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Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya, Behiye Alyanak
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely used to treat OCD, only half of the patients respond well. Several potentiation strategies including off-label use of antipsychotics (mostly risperidone, quetiapine) have been tried. Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic with the best affinity ratio of 5 HT 2A/D2 and 5HT2C/D2 receptors. There is a limited data on ziprasidone in pediatric groups...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Trevor Humby, Ellen S Cross, Lauren Messer, Silvia Guerrero, William Davies
Postpartum psychosis (PP) is a severe psychiatric disorder affecting a small proportion of new mothers shortly after childbirth. The molecular pathophysiology underlying the disorder is currently poorly understood, and there are no amenable animal models for the condition; maternal deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase has been proposed as a potential risk mechanism. Here we show that inhibition of steroid sulfatase with 667-COUMATE (10mg/kg p.o.) in new mouse mothers results in behavioural abnormalities that can be partially alleviated by the administration of the clinically-efficacious antipsychotic ziprasidone (0...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Maurizio Pompili, Ross J Baldessarini, Alberto Forte, Denise Erbuto, Gianluca Serafini, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi
Modern antipsychotic drugs are employed increasingly in the treatment of mood disorders as well as psychoses, stimulating interest in their possible contributions to altering suicidal risk. Clozapine remains the only treatment with an FDA-recognized indication for reducing suicidal risk (in schizophrenia). We carried out a systematic, computerized search for reports of studies involving antipsychotic drug treatment and suicidal behaviors. A total of 19 reports provide data with preliminary support for potential suicide risk-reducing effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and asenapine in addition to clozapine, and provide some support for antipsychotic drug treatment in general...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eric C Landsness, Leo H Wang, Robert C Bucelli
Migraine headache is among the most prevalent neurologic disorders. Status migrainosus often leads to hospitalization, and multiple medications are sometimes required for symptomatic relief. In 2008, neurologists at our institution started using the atypical antipsychotic ziprasidone as an abortive medication for status migrainosus. The Clinical Investigation Data Exploration Repository was used to search for patients admitted to the Barnes-Jewish Hospital inpatient neurology service with diagnoses of "headache" or "migraine...
October 2016: Neurohospitalist
Jaime M Monti
Sleep disturbances predominantly take the form of insomnia in patients with unipolar disorder, while patients with bipolar disorder show a decreased need for sleep. Sleep impairment in these patients is a risk factor for the development of a major depressive episode and suicidal behavior. Administration of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone as augmentation therapy or monotherapy to unipolar and bipolar disorder patients, respectively, has been shown to improve sleep continuity and sleep architecture...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Gina Stassinos, Wendy Klein-Schwartz
CONTEXT: The rise in atypical antipsychotic prescribing increases the risk of pediatric exposures. Published studies in children are limited. OBJECTIVE: The objectives are to evaluate national poison center data on atypical antipsychotic exposures in young children and compare toxicity amongst selected agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of U.S. National Poison Data System single substance exposures, from 2005 to 2013, of five atypical antipsychotics in children <6 years old, followed to known outcome was performed...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Aleksandra Nikolić-Kokić, Ana Mijušković, Nikola Tatalović, Jelena Nestorov, Marko Miler, Zorana Oreščanin-Dušić, Milan Nikolić, Verica Milošević, Duško Blagojević, Mihajlo Spasić, Čedo Miljević
The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APD) was reported to be associated with adverse effects on the kidneys. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether APD exerted their adverse effects by interfering with the renal antioxidant defense system. Male 3-mo-old Wistar rats were treated for 28 d with ziprasidone (ZIP), clozapine (CLO), or sertindole (SER) using a daily dose recommended for antipsychotic drug therapy. The expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) type 1 and type 2, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity were measured in the kidneys...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
María José Morlán-Coarasa, María Teresa Arias-Loste, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Obdulia Martínez-García, Carmen Alonso-Martín, Javier Crespo, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Emilio Fábrega, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
RATIONALE: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have increased morbidity and mortality, largely due to cardiovascular disease, which is associated with antipsychotic treatment. OBJECTIVES: Because of the link between cardiometabolic risk, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and antipsychotics, we aimed to investigate the development of NAFLD during the first 3 years of antipsychotic treatment in first episode non-affective psychosis patients. RESULTS: A sample of 191 subjects was included in final analyses, randomly assigned to aripiprazole (N = 83), risperidone (N = 12), quetiapine (N = 46), and ziprasidone (N = 50)...
September 12, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Nasratullah Wahidi, Katie M Johnson, Allen Brenzel, Jose de Leon
Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP). These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Nikolaos Koutsouleris, René S Kahn, Adam M Chekroud, Stefan Leucht, Peter Falkai, Thomas Wobrock, Eske M Derks, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker, Alkomiet Hasan
BACKGROUND: At present, no tools exist to estimate objectively the risk of poor treatment outcomes in patients with first-episode psychosis. Such tools could improve treatment by informing clinical decision-making before the commencement of treatment. We tested whether such a tool could be successfully built and validated using routinely available, patient-reportable information. METHODS: By applying machine learning to data from 334 patients in the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST; International Clinical Trials Registry Platform number, ISRCTN68736636), we developed a tool to predict poor versus good treatment outcome (Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF] score ≥65 vs GAF <65, respectively) after 4 weeks and 52 weeks of treatment...
October 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Hazel Hummels, Daphne Bertholee, Douwe van der Meer, Jan Pieter Smit, Bob Wilffert, Peter Ter Horst
THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review the quality of articles including antipsychotic use during breastfeeding. We used PubMed and Lactmed for the literature search...
August 24, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Jose Maria Pelayo-Teran, Jacqueline Mayoral-van Son
Implementing the most suitable treatment strategies and making appropriate clinical decisions about individuals with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) is a complex and crucial task, with relevant impact in illness outcome. Treatment approaches in the early stages should go beyond choosing the right antipsychotic drug and should also address tractable factors influencing the risk of relapse. Effectiveness and likely metabolic and endocrine disturbances differ among second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and should guide the choice of the first-line treatment...
August 23, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
Michael E Thase
Over the past decades, several adjunctive therapies have been introduced for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and these strategies have ebbed and flowed in popularity. Currently, adjunctive therapy with the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is most commonly used by psychiatrists. Four SGAs are FDA approved for indications related to TRD (aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine extended release); some evidence also supports use of risperidone and ziprasidone as adjunctive therapies...
September 2016: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Julie M Donohue, Sharon-Lise T Normand, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Aiju Men, Ernst R Berndt, Haiden A Huskamp
BACKGROUND: Regional variation in US Medicare prescription drug spending is driven by higher prescribing of costly brand-name drugs in some regions. This variation likely arises from differences in the speed of diffusion of newly-approved medications. Second-generation antipsychotics were widely adopted for treatment of severe mental illness and for several off-label uses. Rapid diffusion of new psychiatric drugs likely increases drug spending but its relationship to non-drug spending is unclear...
June 2016: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz, Sabina Galiniak, Grzegorz Bartosz, Mariusz Zuberek, Agnieszka Grzelak, Anna Dietrich-Muszalska
The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant activities of six atypical antipsychotic drugs: clozapine (CLZ), quetiapine, olanzapine (OLA), risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole (ARI), as well as a typical antipsychotic drug, haloperidol. Several tests of antioxidant activity were used: protection of thiol groups against oxidation by peroxynitrite (PN) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1, generator of PN), oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 by PN, SIN-1 and hypochlorite (NaOCl), bleaching of fluorescein fluorescence by PN, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH, generator of peroxyl radicals) and NaOCl, radical-scavenging activity with respect to 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical and the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Paul D Foster, Ximena Camacho, Simone Vigod, Zhan Yao, David N Juurlink, J Michael Paterson, Muhammad M Mamdani, Diana Martins, Tara Gomes
BACKGROUND: Recently, several new atypical antipsychotic agents have been introduced in Ontario, and regulatory warnings have been issued regarding use of atypical antipsychotics in older adults. We sought to establish the impact of newer atypical antipsychotics on prescribing rates and costs. METHODS: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study of Ontario adults aged 65 years or more using atypical antipsychotics from Jan. 1, 2007, to Mar. 31, 2013. These people have universal access to publicly funded drugs through the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and the Ontario Drug Benefit...
April 2016: CMAJ Open
Yesie Yoon, Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Paul S Horn, Craig A Erickson
OBJECTIVE: Irritability (aggression, self-injury, and severe tantrums) associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), which are well known for their associated risk of weight gain in youth. Recent reports suggest that youth with ASD treated with SGAs may suffer more pronounced weight gain than typically developing children. In this study, we present a comprehensive comparison of weight gain effects of five SGAs in a clinical population of youth with ASD...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Fang Fang, Hongwei Sun, Zuowei Wang, Ming Ren, Joseph R Calabrese, Keming Gao
Somnolence is a common side effect of antipsychotics. To assess the incidence of this side effect, we performed a MEDLINE search for randomized, double-blinded, placebo- or active-controlled studies of adult patients treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia, mania, bipolar depression, or bipolar disorder. We extracted rates of somnolence from original publications and pooled them based on the dose of each antipsychotic in the same psychiatric condition, then estimated the absolute risk increase (ARI) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of an antipsychotic relative to placebo or an active comparator in the same psychiatric condition...
September 2016: CNS Drugs
L Orsolini, C Tomasetti, A Valchera, R Vecchiotti, I Matarazzo, F Vellante, F Iasevoli, E F Buonaguro, M Fornaro, A L C Fiengo, G Martinotti, M Mazza, G Perna, A Carano, A De Bartolomeis, M Di Giannantonio, D De Berardis
INTRODUCTION: The atypical antipsychotic (APs) drugs have become the most widely used agents to treat a variety of psychoses because of their superiority with regard to safety and tolerability profile compared to conventional/'typical' APs. AREAS COVERED: We aimed at providing a synthesis of most current evidence about the safety and tolerability profile of the most clinically used atypical APs so far marketed. Qualitative synthesis followed an electronic search made inquiring of the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library from inception until January 2016, combining free terms and MESH headings for the topics of psychiatric disorders and all atypical APs as following: ((safety OR adverse events OR side effects) AND (aripiprazole OR asenapine OR quetiapine OR olanzapine OR risperidone OR paliperidone OR ziprasidone OR lurasidone OR clozapine OR amisulpride OR iloperidone))...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jaime M Monti, Pablo Torterolo, Seithikurippu R Pandi Perumal
Insomnia is a common feature in schizophrenia, and is characterized by an increase of sleep latency (SL), as well as reductions in total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE). Regarding sleep architecture, non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep latency are decreased, whereas REM sleep tends to remain unchanged. According to polysomnographic studies, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone administration increased TST and/or SE in healthy subjects...
May 15, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
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