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Tobin E Brown, Kristi S Anseth
Hydrogels mimic many of the physical properties of soft tissue and are widely used biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Synthetic hydrogels have been developed to recapitulate many of the healthy and diseased states of native tissues and can be used as a cell scaffold to study the effect of matricellular interactions in vitro. However, these matrices often fail to capture the dynamic and heterogenous nature of the in vivo environment, which varies spatially and during events such as development and disease...
August 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Alfredo Quinto-Hernandez, Shih-Huang Lee, Alec M Wodtke
Synchrotron radiation VUV-photoionization based photofragment translational spectroscopy was used to identify the primary and secondary photodissociation reactions of methyl azide (CH3N3) at 157 nm under collision-free conditions. Two primary dissociation channels are identified, leading to CH3 + N3 (the radical channel) and CH3N + N2 (the molecular elimination channel). The last channel is the major dissociation pathway, but unlike work at longer photolysis wavelengths, here, the radical channel exclusively produces the higher energy isomer cyclic-N3...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Xi-Zhi Niu, Julie Glady-Croué, Jean-Philippe Croué
Photolysis is a core natural process impacting the fate of some sulfonamide antibiotics in sunlit waters. In this study, sunlight-induced phototransformation of sulfathiazole was investigated. A photolytic quantum yield of 0.079 was obtained in buffered water (pH = 8.0). Different natural organic matter isolates inhibited the photolysis of sulfathiazole by light screening effect. A kinetic model was developed to predict the photodegradation rate of sulfathiazole using the light screening correction factor of the water matrix in the wavelength range of 300-350 nm...
August 9, 2017: Water Research
Paul G Falkowski, Hanzhi Lin, Maxim Y Gorbunov
Constraining photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency in nature is challenging. In principle, two yield measurements must be made simultaneously: photochemistry, fluorescence and/or thermal dissipation. We constructed two different, extremely sensitive and precise active fluorometers: one measures the quantum yield of photochemistry from changes in variable fluorescence, the other measures fluorescence lifetimes in the picosecond time domain. By deploying the pair of instruments on eight transoceanic cruises over six years, we obtained over 200 000 measurements of fluorescence yields and lifetimes from surface waters in five ocean basins...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Shawn Finley Kowal, Seth Robert Allen, Tara F Kahan
Photochemistry is a largely-unconsidered potential source of reactive species such as hydroxyl and peroxy radicals (OH and HO2, "HOx") indoors. We present measured wavelength-resolved photon fluxes and distance dependences of indoor light sources including halogen, incandescent, and compact fluorescent lights (CFL) commonly used in residential buildings; fluorescent tubes common in industrial and commercial settings; and sunlight entering buildings through windows. We use these measurements to predict indoor HOx production rates from the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
M Sleiman, P de Sainte Claire, C Richard
The photoreactivity of plant activator benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), commonly named acibenzolar-S-methyl, was studied on the surfaces of glass, paraffinic wax films, and apple leaves. Experiments were carried out in a solar simulator using pure and formulated BTH (BION). Surface photoproducts were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry, while volatile photoproducts were characterized using an online thermal desorption system coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tim S Chung, Yang Xue, Alberto Carranza, Miguel A Garcia-Garibay
The stereospecific photochemistry of ten N-aryl-substituted cis- or trans-Δ(2)-1,2,3-triazolines to form the corresponding cis- or trans-aziridines was investigated both in solution and in the solid-state. We found that photochemical reactions in the solid state are more stereospecific than in solution for the 8 crystalline Δ(2)-1,2,3-triazolines. Additionally, triplet sensitization for some triazolines results in triplet biradicals, which provide the more thermodynamically favored trans-aziridine regardless of the starting triazoline stereochemistry...
August 10, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Kyle A DiVito, Michael A Daniele, Steven A Roberts, Frances S Ligler, André A Adams
This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled "Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization" (DiVito et al., 2017) [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF). Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into 'bullseye-like" cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al...
October 2017: Data in Brief
Nityananda Khanal, Geoffrey E Bray, Anna Grisnich, Barbara A Moffatt, Gordon R Gray
Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-qL, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure...
August 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Thomas C Keane
Laboratory studies provide a fundamental understanding of photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres. Photochemical reactions taking place on giant planets like Jupiter and possibly comets and the interstellar medium are the subject of this research. Reaction pathways are proposed for the coupled photochemistry of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H2 (acetylene) within the context Jupiter's atmosphere. We then extend the discussion to the Great Red Spot, Extra-Solar Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis...
August 9, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Bing Yu, Tao Xu, Hailin Cong, Qiaohong Peng, Muhammad Usman
By using the two-step activated swelling method, monodisperse porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (P(S-DVB)) microparticles were successfully synthesized. The influence of porogens, swelling temperatures and crosslinking agents on the porosity of porous microparticles was carefully investigated. Porous P(S-DVB) microparticles were used as a packing material for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several benzene analogues were effectively separated in a stainless-steel column as short as 75 mm due to the high specific surface area of the porous microparticles...
April 22, 2017: Materials
A Pompeiano, T Huarancca Reyes, T M Moles, M Villani, M Volterrani, L Guglielminetti, A Scartazza
Low oxygen conditions occur in grass sites due to high and frequent precipitation, poor soil quality, and over-irrigation followed by slow drainage. Three warm-season and one cool-season grasses were analyzed at metabolic level during a time-course experiment performed in a controlled anoxic environment. Prolonged oxygen depletion proved detrimental by leading to premature death to all the species, with the exception of seashore paspalum. Moreover, the anoxia tolerance observed in these grasses has been associated with slow use of carbohydrates, rather than with their relative abundance, which was more important than their antioxidant capacity...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Pornthip Tongying, Ying-Gang Lu, Leah M G Hall, Kyureon Lee, Marta Sulima, Jim Ciston, Gordana Dukovic
Solid-state chemical transformations at the nanoscale can be a powerful tool for achieving compositional complexity in nanomaterials. It is desirable to understand the mechanisms of such reactions and characterize the local-level composition of the resulting materials. Here, we examine how reaction temperature controls the elemental distribution in (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized via the solid-state nitridation of a mixture of nanoscale ZnO and ZnGa2O4 NCs. (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) is a visible-light absorbing semiconductor that is of interest for applications in solar photochemistry...
July 31, 2017: ACS Nano
Alexander Koop, Gerd Gantefoer, Young Dok Kim
Bare metal clusters have properties that make them interesting for applications in photochemistry and photovoltaics. Long-lived excited states are a prerequisite for such applications, because in them the energy of the photon can be stored. Clusters have a low density of states and long-lived excited states should therefore occur frequently. However, in fact, such states are a rarity, as indicated by time-resolved photoelectron data of mass-selected cluster anions. And there is another puzzling observation: only clusters with narrow peaks in their photoelectron spectra exhibit long-lived excited states...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wei Feng, Shuangli Qi, Yarong Heng, Yi Zhou, Yapeng Wu, Wandai Liu, Li He, Xiao Li
Plant disease and pests influence the physiological state and restricts the healthy growth of crops. Physiological measurements are considered the most accurate way of assessing plant health status. In this paper, we researched the use of an in situ hyperspectral remote sensor to detect plant water status in winter wheat infected with powdery mildew. Using a diseased nursery field and artificially inoculated open field experiments, we detected the canopy spectra of wheat at different developmental stages and under different degrees of disease severity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hoi Ling Luk, Johannes Feist, J Jussi Toppari, Gerrit Groenhof
When photoactive molecules interact strongly with confined light modes as found in plasmonic structures or optical cavities, new hybrid light-matter states can form, the so-called polaritons. These polaritons are coherent superpositions (in the quantum mechanical sense) of excitations of the molecules and of the cavity photon or surface plasmon. Recent experimental and theoretical works suggest that access to these polaritons in cavities could provide a totally new and attractive paradigm for controlling chemical reactions that falls in between traditional chemical catalysis and coherent laser control...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Lewis A Baker, Vasilios G Stavros
In this review, we discuss the importance of biological and artificial photoprotection against overexposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Transient electronic and transient vibrational absorption spectroscopies are highlighted as important tools in understanding the energy transfer in small molecules, with a focus on the application to commercial sunscreens with representative examples given. Oxybenzone, a common ingredient in commercial sunscreens and sinapoyl malate, a biological sunscreen in plant leaves are presented as case studies...
September 1, 2016: Science Progress
Weiwei Jin, Yanxue Yin, Bo Zhang, Heng Mei, Huafang Wang, Tao Guo, Wei Shi, Yu Hu
Tissue factor is an upstream component of the cascade and a high-expressing factor under phathological conditions. In this study, a tissue factor cascade-targeted strategy for inducing local thrombosis was developed by combining ENP-HMME and photochemistry. In vitro study showed that protein EGFP-EGF1 conjugation to the nanoparticles could significantly contribute to the uptake of nanoparticles by tissue factor over-expressed brain capillary endothelial cells. Three-dimensional imaging and specklegram of brains in vivo showed that tissue factor cascade-targeted strategy successfully induced thrombosis of expected position...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Paul A DeSario, Jeremy J Pietron, Adam Dunkelberger, Todd H Brintlinger, Olga Baturina, Rhonda M Stroud, Jeffrey C Owrutsky, Debra R Rolison
We use plasmonic Au-TiO2 aerogels as a platform in which to marry synthetically thickened particle-particle junctions in TiO2 aerogel networks to Au∥TiO2 interfaces and then investigate their cooperative influence on photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) generation under both broadband (i.e., UV + visible light) and visible-only excitation. In doing so, we elucidate the dual functions that incorporated Au can play as a water reduction cocatalyst and as a plasmonic sensitizer. We also photodeposit non-plasmonic Pt cocatalyst nanoparticles into our composite aerogels in order to leverage the catalytic water-reducing abilities of Pt...
August 1, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
James N Bull, Neville J A Coughlan, Evan J Bieske
The utility of tandem ion mobility mass spectrometry coupled with electronic spectroscopy to investigate protomer-specific photochemistry is demonstrated by measuring the photoisomerization response for protomers of protonated 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-para-dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran (DCM) molecules. The target DCMH(+) species has three protomers that are distinguished by their different collision cross sections with He, N2, and CO2 buffer gases, trends in abundance with ion source conditions, and from their photoisomerization responses...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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