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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914582/photochemistry-of-nanoporous-carbons-perspectives-in-energy-conversion-and-environmental-remediation
#1
REVIEW
Alicia Gomis-Berenguer, Leticia F Velasco, Inmaculada Velo-Gala, Conchi O Ania
The interest in the use of nanoporous carbon materials in applications related to energy conversion and storage, either as catalysts or additives, has grown over recent decades in various disciplines. Since the early studies reporting the benefits of the use of nanoporous carbons as inert supports of semiconductors and as electron acceptors that enhance the splitting of the photogenerated excitons, many researchers have investigated the key role of carbon matrices coupled to all types of photoactive materials...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847148/sulfamethazine-degradation-in-water-by-the-vuv-uv-process-kinetics-mechanism-and-antibacterial-activity-determination-based-on-a-mini-fluidic-vuv-uv-photoreaction-system
#2
Mengkai Li, Chen Wang, Miaoling Yau, James R Bolton, Zhimin Qiang
A mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system (MVPS) was developed in our previous study, and it was demonstrated as a powerful tool for studies on pollutant degradation by the VUV/UV process. In this study, we investigated the VUV/UV photodegradation of sulfamethazine (SMN), one of the most frequently detected antibiotics in the environment. The determination methods of photochemical kinetic parameters (e.g., photon fluence-based rate constant and quantum yield) were developed based on the MVPS. The photon fluence-based reaction rate constants for SMN degradation by UV alone and VUV/UV processes were determined as 0...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643711/constructing-solid-gas-interfacial-fenton-reaction-over-alkalinized-c3n4-photocatalyst-to-achieve-apparent-quantum-yield-of-49-at-420-nm
#3
Yunxiang Li, Shuxin Ouyang, Hua Xu, Xin Wang, Yingpu Bi, Yuanfang Zhang, Jinhua Ye
Efficient generation of active oxygen-related radicals plays an essential role in boosting advanced oxidation process. To promote photocatalytic oxidation for gaseous pollutant over g-C3N4, a solid-gas interfacial Fenton reaction is coupled into alkalinized g-C3N4-based photocatalyst to effectively convert photocatalytic generation of H2O2 into oxygen-related radicals. This system includes light energy as power, alkalinized g-C3N4-based photocatalyst as an in situ and robust H2O2 generator, and surface-decorated Fe(3+) as a trigger of H2O2 conversion, which attains highly efficient and universal activity for photodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560190/physiological-responses-of-two-epiphytic-bryophytes-to-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-sulfur-addition-in-a-subtropical-montane-cloud-forest
#4
Xi Chen, Wen-Yao Liu, Liang Song, Su Li, Yi Wu, Xian-Meng Shi, Jun-Biao Huang, Chuan-Sheng Wu
Atmospheric depositions pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood, and few studies have considered the combined effects and interactions of multiple pollutants. This in situ study explored the physiological responses of two epiphytic bryophytes to combined addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. We investigated the electrical conductivity (EC), total chlorophyll concentration (Chl), nutrient stoichiometry and chlorophyll fluorescence signals in a subtropical montane cloud forest in south-west China...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531468/photodegradation-of-the-uv-filter-ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate-under-ultraviolet-light-identification-and-in-silico-assessment-of-photo-transformation-products-in-the-context-of-grey-water-reuse
#5
F Jentzsch, O Olsson, J Westphal, M Reich, C Leder, K Kümmerer
To prevent water shortages in the future and to reduce domestic water consumption, decentralized grey water (GW) reuse has become increasingly important. This water has, however, to be free of pollutants. Conventional treatment of GW does not fully eliminate micropollutants such as the UV filter substance ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC). EHMC, which is commonly used in sunscreens and personal care products, is an endocrine disruptor and shows potential to bioaccumulation, which is also reflected in its low water solubility...
August 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370819/effects-of-copper-exposure-on-photosynthesis-and-growth-of-the-seagrass-cymodocea-nodosa-an-experimental-assessment
#6
Izaskun Llagostera, Daniel Cervantes, Neus Sanmartí, Javier Romero, Marta Pérez
Seagrasses form some of the most important coastal habitats. They may be negatively affected by trace metal contamination in certain coastal areas. In this study we experimentally assessed selected morphological and physiological traits of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, with increasing concentrations of copper (Cu) under controlled laboratory conditions. Short term (21 days) sub-lethal effects such as decreased maximum quantum yield, increased leaf necrosis and decreased shoot growth and shoot recruitment were clearly observed at the highest Cu exposure (5 mg L(-1)), while the effects were weaker at the intermediate concentration (2...
September 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329790/mechanisms-of-removal-of-three-widespread-pharmaceuticals-by-two-clay-materials
#7
A V Dordio, S Miranda, J P Prates Ramalho, A J Palace Carvalho
Pharmaceutical residues presence in the environment is among nowadays top emergent environmental issues. For removal of such pollutants, adsorption is a generally efficient process that can be complementary to conventional treatment. Research of cheap, widely available adsorbents may make this process economically attractive. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the capacity of two clay materials (exfoliated vermiculite, LECA) to adsorb gemfibrozil, mefenamic acid and naproxen in lab-scale batch assays...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322900/facile-synthesis-of-zno-cuins2-nanorod-arrays-for-photocatalytic-pollutants-degradation
#8
Yawei Yang, Wenxiu Que, Xinyu Zhang, Yonglei Xing, Xingtian Yin, Yaping Du
Vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate were homogeneously coated with visible light active CuInS2 quantum dots by using a controllable electrophoretic deposition strategy. Compared with the pure ZnO nanorod arrays, the formation of high-quality ZnO/CuInS2 heterojunction with well-matched band energy alignment expanded the light absorption from ultraviolet to visible region and facilitated efficient charge separation and transportation, thus yielding remarkable enhanced photoelectrochemical performance and photocatalytic activities for methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol degradation...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278069/influence-of-sub-lethal-crude-oil-concentration-on-growth-water-relations-and-photosynthetic-capacity-of-maize-zea-mays-l-plants
#9
Habib-Ur-Rehman Athar, Sarah Ambreen, Muhammad Javed, Mehwish Hina, Sumaira Rasul, Zafar Ullah Zafar, Hamid Manzoor, Chukwuma C Ogbaga, Muhammad Afzal, Fahad Al-Qurainy, Muhammad Ashraf
Maize tolerance potential to oil pollution was assessed by growing Zea mays in soil contaminated with varying levels of crude oil (0, 2.5 and 5.0 % v/w basis). Crude oil contamination reduced soil microflora which may be beneficial to plant growth. It was observed that oil pollution caused a remarkable decrease in biomass, leaf water potential, turgor potential, photosynthetic pigments, quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm), net CO2 assimilation rate, leaf nitrogen and total free amino acids. Gas exchange characteristics suggested that reduction in photosynthetic rate was mainly due to metabolic limitations...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277206/degradation-of-di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate-by-fusarium-culmorum-kinetics-enzymatic-activities-and-biodegradation-pathway-based-on-quantum-chemical-modelingpathway-based-on-quantum-chemical-modeling
#10
Miriam Ahuactzin-Pérez, Saúl Tlecuitl-Beristain, Jorge García-Dávila, Manuel González-Pérez, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruíz, Carmen Sánchez
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (Xmax), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t1/2) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest Xmax occurred in media supplemented with 1000mg of DEHP/L...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243585/impact-of-cement-dust-pollution-on-cedrela-fissilis-vell-meliaceae-a-potential-bioindicator-species
#11
Advanio Inácio Siqueira-Silva, Eduardo Gusmão Pereira, Luzia Valentina Modolo, José Pires Lemos-Filho, Elder Antonio Sousa Paiva
Considering the impacts caused to vegetation in the vicinity of cement factories, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of cement dust on the structural organization and physiological/biochemical traits of Cedrela fissilis leaflets, a woody species native to tropical America. Plants were exposed to 2.5 or 5 mg cm-2 cement dust applied to the leaf surface, to the soil or simultaneously to the leaf surface and the soil.. Leaves of shoot-treated plants exhibited chlorosis, marginal and inter veins necrosis, diminished thickness, epidermal cells less turgid, cellular collapse, obstructed stomata, senescence, rolling and some abscission...
September 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019784/adaptation-prevents-the-extinction-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-under-toxic-beryllium
#12
Beatriz Baselga-Cervera, Eduardo Costas, Estéfano Bustillo-Avendaño, Camino García-Balboa
The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population's adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics-a fluctuation analysis-and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897579/biological-mechanisms-associated-with-triazophos-tap-removal-by-horizontal-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetlands-hsfcw
#13
Juan Wu, Yuqin Feng, Yanran Dai, Naxin Cui, Bruce Anderson, Shuiping Cheng
Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0...
May 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26894612/photosynthetic-sensitivity-of-phytoplankton-to-commonly-used-pharmaceuticals-and-its-dependence-on-cellular-phosphorus-status
#14
Malgorzata Grzesiuk, Alexander Wacker, Elly Spijkerman
Recently pharmaceuticals have become significant environmental pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, that could affect primary producers such as microalgae. Here we analyzed the effect of pharmaceuticals on the photosynthesis of microalgae commonly found in freshwater-two species of Chlorophyceae and a member of the Eustigmatophyceae, via PAM fluorometry. As pharmaceuticals, three medicines often consumed in households were chosen: (i) fluoxetine, an antidepressant, (ii) propranolol, a β-blocker and (iii) ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic medicine...
May 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840406/cadmium-toxicity-investigated-at-the-physiological-and-biophysical-levels-under-environmentally-relevant-conditions-using-the-aquatic-model-plant-ceratophyllum-demersum
#15
Elisa Andresen, Sophie Kappel, Hans-Joachim Stärk, Ulrike Riegger, Jakub Borovec, Jürgen Mattusch, Andrea Heinz, Christian E H Schmelzer, Šárka Matoušková, Bryan Dickinson, Hendrik Küpper
Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch and metals...
June 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717492/photochemistry-of-dissolved-black-carbon-released-from-biochar-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-phototransformation
#16
Heyun Fu, Huiting Liu, Jingdong Mao, Wenying Chu, Qilin Li, Pedro J J Alvarez, Xiaolei Qu, Dongqiang Zhu
Dissolved black carbon (BC) released from biochar can be one of the more photoactive components in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Dissolved BC was mainly composed of aliphatics and aromatics substituted by aromatic C-O and carboxyl/ester/quinone moieties as determined by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. It underwent 56% loss of absorbance at 254 nm, almost complete loss of fluorescence, and 30% mineralization during a 169 h simulated sunlight exposure. Photoreactions preferentially targeted aromatic and methyl moieties, generating CH2/CH/C and carboxyl/ester/quinone functional groups...
February 2, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688244/cyto-histological-and-morpho-physiological-responses-of-common-duckweed-lemna-minor-l-to-chromium
#17
L Reale, F Ferranti, S Mantilacci, M Corboli, S Aversa, F Landucci, C Baldisserotto, L Ferroni, S Pancaldi, R Venanzoni
Along with cadmium, lead, mercury and other heavy metals, chromium is an important environmental pollutant, mainly concentrated in areas of intense anthropogenic pressure. The effect of potassium dichromate on Lemna minor populations was tested using the growth inhibition test. Cyto-histological and physiological analyses were also conducted to aid in understanding the strategies used by plants during exposure to chromium. Treatment with potassium dichromate caused a reduction in growth rate and frond size in all treated plants and especially at the highest concentrations...
February 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26675371/different-physiological-and-photosynthetic-responses-of-three-cyanobacterial-strains-to-light-and-zinc
#18
Kui Xu, Philippe Juneau
Zinc pollution of freshwater aquatic ecosystems is a problem in many countries, although its specific effects on phytoplankton may be influenced by other environmental factors. Light intensity varies continuously under natural conditions depending on the cloud cover and the season, and the response mechanisms of cyanobacteria to high zinc stress under different light conditions are not yet well understood. We investigated the effects of high zinc concentrations on three cyanobacterial strains (Microcystis aeruginosa CPCC299, M...
January 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26555818/physiological-response-of-the-hard-coral-pocillopora-verrucosa-from-lombok-indonesia-to-two-common-pollutants-in-combination-with-high-temperature
#19
Pia Kegler, Gunilla Baum, Lisa F Indriana, Christian Wild, Andreas Kunzmann
Knowledge on interactive effects of global (e.g. ocean warming) and local stressors (e.g. pollution) is needed to develop appropriate management strategies for coral reefs. Surfactants and diesel are common coastal pollutants, but knowledge of their effects on hard corals as key reef ecosystem engineers is scarce. This study thus investigated the physiological reaction of Pocillopora verrucosa from Lombok, Indonesia, to exposure with a) the water-soluble fraction of diesel (determined by total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); 0...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26383265/comparison-of-different-models-predicting-the-phospholipid-membrane-water-partition-coefficients-of-charged-compounds
#20
REVIEW
Kai Bittermann, Simon Spycher, Kai-Uwe Goss
A large fraction of commercially used chemicals is ionizable. This results in the need for mechanistic models to describe the physicochemical properties of ions, like the membrane-water partition coefficient (K(mw)), which is related to toxicity and bioaccumulation. In this work we compare 3 different and already existing modelling approaches to describe the liposome-water partition coefficient (K(lipw)) of organic ions, including 36 cations, 56 anions, 2 divalent cations and 2 zwitterions (plus 207 neutral compounds for ensuring model consistency)...
February 2016: Chemosphere
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