterized by interleukin (IL)-1β-mediated systemic inflammation and clinical symptoms involving skin, joints, central nervous system, and eyes. It encompasses a spectrum of three clinically overlapping autoinflammatory syndromes including familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. CAPS is associated with gain-of-function missense mutations in NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), the gene encoding NLRP3...
March 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165478/a-distinct-innate-lymphoid-cell-population-regulates-tumor-associated-t-cells
#8
Sarah Q Crome, Linh T Nguyen, Sandra Lopez-Verges, S Y Cindy Yang, Bernard Martin, Jennifer Y Yam, Dylan J Johnson, Jessica Nie, Michael Pniak, Pei Hua Yen, Anca Milea, Ramlogan Sowamber, Sarah Rachel Katz, Marcus Q Bernardini, Blaise A Clarke, Patricia A Shaw, Philipp A Lang, Hal K Berman, Trevor J Pugh, Lewis L Lanier, Pamela S Ohashi
Antitumor T cells are subject to multiple mechanisms of negative regulation. Recent findings that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate adaptive T cell responses led us to examine the regulatory potential of ILCs in the context of cancer. We identified a unique ILC population that inhibits tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from high-grade serous tumors, defined their suppressive capacity in vitro, and performed a comprehensive analysis of their phenotype. Notably, the presence of this CD56(+)CD3(-) population in TIL cultures was associated with reduced T cell numbers, and further functional studies demonstrated that this population suppressed TIL expansion and altered TIL cytokine production...
March 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163397/the-role-of-pdgfs-and-pdgfrs-in-colorectal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Roberta M Manzat Saplacan, Loredana Balacescu, Claudia Gherman, Romeo I Chira, Anca Craiu, Petru A Mircea, Cosmin Lisencu, Ovidiu Balacescu
Introduction. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Angiogenesis was reported as one important mechanism activated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Tumor microenvironment associated angiogenesis involves a large spectrum of signaling molecules and deciphering their role in colorectal carcinogenesis still represents a major challenge. The aim of our study is to point out the diagnosis and prediction role of PDGF family and their receptors in colorectal carcinogenesis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134583/pathology-of-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-pulmonary-and-renal-disease
#10
REVIEW
Maxwell L Smith
CONTEXT: -Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis commonly presents with pulmonary and renal involvement that may present diagnostic challenges. OBJECTIVES: -To highlight the updates in the classification of small vessel vasculitis, present the patterns of pulmonary and renal pathology in which ANCA-associated vasculitis is included in the differential diagnosis, analyze the screening and specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody testing methods in the clinical laboratory, compare and contrast the 3 major ANCA-associated vasculitis diseases, and review the pathophysiologic mechanisms of tissue injury in this setting...
February 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125053/interaction-of-new-developed-tio%C3%A2-based-photocatalytic-nanoparticles-with-pathogenic-microorganisms-and-human-dermal-and-pulmonary-fibroblasts
#11
Ionela Cristina Nica, Miruna Silvia Stan, Marcela Popa, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Veronica Lazar, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Iuliana Dumitrescu, Madalina Ignat, Marcel Feder, Liviu Cristian Tanase, Ionel Mercioniu, Lucian Diamandescu, Anca Dinischiotu
TiO₂-based photocatalysts were obtained during previous years in order to limit pollution and to ease human daily living conditions due to their special properties. However, obtaining biocompatible photocatalysts is still a key problem, and the mechanism of their toxicity recently received increased attention. Two types of TiO₂ nanoparticles co-doped with 1% of iron and nitrogen (TiO₂-1% Fe-N) atoms were synthesized in hydrothermal conditions at pH of 8.5 (HT1) and 5.5 (HT2), and their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects exerted on human pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts were assessed...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107529/complement-activation-and-stat4-expression-are-associated-with-early-inflammation-in-diabetic-wounds
#12
Kenji M Cunnion, Neel K Krishna, Haree K Pallera, Angela Pineros-Fernandez, Magdielis Gregory Rivera, Pamela S Hair, Brittany P Lassiter, Ryan Huyck, Mary A Clements, Antoinette F Hood, George T Rodeheaver, Patrick S Cottler, Jerry L Nadler, Anca D Dobrian
Diabetic non-healing wounds are a major clinical problem. The mechanisms leading to poor wound healing in diabetes are multifactorial but unresolved inflammation may be a major contributing factor. The complement system (CS) is the most potent inflammatory cascade in humans and contributes to poor wound healing in animal models. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a transcription factor expressed in immune and adipose cells and contributes to upregulation of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080057/identification-of-binding-modes-for-amino-naphthalene-2-cyanoacrylate-anca-probes-to-amyloid-fibrils-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#13
Huan He, Juan Xu, Dan-Yang Cheng, Li Fu, Yu-Shu Ge, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu
The amino naphthalene 2-cyanoacrylate (ANCA) probe is a kind of fluorescent amyloid binding probe that can report different fluorescence emissions when bound to various amyloid deposits in tissue, while their interactions with amyloid fibrils remain unclear due to the insoluble nature of amyloid fibrils. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the interaction between ANCA probes with three different amyloid fibrils. Two common binding modes of ANCA probes on Aβ40 amyloid fibrils were identified by cluster analysis of multiple simulations...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002524/histopathological-consequences-of-hyperzincemia-on-rat-teeth-experimental-study
#14
Mihaela Monica Scutariu, Iordanis Salamastrakis, Cristinel Ionel Stan, Alin HoraŢiu Nedelcu, Liviu Ciprian Gavril, Claudia Florida Costea, Ana Maria Dumitrescu, Anca Sava, Elena Şapte
The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological features of dental pulp in acute zinc (Zn) intoxication and to identify possible physiopathological mechanisms of the lesions. Twelve adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, the control one and the exposed group. Each animal from the experimental group received a single dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected from exposed animals at 2, 4, and 6 hours after the injection and plasma Zn concentrations were determined by spectrophotometry...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002521/the-cadherin-switch-assessment-in-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-urothelial-bladder-carcinomas
#15
Andrei Ioan Drocaş, Paul Ioan Tomescu, George Mitroi, Petru Octavian Drăgoescu, Claudiu Mărgăritescu, Alex Emilian Stepan, Valeriu Şurlin, Ştefania CrăiŢoiu, Ileana Drocaş, Anca Marilena Ungureanu, Alice Elena Găman, Adriana Turculeanu, Cristiana Eugenia Simionescu
INTRODUCTION: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process is a complex molecular mechanism that is involved in the acquisition of an aggressive, invasive and metastatic phenotype by carcinomas. The cadherin switch consists in the alteration of E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression and is specific for the EMT process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 35 cases of primitive urothelial carcinomas investigated in relation with clinicopathological prognostic parameters and expression of E- and N-cadherins in the advancing edge and intratumoral compartments...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002036/serum-levels-of-oxidative-stress-markers-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#16
F Casoinic, D Sampelean, Anca D Buzoianu, N Hancu, Dorina Baston
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and test their relationships with clinical and biochemical patient characteristics, compared to patients with DMT2 without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 60 consecutive patients with DMT2 and NASH, 55 with DMT2 without NAFLD, and 50 age-and-gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the study...
December 1, 2016: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981307/microbiota-small-rnas-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
REVIEW
Anca T Filip, Ovidiu Balacescu, Catalin Marian, Andrei Anghel
MiRNAs are a class of potential gene regulators of critical importance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). This review aims to present the connection between gut microbiota, probiotics administration and microRNA (miRNA) expression in IBD. It also brings into question cross-kingdom RNAi (RNA interference). Not only that gut host cells garden the intestinal microbiome via miRNA, but also strong evidence supports the idea that different species of bacteria have an impact on the intestinal immune response by modulating miRNA expression...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974851/mechanisms-leading-from-systemic-autoimmunity-to-joint-specific-disease-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
REVIEW
Anca I Catrina, Camilla I Svensson, Vivianne Malmström, Georg Schett, Lars Klareskog
A key unanswered question in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is how systemic autoimmunity progresses to joint-specific inflammation. In patients with seropositive RA (that is, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies) evidence is accumulating that immunity against post-translationally modified (such as citrullinated) autoantigens might be triggered in mucosal organs, such as the lung, long before the first signs of inflammation are seen in the joints. However, the mechanism by which systemic autoimmunity specifically homes to the joint and bone compartment, thereby triggering inflammation, remains elusive...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973790/interpreting-interactions-between-ozone-and-residual-petroleum-hydrocarbons-in-soil
#19
Tengfei Chen, Anca G Delgado, Burcu M Yavuz, Juan Maldonado, Yi Zuo, Roopa Kamath, Paul Westerhoff, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Bruce E Rittmann
We evaluated how gas-phase O3 interacts with residual petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were 18 ± 0.6 g/kg soil, and TPH carbon constituted ∼40% of the dichloromethane-extractable carbon (DeOC) in the soil. At the benchmark dose of 3.4 kg O3/kg initial TPH, TPH carbon was reduced by nearly 6 gC/kg soil (40%), which was accompanied by an increase of about 4 gC/kg soil in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a 4-fold increase in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). Disrupting gas channeling in the soil improved mass transport of O3 to TPH bound to soil and increased TPH removal...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915073/a-mathematical-model-of-reward-and-executive-circuitry-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Anca Rǎdulescu, Rachel Marra
The neuronal circuit that controls obsessive and compulsive behaviors involves a complex network of brain regions (some with known involvement in reward processing). Among these are cortical regions, the striatum and the thalamus (which compose the CSTC pathway), limbic areas such as the amygdala and the hippocampus, as well as dopamine pathways. Abnormal dynamic behavior in this brain network is a hallmark feature of patients with increased anxiety and motor activity, like the ones affected by OCD. There is currently no clear understanding of precisely what mechanisms generate these behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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