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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471436/antiandrogen-treatment-ameliorates-reproductive-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-the-letrozole-induced-mouse-model-of-pcos
#1
Genevieve E Ryan, Shaddy Malik, Pamela L Mellon
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH), anovulation, and obesity...
February 19, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471349/intestinal-colonization-traits-of-pandemic-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-st131
#2
Sohinee Sarkar, Melanie L Hutton, Dimitrios Vagenas, Rinaldo Ruter, Stephanie Schüller, Dena Lyras, Mark A Schembri, Makrina Totsika
Background: Epidemiological studies point to the gut as a key reservoir of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli multilocus sequence type 131 (ST131), a globally dominant pathogenic clone causing urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Here we report a detailed investigation of its intestinal lifestyle. Methods: Clinical ST131 isolates and type 1 fimbriae null mutants were assessed for colonization of human intestinal epithelia and in mouse intestinal colonization models...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471302/socs3-is-upregulated-and-targeted-by-mir30a-5p-in-allergic-rhinitis
#3
Chun Yuan Zhao, Wei Wang, Hong Chao Yao, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 play important roles in T helper cell differentiation, which is involved with the pathologic mechanisms of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in AR and find their regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) to provide a basis for the treatment of AR. METHODS: The expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 were analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot...
February 22, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471127/targeting-cd14-on-blood-derived-cells-improves-intracortical-microelectrode-performance
#4
Hillary W Bedell, John K Hermann, Madhumitha Ravikumar, Shushen Lin, Ashley Rein, Xujia Li, Emily Molinich, Patrick D Smith, Stephen M Selkirk, Robert H Miller, Steven Sidik, Dawn M Taylor, Jeffrey R Capadona
Intracortical microelectrodes afford researchers an effective tool to precisely monitor neural spiking activity. Additionally, intracortical microelectrodes have the ability to return function to individuals with paralysis as part of a brain computer interface. Unfortunately, the neural signals recorded by these electrodes degrade over time. Many strategies which target the biological and/or materials mediating failure modes of this decline of function are currently under investigation. The goal of this study is to identify a precise cellular target for future intervention to sustain chronic intracortical microelectrode performance...
February 13, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471108/redox-stress-in-marfan-syndrome-dissecting-the-role-of-the-nadph-oxidase-nox4-in-aortic-aneurysm
#5
Francesc Jiménez-Altayó, Thayna Meirelles, Eva Crosas-Molist, M Alba Sorolla, Darya Gorbenko Del Blanco, Judit López-Luque, Aleksandra Mas-Stachurska, Ana-Maria Siegert, Fabio Bonorino, Laura Barberà, Carolina García, Enric Condom, Marta Sitges, Fernando Rodríguez-Pascual, Francisco Laurindo, Katrin Schröder, Joaquim Ros, Isabel Fabregat, Gustavo Egea
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix fibrillin-containing microfibrils and dysfunction of TGF-β signaling. Here we identify the molecular targets of redox stress in aortic aneurysms from MFS patients, and investigate the role of NOX4, whose expression is strongly induced by TGF-β, in aneurysm formation and progression in a murine model of MFS. Working models included aortae and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from MFS patients, and a NOX4-deficient Marfan mouse model (Fbn1C1039G/+ -Nox4-/- )...
February 19, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471052/revisiting-rabies-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-through-infecting-balb-c-mice-with-live-rabies-virus
#6
Yunlong Qin, Todd G Smith, Felix Jackson, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Clint N Morgan, Victoria Olson, Christina L Hutson, Xianfu Wu
This study investigates the production of rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody after virus infection through a mouse model. The BALB/c mice from different age groups (three, five, seven week old) were intramuscularly inoculated with live rabies virus (TX coyote 323R). Without pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), we found there is a decreased fatality with increased age of animals, the mortalities are 60%, 50%, and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, through assay of rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the results showed that all the animals that succumbed to rabies challenge, except one, developed circulating neutralizing antibodies, and all the healthy animals, except two, did not generate virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA)...
February 19, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470983/development-of-a-functional-thyroid-model-based-on-an-organoid-culture-system
#7
Yoshiyuki Saito, Nobuyuki Onishi, Hiroshi Takami, Ryo Seishima, Hiroyoshi Inoue, Yuki Hirata, Kaori Kameyama, Kenji Tsuchihashi, Eiji Sugihara, Shinya Uchino, Koichi Ito, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Hiroya Takeuchi, Yuko Kitagawa, Hideyuki Saya, Osamu Nagano
The low turnover rate of thyroid follicular cells and the lack of a long-term thyroid cell culture system have hampered studies of thyroid carcinogenesis. We have now established a thyroid organoid culture system that supports thyroid cell proliferation in vitro. The established mouse thyroid organoids performed thyroid functions including thyroglobulin synthesis, iodide uptake, and the production and release of thyroid hormone. Furthermore, transplantation of the organoids into recipient mice resulted in the formation of normal thyroid-like tissue capable of iodide uptake and thyroglobulin production in vivo...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470680/changes-in-skeletal-muscle-and-body-weight-on-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mediated-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-pig-migf-1
#8
Bo Gao, Wei Wang, Han Wu, Cai Chen, Dan Shen, Saisai Wang, Wei Chen, Li Zhang, Shuheng Chan, Chengyi Song
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) is an important growth factor in mammals, but the functions of the local muscle-specific isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) to skeletal muscle development have rarely been reported. To determine the effect of pig mIGF-1 on body development and muscle deposition in vivo and to investigate the molecular mechanisms, the transgenic mouse model was generated which can also provide experimental data for making transgenic pigs with pig endogenous IGF1 gene. We constructed a skeletal muscle-specific expression vector using 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions of porcine skeletal α-actin gene...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470438/altered-expression-of-ganglioside-metabolizing-enzymes-results-in-gm3-ganglioside-accumulation-in-cerebellar-cells-of-a-mouse-model-of-juvenile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#9
Aleksandra Somogyi, Anton Petcherski, Benedikt Beckert, Mylene Huebecker, David A Priestman, Antje Banning, Susan L Cotman, Frances M Platt, Mika O Ruonala, Ritva Tikkanen
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. Most JNCL patients exhibit a 1.02 kb genomic deletion removing exons 7 and 8 of this gene, which results in a truncated CLN3 protein carrying an aberrant C-terminus. A genetically accurate mouse model ( Cln3 Δex7/8 mice) for this deletion has been generated. Using cerebellar precursor cell lines generated from wildtype and Cln3 Δex7/8 mice, we have here analyzed the consequences of the CLN3 deletion on levels of cellular gangliosides, particularly GM3, GM2, GM1a and GD1a...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469521/-anti-tumor-effect-of-plasmodium-yoelii-infection-on-melanoma-in-mice
#10
Qiao Ji-Chen, Zhang Hui, Jiao Yu-Meng, Yang Yu-Ting, Dong Jia-Jun, Wang Zheng-Zheng, Li Jiang-Yan, Meng Ling-Wen, Yang Xiao-di, Tao Zhi-Yong, Xia Hui, Fang Qiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-tumor effect of 17XL strains of Plasmodium yoelii (P.y) infection on melanoma in mice. METHODS: B16F10 tumor cells were axillarilly injected into the right flank of 20 C57BL/6 mice to establish tumor-bearing mouse models. The next day, the mice were randomly divided into a P.y infection group and control group, 10 mice each group. Each mouse of the P.y infection group was intraperitoneally injected with 1×106 red blood cells including 20% P...
May 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469452/-preparation-of-recombinant-retrovirus-prevtre-e77-43-and-its-protective-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infection
#11
Zeng Fan-Sheng, Luo Sai-Qun, Xiong De-Hui, Yu Yuan-Jing, Qian Ying-Jun, Qin Zhi-Qiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the biological functions of E77.43, a gene segment of Microtus fortis , in treating Schistosoma japonicum infection. METHODS: Recombinant retroviral vectors of pRevTRE - E77.43 was constructed, and recombinant retroviral vectors were transfected into PA317 cells, and the stable cell lines were obtained by hygromycin screening, followed by the packaging, concentration and purification of recombinant retrovirus. The virus was transferred to the mice infected by S...
December 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468843/gpcr6a-is-a-molecular-target-for-the-natural-products-gallate-and-egcg-in-green-tea
#12
Min Pi, Karan Kapoor, Ruisong Ye, Jeremy C Smith, Jerome Baudry, L Darryl Quarles
SCOPE: The molecular mechanisms whereby gallates in green tea exert metabolic effects are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We found that GPRC6A, a multi-ligand sensing G-protein coupled receptor that regulates energy metabolism, sex hormone production and prostate cancer progression, is a target for gallates. Sodium gallate,1 gallic acid (GA) > ethyl gallate (EG) > octyl gallate (OG) dose dependently activated ERK in HEK-293 cells transfected with GPRC6A but not in non-transfected controls...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468792/polyprenols-mitigate-cognitive-dysfunction-and-neuropathology-in-the-app-ps1-mouse
#13
Xu-Xu Zhuang, Xuan Zang, Guang-Yao Zheng, Nan Hua, Yi Sun, Yu-Hui Hu, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a very common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and brings considerable financial and social problems worldwide. In this study, polyprenols were firstly evaluated the effects on the cognitive deficits and neuropathology in APP/PS1 mice model of AD. At 3 months old, the APP/PS1 mice were divided into model group; polyprenols low, middle, and high dosage group; and positive drug group. Age-matched wild-type mice were chosen in control group. The administration by oral gavage lasted 6 months...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468593/methods-to-study-the-innate-immune-response-to-sepsis
#14
Wendy E Walker
This chapter describes techniques to measure the innate immune response in the mouse cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis. The reader will learn how to perform retro-orbital bleeds to harvest serum from mice and learn how to perform peritoneal lavage to harvest cells and inflammatory mediators from this compartment. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is described as a method to measure the levels of cytokines and chemokines in these fluids. Additionally, this chapter describes techniques to stain the cellular fraction of the peritoneal lavage with fluorescently labeled antibodies, and perform fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to quantify macrophages and neutrophils in this compartment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468590/a-murine-model-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Zhaobin Xu, Kevin E McElhanon, Eric X Beck, Noah Weisleder
Ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in the mouse heart is a widely used model to simulate myocardial infarction and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here we describe a ligation technique routinely performed in our laboratory to induce myocardial infarction that may be used to study ischemia-reperfusion injury in the myocardium. The methods described enhance location of the LAD coronary artery to allow for accurate ligation, thus increasing reproducibility of infarct size and location.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468585/intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#16
Damon Klebe, Loretta Iniaghe, Sherrefa Burchell, Cesar Reis, Onat Akyol, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most devastating stroke subtype with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, no clinically approved treatment exists that effectively increases survival or improves quality of life for survivors. Effective modeling is necessary to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage and evaluate potential therapeutic approaches. Rodent models are most utilized because of their cost-effectiveness, and because rodent brain development and structures are well documented...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468582/a-mouse-controlled-cortical-impact-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-for-studying-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunctions
#17
Himakarnika Alluri, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Matthew L Davis, Binu Tharakan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. It is a silently growing epidemic with multifaceted pathogenesis, and current standards of treatments aim to target only the symptoms of the primary injury, while there is a tremendous need to explore interventions that can halt the progression of the secondary injuries. The use of a reliable animal model to study and understand the various aspects the pathobiology of TBI is extremely important in therapeutic drug development against TBI-associated complications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468579/mouse-injury-model-of-polytrauma-and-shock
#18
Juan C Mira, Dina C Nacionales, Tyler J Loftus, Ricardo Ungaro, Brittany Mathias, Alicia M Mohr, Lyle L Moldawer, Philip A Efron
Severe injury and shock remain major sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunologic dysregulation following trauma contributes to these poor outcomes. Few, if any, therapeutic interventions have benefited these patients, and this is due to our limited understanding of the host response to injury and shock. The Food and Drug Administration requires preclinical animal studies prior to any interventional trials in humans; thus, animal models of injury and shock will remain the mainstay for trauma research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468564/early-presymptomatic-changes-in-the-proteome-of-mitochondria-associated-membrane-in-the-app-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Katalin Völgyi, Kata Badics, Fernando J Sialana, Péter Gulyássy, Edina Brigitta Udvari, Viktor Kis, László Drahos, Gert Lubec, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Gábor Juhász
Intracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Recently, it has been uncovered that presenilins (PSs), the key components of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the β-amyloid producing γ-secretase complex, are highly enriched in a special sub-compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functionally connected to mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). A current hypothesis of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases (AD) suggests that MAM is involved in the initial phase of AD...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468499/resveratrol-improves-neuroimmune-dysregulation-through-the-inhibition-of-neuronal-toll-like-receptors-and-cox-2-signaling-in-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mice
#20
Sheikh F Ahmad, Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Mohammad Z Alzahrani, Saleh A Bakheet, Sabry M Attia
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in qualitative impairments in communication, repetitive and social interaction, restricted, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Resveratrol has been extensively studied pharmacologically and biologically and has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders. The BTBR T+ Itpr3tf /J (BTBR) autistic mouse model has been explored for treatment of autism, which shows low reciprocal social interactions, impaired juvenile play, and decreased social approach...
February 21, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
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