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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040944/inhaled-glucocorticoid-treatment-prevents-the-response-of-cd8-t-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma-and-causes-their-depletion-outside-the-respiratory-system
#1
Monika Zuśka-Prot, Tomasz Maślanka
The principal objective of this research has been to determine the safety of inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs) in respect of their effect on CD8(+) T cells within respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues, and to compare it with systemic GC treatment. Another purpose has been to identify whether inhaled and systemic GCs affect the CD8(+) T cell response in the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) and lungs in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Ciclesonide and methylprednisolone were used as a model for inhaled and systemic GCs, respectively...
October 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040756/tcdd-ficz-and-other-high-affinity-ahr-ligands-dose-dependently-determine-the-fate-of-cd4-t-cell-differentiation
#2
Allison K Ehrlich, Jamie M Pennington, William H Bisson, Siva K Kolluri, Nancy I Kerkvliet
FICZ and TCDD, two high affinity AhR ligands, are reported to have opposite effects on T cell differentiation with TCDD inducing regulatory T cells and FICZ inducing Th17 cells. This dichotomy has been attributed to ligand-intrinsic differences in AhR activation, although differences in sensitivity to metabolism complicates the issue. TCDD is resistant to AhR-induced metabolism and produces sustained AhR activation following a single dose in the μg/kg range while FICZ is rapidly metabolized and AhR activation is transient...
October 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040655/effects-of-1950-mhz-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-a%C3%AE-processing-in-human-neuroblastoma-and-mouse-hippocampal-neuronal-cells
#3
Jeongyeon Park, Jong Hwa Kwon, Nam Kim, Kiwon Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. One of the well-known pathological markers of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (Aβ), and its plaques, in the brain. Recent studies using Tg-5XFAD mice as a model of AD have reported that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from cellular phones reduced Aβ plaques in the brain and showed beneficial effects on AD. In this study, we examined whether exposure to 1950 MHz RF-EMF affects Aβ processing in neural cells...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040593/oral-exposure-to-paraquat-triggers-earlier-expression-of-phosphorylated-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-a53t-mutant-human-%C3%AE-synuclein-transgenic-mice
#4
Nicolas Naudet, Emilie Antier, Damien Gaillard, Eric Morignat, Latifa Lakhdar, Thierry Baron, Anna Bencsik
The misfolded α-synuclein protein, phosphorylated at serine 129 (pSer129 α-syn), is the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Detected also in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it supports the recent theory that PD could start in the gut, rather than the brain. In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of human synucleinopathies expressing the A53T mutant α-synuclein (TgM83), in which a neurodegenerative process associated with α-synuclein occurs spontaneously in the brain, we have shown earlier onset of pSer129 α-syn in the ENS...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040558/constitutively-active-fgfr3-disrupts-primary-cilium-length-and-ift20-trafficking-in-various-chondrocyte-models-of-achondroplasia
#5
Ludovic Martin, Nabil Kaci, Valentin Estibals, Nicolas Goudin, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Catherine Benoist-Lasselin, Emilie Dambroise, Laurence Legeai-Mallet
FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) gain-of-function mutations cause dwarfisms, including achondroplasia (ACH) and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). The constitutive activation of FGFR3 disrupts the normal process of skeletal growth. Bone-growth anomalies have been identified in skeletal ciliopathies, in which primary cilia (PC) function is disrupted. In human ACH and TD, the impact of FGFR3 mutations on PC in growth plate cartilage remains unknown. Here we showed that in chondrocytes from human (ACH, TD) and mouse Fgfr3Y367C/+ cartilage, the constitutively-active FGFR3 perturbed PC length and the sorting and trafficking of IFT20 to the PC...
October 4, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040550/rescue-of-cell-death-and-inflammation-of-a-mouse-model-of-complex-1-mediated-vision-loss-by-repurposed-drug-molecules
#6
Alfred K Yu, Sandipan Datta, Marissa Z McMackin, Gino A Cortopassi
Inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies, such as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) are caused by mutant mitochondrial proteins that lead to defects in mitochondrial complex 1-driven ATP synthesis, and cause specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Complex 1 defects also occur in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), in which there is specific RGC loss. The treatment of mitochondrial optic neuropathy in the US is only supportive. The Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4 KO) mouse is a mitochondrial complex 1-deficient model that leads to RGC loss and rapid vision loss and allows for streamlined testing of potential therapeutics...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040534/macrophages-escape-klotho-gene-silencing-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-promote-muscle-growth-and-increase-satellite-cell-numbers-through-a-klotho-mediated-pathway
#7
Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Steven S Welc, Guiseppina Samengo, Chiara Rinaldi, Catherine Lindsey, Ying Wang, Jeongyoon Lee, Makoto Kuro-O, James G Tidball
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle wasting disease in which inflammation influences the severity of pathology. We found that the onset of muscle inflammation in the mdx mouse model of DMD coincides with large increases in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interferon gamma (IFNγ)] and dramatic reductions of the pro-myogenic protein Klotho in muscle cells and large increases of Klotho in pro-regenerative, CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ treatments reduced Klotho in muscle cells and increased Klotho in macrophages...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040533/hippocampal-phosphorylated-tau-induced-cognitive-decline-dendritic-spine-loss-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Rui Wang, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the toxic effects of hippocampal phosphorylated tau in tau mice. Using rotarod and Morris Water Maze tests, immunoblotting & immunofluorescence, Golgi-cox staining and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed cognitive behavior, measured protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, MAP2, total & phosphorylated tau, and quantified dendritic spines and mitochondrial number and length in 12-month-old tau mice with P301L mutation. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040472/optogenetic-modulation-of-a-minor-fraction-of-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-specifically-affects-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-spontaneous-and-sensory-evoked-activity-in-mouse-somatosensory-cortex-in-vivo
#9
Jenq-Wei Yang, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Vicente Reyes-Puerta, Maik C Stüttgen, Albrecht Stroh, Heiko J Luhmann
Parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons exert strong effects on the neocortical excitatory network, but it remains unclear how they impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of sensory processing in the somatosensory cortex. Here, we characterized the effects of optogenetic inhibition and activation of PV interneurons on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse barrel cortex in vivo. Inhibiting PV interneurons led to a broad-spectrum power increase both in spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity. Whisker-evoked responses were significantly increased within 20 ms after stimulus onset during inhibition of PV interneurons, demonstrating high temporal precision of PV-shaped inhibition...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040444/re-establishment-of-energy-balance-in-a-male-mouse-model-with-pomc-neuron-deletion-of-bmpr1a
#10
Kristy L Townsend, Christopher Madden, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Lindsay McDougall, Domenico Tupone, Matthew D Lynes, Yuji Mishina, Paul Yu, Shaun Morrison, Yu-Hua Tseng
The regulation of energy balance involves complex processes in the brain, including coordination by hypothalamic neurons that contain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously demonstrated that central bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reduces appetite. Now we show that a type 1 BMP receptor, BMPR1A, is co-localized with POMC neurons and POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice are hyperphagic, revealing physiological involvement of BMP signaling in anorectic POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite. Surprisingly, the hyperphagic POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice exhibit a lack of obesity, even on a 45% high-fat diet...
October 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040431/prevention-of-breast-cancer-induced-osteolytic-bone-resorption-by-benzyl-isothiocyanate
#11
Subrata K Pore, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Joseph D Latoche, Carolyn J Anderson, Yongli Shuai, Shivendra V Singh
Osteolytic bone resorption is the primary cause of pain and suffering (e.g., pathological bone fracture) in women with metastatic breast cancer. The current standard of care for patients with bone metastasis for reducing the incidence of skeletal complications includes bisphosphonates and a humanized antibody (denosumab). However, a subset of patients on these therapies still develops new bone metastasis or experience adverse effects. Moreover, some bisphosphonates have poor oral bioavailability. Therefore, orally-bioavailable and non-toxic inhibitors of breast cancer-induced osteolytic bone resorption are still clinically desirable...
October 11, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040322/dexamethasone-mediated-inhibition-of-glioblastoma-neurosphere-dispersal-in-an-ex-vivo-organotypic-neural-assay
#12
Ahmed M Meleis, Aria Mahtabfar, Shabbar Danish, Ramsey A Foty
Glioblastoma is highly aggressive. Early dispersal of the primary tumor renders localized therapy ineffective. Recurrence always occurs and leads to patient death. Prior studies have shown that dispersal of Glioblastoma can be significantly reduced by Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug currently used to control brain tumor related edema. However, due to high doses and significant side effects, treatment is tapered and discontinued as soon as edema has resolved. Prior analyses of the dispersal inhibitory effects of Dex were performed on tissue culture plastic, or polystyrene filters seeded with normal human astrocytes, conditions which inherently differ from the parenchymal architecture of neuronal tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040318/rapid-reversal-of-innate-immune-dysregulation-in-blood-of-patients-and-livers-of-humanized-mice-with-hcv-following-daa-therapy
#13
Matthew A Burchill, Justin A Roby, Nanette Crochet, Megan Wind-Rotolo, Amy E Stone, Michael G Edwards, Rachael J Dran, Michael S Kriss, Michael Gale, Hugo R Rosen
RESULTS: First, in patients receiving two different combinations of DAAs, we found that DAAs induced not only rapid viral clearance, but also a re-setting of antiviral immune responses in the peripheral blood. Specifically, we see a rapid decline in the expression of genes associated with chronic IFN stimulation (IFIT3, USP18, IFIT1) as well as a rapid decline in genes associated with inflammation (IL1β, CXCL10, CXCL11) in the peripheral blood that precedes the complete removal of virus from the blood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040313/premature-aortic-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-contributes-to-matrix-dysregulation-in-marfan-syndrome
#14
Matthew Dale, Matthew P Fitzgerald, Zhibo Liu, Trevor Meisinger, Andrew Karpisek, Laura N Purcell, Jeffrey S Carson, Paul Harding, Haili Lang, Panagiotis Koutakis, Rishi Batra, Constance J Mietus, George Casale, Iraklis Pipinos, B Timothy Baxter, Wanfen Xiong
Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection are life-threatening complications of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Studies of human and mouse aortic samples from late stage MFS demonstrate increased TGF-β activation/signaling and diffuse matrix changes. However, the role of the aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype in early aneurysm formation in MFS has yet to be fully elucidated. As our objective, we investigated whether an altered aortic SMC phenotype plays a role in aneurysm formation in MFS. We describe previously unrecognized concordant findings in the aortas of a murine model of MFS, mgR, during a critical and dynamic phase of early development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040289/sole-vibration-improves-locomotion-through-the-recovery-of-joint-movements-in-a-mouse-cast-model
#15
Atsushi Doi, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Yu-Shin Nakano, Juntaro Sakasaki, Syota Kasae, Keisuke Nishimura, Min-Chul Shin, Megumu Yoshimura
We investigated the effects of a vibratory stimulus on the plantar surface of the hind limb for motor, sensory, and locomotive function using a mouse cast model. The right knee joint of C57BL/6 male mice (7 weeks, 20 g, n = 31) was flexed with aluminum splint and tape for 6 weeks. These mice were randomly divided into 2 groups (control group, n = 11 and vibration group, n = 12). The mice in the vibration group received vibration on the sole of the ankle for 15 minutes per day, 5 days per week. After the knee joint cast was removed, we measured the range of motion (ROM) of both knee and ankle joints and the sensory threshold of the sole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040281/impaired-anti-fibrotic-effect-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-in-a-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis
#16
Julián Camilo Arango, Juan David Puerta-Arias, Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo, Lina María Salazar-Peláez, Mauricio Rojas, Ángel González
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have been consider as a promising therapy in fibrotic diseases. Experimental models suggest that BMMSCs may be used as an alternative therapy to treat chemical- or physical-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the anti-fibrotic potential of BMMSCs in an experimental model of lung fibrosis by infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. BMMSCs were isolated and purified from BALB/c mice using standardized methods. BALB/c male mice were inoculated by intranasal infection of 1...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040138/vitamin-d-supplementation-a-low-risk-high-gain-therapy-to-prevent-pji-commentary-on-an-article-by-vishal-hegde-md-et-al-single-dose-preoperative-vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-infection-in-a-mouse-model-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040128/single-dose-preoperative-vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-infection-in-a-mouse-model-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#18
Vishal Hegde, Erik M Dworsky, Alexandra I Stavrakis, Amanda H Loftin, Stephen D Zoller, Howard Y Park, Sherif Richman, Daniel Johansen, Yan Hu, Julie A Taylor, Christopher D Hamad, Rene F Chun, Weixian Xi, John S Adams, Nicholas M Bernthal
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances, infection remains the most common etiology of arthroplasty failure. Recent work suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) deficiency correlates with the frequency of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We endeavored to examine whether 25D3 deficiency leads to increased bacterial burden in vivo in an established mouse model of PJI and, if so, whether this effect can be reversed by preoperative 25D3 supplementation. METHODS: Mice (lys-EGFP) possessing fluorescent neutrophils were fed a vitamin D3-sufficient (n = 20) or deficient (n = 40) diet for 6 weeks...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036974/-the-impact-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-the-heme-oxygenase-1-carbon-monoxide-system-in-coxsackie-virus-b3-induced-myocarditis-in-mice
#19
S Y Zhang, T T Wu, Y Ren, T H Xia, R Z Wu
Objective: To explore the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on the heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide pathway in Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)-induced murine myocarditis (VMC) model. Method: A total of 70 inbred male Balb/c mouse (4-6 weeks old) were randomized into the following four groups: Normal, VMC, PAG and NaHS (n=10 for Normal, n=20 for VMC, PAG and NaHS groups). Mice in Normal group were non-infected mice treated with intraperitoneal injection of sterile phosphate-buffered saline daily for 10 days.Mice in VMC group received intraperitoneal CVB3 injection (0...
September 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036913/alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides-at-low-dose-improve-liver-steatosis-in-a-high-fat-diet-mouse-model
#20
Eric Chappuis, Fanny Morel-Depeisse, Bruno Bariohay, Julien Roux
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major liver disease worldwide and is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. As alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (α-GOS) from legumes have been shown to reduce body weight and hyperphagia in overweight adults, it was hypothesized that they would exert benefits on the development of metabolic syndrome and associated NAFLD in a rodent model. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet until they developed metabolic syndrome and were then orally treated either with α-GOS at a physiological dose (2...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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