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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452427/effect-of-routine-screening-head-ultrasounds-on-clinical-interventions-for-premature-infants
#1
Andrew Z Heling, Matthew M Laughon, Wayne A Price
OBJECTIVE: This article assesses whether routine, screening head ultrasound (HUS) studies performed at 7 to 14 postnatal days for premature infants are followed by clinical interventions. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included all inborn infants delivered at < 30 weeks' gestational age (GA) between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a single center who had a routine, screening HUS performed between 7 and 14 postnatal days ( n = 303). We defined "clinical intervention" as a 7 to 14 postnatal day HUS that was followed by neurosurgical intervention prior to a 36- to 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA) HUS or elective withdrawal of critical care within 30 days of a positive HUS finding...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452372/impact-of-timing-of-influenza-vaccination-in-pregnancy-on-transplacental-antibody-transfer-influenza-incidence-and-birth-outcomes-a-randomized-trial-in-rural-nepal
#2
Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Mark C Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Luke C Mullany, Helen Y Chu, Steven C LeClerq, Naoko Kozuki, James M Tielsch
Background: Maternal influenza vaccination protects mothers and their infants in low resource settings but little is known about whether the protection varies by gestational age at vaccination. Methods: Women of childbearing age in rural southern Nepal were surveilled for pregnancy, consented and randomized to receive maternal influenza vaccination or placebo, with randomization stratified on gestational age (17-25 or 26-34 weeks). Enrollment occurred in two annual cohorts and vaccinations occurred from April 2011 through September 2013...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452335/change-in-cardiometabolic-risk-among-blacks-whites-and-hispanics-findings-from-the-health-and-retirement-study
#3
Uchechi A Mitchell, Jennifer A Ailshire, Eileen M Crimmins
Background: Blacks experience greater multi-system physiological dysregulation, or cumulative biological risk, which is associated with poor cardiometabolic health and mortality. In this study, we assess race differences in change in risk over four years among older whites, blacks and Hispanics. Method: We examined race differences in 4-year change in individual biomarkers and a cumulative measure of risk-cardiometabolic risk (CMR)-using data for each respondent from two waves of the Health and Retirement Study's biomarker assessment (n=5,512)...
February 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452138/exposure-to-low-level-of-lead-during-preweaning-period-increases-metallothionein-3-expression-and-dysregulates-divalent-cation-levels-in-the-brain-of-young-rats
#4
Abdur Rahman, Khalid M Khan, Muddanna S Rao
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic heavy metal, but the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. Expression of metallothioneins (MTs) is induced in response to heavy metal exposure as a protective mechanism against heavy metal toxicity. There are several isoforms of MTs (MT-1 to 4), of which MT-3 is the neuron specific isoform, which also has neurite growth inhibitory effects. Whereas, the induction of MT-1 and 2 in response to Pb has been reported, the effect of Pb on the expression of MT-3 in the brain has not been documented...
February 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451839/correlates-of-postpartum-visits-among-medicaid-recipients-an-analysis-using-claims-data-from-a-managed-care-organization
#5
Saba W Masho, Susan Cha, Nicole Karjane, Elizabeth McGee, Rashel Charles, Linda Hines, Susan G Kornstein
BACKGROUND: The postpartum care visit (PPCV) plays an important role in ensuring the well-being of mother and infant. This study sought to assess correlates of PPCV attendance among women who are at high risk of nonattendance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used deidentified medical claims data from Virginia Premier-a nonprofit Managed Care Organization that provides health insurance for Medicaid beneficiaries. The association between various correlates and PPCV attendance was examined using multiple logistic regression analyses...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451831/high-dose-perinatal-folic-acid-supplementation-alters-insulin-sensitivity-in-sprague-dawley-rats-and-diminishes-the-expression-of-adiponectin
#6
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Funmileyi Olubajo Awobajo, Gabriel Olorunleke Oludare, Adekunle Mofolorunso
The possible intake of folate in excess of the recommended upper levels is a matter of critical importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal high folic acid supplementation (FAS) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and expression of adiponectin in rats. The study included 20 female rats divided into two groups: control group and FAS group (receiving high folic acid supplemented diet). Both groups of female rats were mated and pregnancy confirmed...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#7
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451326/evaluation-of-factors-contributing-to-the-decline-in-exclusive-breastfeeding-at-6-months-postpartum-the-2011-2016-national-surveys-in-taiwan
#8
Alexander Waits, Chao-Yu Guo, Li-Yin Chien
BACKGROUND: Since 1992, breastfeeding promotion in Taiwan considerably raised the breastfeeding rates; however, more recent surveillance showed that breastfeeding indicators stagnated or even decreased. METHODS: We analyzed 6 cross-sectional national surveys of 69 159 postpartum women to examine the breastfeeding trends at 6 months postpartum during 2011-2016 in Taiwan and the contributing role of maternal and environmental factors. Data were collected through telephone interviews, using structured questionnaires with randomly selected mothers, who gave birth in those years...
February 16, 2018: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451314/aortic-diameters-and-mild-functional-aortic-regurgitation-in-hypertensive-and-normotensive-people-do-they-carry-the-same-meaning
#9
Olga Vriz, Nicole Bertin, Eduardo Bossone, Paolo Palatini
OBJECTIVES: The association between the aortic root diameter and aortic regurgitation in hypertensive and normotensive people is still disputed, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be clearly elucidated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the aortic root diameter and trivial to mild functional aortic regurgitation in never-treated hypertensive patients with a new diagnosis compared with healthy normotensive participants. METHODS: A total of 182 hypertensives and 232 age-matched normotensives were included in the study...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451101/severe-tricuspid-regurgitation-and-seizure-on-postpartum-day-10-case-report-of-late-postpartum-eclampsia
#10
Martin Vanden Eede, Matthew Schroyens
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Late postpartum eclampsia is characterized by pre-eclampsia and tonic-clonic seizures presenting more than 48 hours postpartum. It is a rare, frightening and dangerous complication that requires rapid recognition and adequate treatment. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present a case of late postpartum eclampsia, initially diagnosed as right-sided heart failure, 10 days postpartum.Two days after the delivery she developed mild swelling of both feet, progressive shortness of breath on exertion and orthopnea...
February 16, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451005/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-postpartum-infection-complications-and-mortality-in-rural-uganda
#11
Lisa M Bebell, Joseph Ngonzi, Mark J Siedner, Winnie R Muyindike, Bosco M Bwana, Laura E Riley, Yap Boum, David R Bangsberg, Ingrid V Bassett
HIV infection may increase risk of postpartum infection and infection-related mortality. We hypothesized that postpartum infection incidence and attributable mortality in Mbarara, Uganda would be higher in HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected women. We performed a prospective cohort study of 4231 women presenting to a regional referral hospital in 2015 for delivery or postpartum care. All febrile or hypothermic women, and a subset of randomly selected normothermic women were followed during hospitalization and with 6-week postpartum phone interviews...
February 16, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450965/risk-of-early-onset-breast-cancer-among-women-exposed-to-thoracic-computed-tomography-in-pregnancy-or-early-postpartum
#12
Kirsteen R Burton, Alison L Park, Michael Fralick, Joel G Ray
BACKGROUND: The risk of breast cancer may be higher with direct exposure to ionizing radiation from thoracic computed tomography (CT) during pregnancy or postpartum. We evaluated the short-term risk of maternal breast cancer after exposure to thoracic CT during these periods. METHODS: We completed a retrospective population-based cohort study of all deliveries between 1995-2014 using universal health care databases in the province of Ontario, Canada. The main exposure was thoracic CT in pregnancy or ≤ 42 days postpartum...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450725/bdnf-effects-on-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-hippocampal-function
#13
REVIEW
Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Viola von Bohlen Und Halbach
Neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are expressed in the hippocampus, as well as their precursors, the pro-neurotrophins. The neurotrophins signal through specific tyrosine kinase receptors and the low affinity receptor p75NTR. Moreover, the pro-neurotrophins are considered to be biologically active by signaling through specific receptors. The neurotrophins, especially BDNF, are involved in processes related to learning and memory. Furthermore, it is thought that BDNF also plays a crucial role in major depression...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450535/a-spatiotemporal-requirement-for-prickle-1-mediated-pcp-signaling-in-eyelid-morphogenesis-and-homeostasis
#14
Dianlei Guo, Zhaohui Yuan, Jiali Ru, Xinyu Gu, Wang Zhang, Fuxiang Mao, Hong Ouyang, Kaili Wu, Yizhi Liu, Chunqiao Liu
Purpose: Tissue closure/fusion is a fundamental process during organogenesis, driven in part by the Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway. This study explored the spatial and temporal aspects of PCP signaling in eyelid development through analysis of mice lacking Prickle 1, a core PCP component, and the Prickle1-dependent signaling networks underlying eyelid development. Methods: Wild type and Prickle 1 compound mutant mice with a hypomorphic and a null allele were bred and used to study eyelid morphogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450111/the-binding-structure-and-affinity-of-photodamaged-duplex-dna-with-members-of-the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-a-computational-study
#15
Ryuma Sato, Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449453/conserved-and-divergent-features-of-human-and-mouse-kidney-organogenesis
#16
Nils O Lindström, Jill A McMahon, Jinjin Guo, Tracy Tran, Qiuyu Guo, Elisabeth Rutledge, Riana K Parvez, Gohar Saribekyan, Robert E Schuler, Christopher Liao, Albert D Kim, Ahmed Abdelhalim, Seth W Ruffins, Matthew E Thornton, Laurence Basking, Brendan Grubbs, Carl Kesselman, Andrew P McMahon
Human kidney function is underpinned by approximately 1,000,000 nephrons, although the number varies substantially, and low nephron number is linked to disease. Human kidney development initiates around 4 weeks of gestation and ends around 34-37 weeks of gestation. Over this period, a reiterative inductive process establishes the nephron complement. Studies have provided insightful anatomic descriptions of human kidney development, but the limited histologic views are not readily accessible to a broad audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449365/-big-bang-of-b-cell-development-revealed
#17
REVIEW
Cornelis Murre
Earlier studies have identified transcription factors that specify B-cell fate, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be revealed. Two new studies by Miyai and colleagues (pp. 112-126) and Li and colleagues (pp. 96-111) in this issue of Genes & Development provide new and unprecedented insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that establish B-cell identity.
January 15, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449333/endothelial-cell-autonomous-role-of-akt1-regulation-of-vascular-tone-and-ischemia-induced-arteriogenesis
#18
Monica Y Lee, Ana Gamez-Mendez, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhenwu Zhuang, David J Vinyard, Jan Kraehling, Heino Velazquez, Gary W Brudvig, Themis R Kyriakides, Michael Simons, William C Sessa
OBJECTIVE: The importance of PI3K/Akt signaling in the vasculature has been demonstrated in several models, as global loss of Akt1 results in impaired postnatal ischemia- and VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The ubiquitous expression of Akt1, however, raises the possibility of cell-type-dependent Akt1-driven actions, thereby necessitating tissue-specific characterization. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Herein, we used an inducible, endothelial-specific Akt1-deleted adult mouse model (Akt1iECKO) to characterize the endothelial cell autonomous functions of Akt1 in the vascular system...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449277/modeling-early-postnatal-brain-growth-and-development-with-ct-changes-in-the-brain-radiodensity-histogram-from-birth-to-2-years
#19
K A Cauley, Y Hu, J Och, P J Yorks, S W Fielden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of brain growth and development occur in the first 2 years of life. This study investigated these changes by analysis of the brain radiodensity histogram of head CT scans from the clinical population, 0-2 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty consecutive head CTs with normal findings meeting the inclusion criteria from children from birth to 2 years were retrospectively identified from 3 different CT scan platforms...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449157/risk-of-unplanned-caesarean-birth-in-vietnamese-born-women-in-victoria-australia-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Paul A Agius, Mary-Ann Davey, Rhonda Small
BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of, and factors associated with, caesarean birth among immigrant populations is essential for appropriate antenatal and postnatal resource allocation. AIMS: To compare rates of caesarean birth between one of the largest immigrant populations of women giving birth in Australia (Vietnamese-born women) with those of Australian-born women and investigate the odds of unplanned caesarean in these women, controlling for maternal characteristics, pregnancy complications and labour management factors...
February 12, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
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