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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773370/rheological-and-structural-properties-of-complex-arabinoxylans-from-plantago-ovata-seed-mucilage-under-non-gelled-conditions
#1
Long Yu, Gleb E Yakubov, Marta Martínez-Sanz, Elliot P Gilbert, Jason R Stokes
Two gel-forming arabinoxylan (AX) fractions with very similar linkage composition and molecular weight distributions have been isolated from Plantago ovata seed mucilage. Both isolated fractions have distinct gel properties attributed to differences in intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This study probes the effect of hydrogen bonding on molecular interactions of P. ovata AX fractions under non-gelled conditions achieved using a mild hydrogen bonding inhibitor, 0.2 M KOH. Chain conformation, relaxation dynamics and interactions between AX molecules are investigated using a combination of rheological techniques and small angle X-ray and neutron scattering...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772527/a-novel-role-for-cd26-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-as-a-therapeutic-target
#2
Kei Ohnuma, Ryo Hatano, Eriko Komiya, Haruna Otsuka, Takumi Itoh, Noriaki Iwao, Yutaro Kaneko, Taketo Yamada, Nam H Dang, Chikao Morimoto
CD26 is a 110 kDa surface glycoprotein with intrinsic dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity that is expressed on numerous cell types and has a multitude of biological functions. The role of CD26 in immune regulation has been extensively characterized, with recent findings elucidating its linkage with signaling pathways and structures involved in T-lymphocyte activation as well as antigen presenting cell-T-cell interaction. In this paper, we will review emerging data on CD26-mediated immune regulation suggesting that CD26 may be an appropriate therapeutic target for the treatment of selected immune disorders as well as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771897/is-general-practice-identification-of-prior-cardiovascular-disease-at-the-time-of-cvd-risk-assessment-accurate-and-does-it-matter
#3
Sue Wells, Katrina Poppe, Vanessa Selak, Andrew Kerr, Romana Pylypchuk, Billy Wu, Wing Cheuk Chan, Corina Grey, Suneela Mehta, Dudley Gr Gentles, Rod Jackson
AIMS: To determine the accuracy of general practice recording of prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) at the time of CVD risk assessment and whether recording impacts on CVD management. METHODS: Prior CVD status entered at the time of a first CVD risk assessment from 2002-2015 was compared to prior ischaemic CVD hospitalisations from national datasets using anonymous linkage with an encrypted National Health Index identifier. Clinical factors associated with inaccurate recording of prior events were identified using multivariable logistic regression...
May 18, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771871/trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-and-coverage-among-children-aged-15-years-with-hiv-infection-20-pepfar-supported-sub-saharan-african-countries-2012-2016
#4
Amanda Burrage, Monita Patel, Kelsey Mirkovic, Eric Dziuban, Wondimu Teferi, Laura Broyles, Emilia Rivadeneira
Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2)...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771781/lack-of-virological-suppression-among-young-hiv-positive-adults-in-botswana
#5
Vlad Novitsky, Tendani Gaolathe, Mompati Mmalane, Sikhulile Moyo, Unoda Chakalisa, Etienne Kadima Yankinda, Tafireyi Marukutira, Molly Pretorius Holme, Tumalano Sekoto, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary Musonda, Erik van Widenfelt, Kathleen M Powis, Nealia Khan, Scott Dryden-Peterson, Kara Bennett, Kathleen E Wirth, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Pam Bachanas, Lisa A Mills, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, El-Halabi Shenaaz, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, M Essex
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 RNA load is the best biological predictor of HIV transmission and treatment response. The rate of virologic suppression among key sub-populations can guide HIV prevention programs. METHODS: The Botswana Combination Prevention Project performed a population-based household survey among adults in 30 communities in Botswana. Data collected included knowledge of HIV-positive status, ART coverage and virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/mL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771779/cost-of-integrating-non-communicable-disease-screening-into-home-based-hiv-testing-and-counseling-in-south-africa
#6
Ilya Golovaty, Monisha Sharma, Alastair Van Heerden, Heidi van Rooyen, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Integrated HIV-non-communicable disease (NCD) services have the potential to avert death and disability, but require data on program costs to assess the impact of integrated services on affordability. METHODS: We estimated the incremental costs of NCD screening as part of home-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and referral to care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. All adults in the households were offered integrated HIV-NCD screening (for HIV, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, depression, tobacco and alcohol use), counseling, and linkage to care...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771597/concordance-between-survey-reported-childhood-asthma-and-linked-medicaid-administrative-records
#7
Benjamin Zablotsky, Lindsey I Black
OBJECTIVE: Agreement between administrative and survey data has been shown to vary by the condition of interest and there is limited research dedicated to parental report of asthma among children. The current study assesses the concordance between parent-reported asthma from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with Medicaid administrative claims data among linkage eligible children from the NHIS. METHODS: Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) files from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) (years 2000-2005) were linked to participants of the NHIS (years 2001-2005)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#8
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769357/evolution-of-genomic-variation-in-the-burrowing-owl-in-response-to-recent-colonization-of-urban-areas
#9
Jakob C Mueller, Heiner Kuhl, Stefan Boerno, Jose L Tella, Martina Carrete, Bart Kempenaers
When a species successfully colonizes an urban habitat it can be expected that its population rapidly adapts to the new environment but also experiences demographic perturbations. It is, therefore, essential to gain an understanding of the population structure and the demographic history of the urban and neighbouring rural populations before studying adaptation at the genome level. Here, we investigate populations of the burrowing owl ( Athene cunicularia ), a species that colonized South American cities just a few decades ago...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768585/-inter-sector-network-in-brazil-s-school-health-program-subjects-perceptions-and-practices
#10
Antônio Paulo Gomes Chiari, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Marco Akerman, João Henrique Lara do Amaral, Kecyanne Malheiros Machado, Maria Inês Barreiros Senna
This study evaluated the implementation of the School Health Program (PSE in Portuguese) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, the mechanisms favoring inter-sector action, and municipal administrators' perceptions concerning inter-sector collaboration. A case study was developed with document search and the application of an online questionnaire. The document search analyzed federal and municipal legislation on the PSE published in the Federal Register and Municipal Register and news on the program published in the Municipal Register...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768489/optimal-allocation-of-hiv-prevention-funds-for-state-health-departments
#11
Emine Yaylali, Paul G Farnham, Stacy Cohen, David W Purcell, Heather Hauck, Stephanie L Sansom
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the optimal allocation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV prevention funds for health departments in 52 jurisdictions, incorporating Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funds, to improve outcomes along the HIV care continuum and prevent infections. METHODS: Using surveillance data from 2010 to 2012 and budgetary data from 2012, we divided the 52 health departments into 5 groups varying by number of persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH), median annual CDC HIV prevention budget, and median annual HRSA expenditures supporting linkage to care, retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768402/condensin-i-protects-meiotic-cohesin-from-wapl-1-mediated-removal
#12
Margarita R Hernandez, Michael B Davis, Jianhao Jiang, Elizabeth A Brouhard, Aaron F Severson, Györgyi Csankovszki
Condensin complexes are key determinants of higher-order chromatin structure and are required for mitotic and meiotic chromosome compaction and segregation. We identified a new role for condensin in the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion during C. elegans meiosis. Using conventional and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy we show that levels of chromosomally-bound cohesin were significantly reduced in dpy-28 mutants, which lack a subunit of condensin I. SYP-1, a component of the synaptonemal complex central region, was also diminished, but no decrease in the axial element protein HTP-3 was observed...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765217/allergy-to-chlorpromazine-and-valproic-acid-following-carbamazepine-hypersensitivity-in-a-patient-with-an-hla-b-4601-allele
#13
Kumi Sakurada, Takeshi Kozaru, Kazuo Yamada, Masashi Nibuya, Kiyoshi Nagata, Eiji Suzuki
A 73-year-old man, exhibiting psychomotor excitement after traumatic brain injury, developed allergic cutaneous eruptions and hepatic inflammation that did not resolve after the cessation of carbamazepine (CBZ). Fusing maculopapular erythema was observed in the face, neck, presternal region, and bilaterally in the forearms and feet. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test revealed hypersensitivity to chlorpromazine (CPZ) and valproic acid (VPA), as well as to CBZ. The allergic reaction with eosinophilia to CPZ and VPA was suspected to have emerged following CBZ hypersensitivity, since previous treatment with CPZ and VPA prior to the introduction of CBZ had not been associated with adverse reactions earlier in the course of treatment...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764960/a-genomic-region-containing-rec8-and-rnf212b-is-associated-with-individual-recombination-rate-variation-in-a-wild-population-of-red-deer-cervus-elaphus
#14
Susan E Johnston, Jisca Huisman, Josephine M Pemberton
Recombination is a fundamental feature of sexual reproduction, ensuring proper disjunction, preventing mutation accumulation and generating new allelic combinations upon which selection can act. However it is also mutagenic, and breaks up favourable allelic combinations previously built up by selection. Identifying the genetic drivers of recombination rate variation is a key step in understanding the causes and consequences of this variation, how loci associated with recombination are evolving and how they affect the potential of a population to respond to selection...
May 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763935/comorbidities-are-associated-with-altered-health-services-use-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Kyla A McKay, Ruth Ann Marrie, John D Fisk, Scott B Patten, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) use health resources with greater frequency than the general population. However, little is known regarding which patient characteristics might contribute. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate characteristics associated with healthcare use in MS patients. METHODS: Consecutive MS clinic attendees were recruited (September-November 2010), with clinical, demographic, and patient-completed questionnaires collected at 3 visits over 2 years...
May 15, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762745/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-a-meningioma-risk-locus-at-11p15-5
#16
Elizabeth B Claus, Alex J Cornish, Peter Broderick, Joellen M Schildkraut, Sara E Dobbins, Amy Holroyd, Lisa Calvocoressi, Lingeng Lu, Helen M Hansen, Ivan Smirnov, Kyle M Walsh, Johannes Schramm, Per Hoffmann, Markus M Nöthen, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anthony Swerdlow, Signe Benzon Larsen, Christoffer Johansen, Matthias Simon, Melissa Bondy, Margaret Wrensch, Richard Houlston, Joseph L Wiemels
BACKGROUND: Meningioma are adult brain tumors originating in the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord, with significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified only a single risk locus for meningioma, at 10p12.31. METHODS: To identify a susceptibility locus for meningioma, we conducted a meta-analysis of two GWAS, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, with validation in two independent sample series totaling 2,138 cases and 12,081 controls...
May 12, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761423/advanced-parental-age-as-risk-factor-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-results-from-studies-of-the-childhood-leukemia-international-consortium
#17
Eleni Th Petridou, Marios K Georgakis, Friederike Erdmann, Xiaomei Ma, Julia E Heck, Anssi Auvinen, Beth A Mueller, Logan G Spector, Eve Roman, Catherine Metayer, Corrado Magnani, Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Sameera Ezzat, Michael E Scheurer, Ana Maria Mora, John D Dockerty, Johnni Hansen, Alice Y Kang, Rong Wang, David R Doody, Eleanor Kane, Waffa M Rashed, Nick Dessypris, Joachim Schüz, Claire Infante-Rivard, Alkistis Skalkidou
Advanced parental age has been associated with adverse health effects in the offspring including childhood (0-14 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), as reported in our meta-analysis of published studies. We aimed to further explore the association using primary data from 16 studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Data were contributed by 11 case-control (CC) studies (7919 cases and 12,942 controls recruited via interviews) and five nested case-control (NCC) studies (8801 cases and 29,690 controls identified through record linkage of population-based health registries) with variable enrollment periods (1968-2015)...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760941/hip-fracture-in-the-elderly-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-femur-feasibility-study-testing-the-use-of-routinely-collected-data-for-future-health-economic-evaluations
#18
Nefyn H Williams, Kevin Mawdesley, Jessica L Roberts, Nafees Ud Din, Nicola Totton, Joanna M Charles, Zoe Hoare, Rhiannon T Edwards
Background: Health economic evaluations rely on the accurate measurement of health service resource use in order to calculate costs. These are usually measured with patient completed questionnaires using instruments such as the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). These rely on participants' recall and can be burdensome to complete. Health service activity data are routinely captured by electronic databases.The aim was to test methods for obtaining these data and compare with those data collected using the CSRI, within a feasibility study of an enhanced rehabilitation intervention following hip fracture (Fracture in the Elderly Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation: FEMuR)...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760457/global-genetic-differentiation-of-complex-traits-shaped-by-natural-selection-in-humans
#19
Jing Guo, Yang Wu, Zhihong Zhu, Zhili Zheng, Maciej Trzaskowski, Jian Zeng, Matthew R Robinson, Peter M Visscher, Jian Yang
There are mean differences in complex traits among global human populations. We hypothesize that part of the phenotypic differentiation is due to natural selection. To address this hypothesis, we assess the differentiation in allele frequencies of trait-associated SNPs among African, Eastern Asian, and European populations for ten complex traits using data of large sample size (up to ~405,000). We show that SNPs associated with height ([Formula: see text]), waist-to-hip ratio ([Formula: see text]), and schizophrenia ([Formula: see text]) are significantly more differentiated among populations than matched "control" SNPs, suggesting that these trait-associated SNPs have undergone natural selection...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759958/data-access-and-usage-practices-across-a-cohort-of-researchers-at-a-large-tertiary-pediatric-hospital-qualitative-survey-study
#20
Hoi Ki Kiki Ho, Matthias Görges, Elodie Portales-Casamar
BACKGROUND: Health and health-related data collected as part of clinical care is a foundational component of quality improvement and research. While the importance of these data is widely recognized, there are many challenges faced by researchers attempting to use such data. It is crucial to acknowledge and identify barriers to improve data sharing and access practices and ultimately optimize research capacity. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the current state, explore opportunities, and identify barriers, an environmental scan of investigators at BC Children's Hospital Research Institute (BCCHR) was conducted to elucidate current local practices around data access and usage...
May 14, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
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