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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432503/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-atypical-antipsychotics
#1
REVIEW
Anna Emilia Urban, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
The paper presents an overview and analysis of the results of research on therapeutic ranges of concentrations and receptor occupancy, mainly D2 receptors, in the treatment with some atypical antipsychotic drugs. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone were taken into account. The benefits of therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize the effectiveness of treatment and avoid side effects or toxicity were shown. The safety of patients, with the possibility to use the lowest effective dose, is an undoubted profit of TDM...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380488/validation-and-clinical-utility-of-the-herg-ic50-cmax-ratio-to-determine-the-risk-of-drug-induced-torsades-de-pointes-a-meta-analysis
#2
David F Lehmann, William D Eggleston, Dongliang Wang
BACKGROUND: Use of the QT (QTc) interval on the electrocardiogram to predict torsades de pointes (TdP) risk from culprit drugs is neither sensitive nor specific. The ratio of the half-maximum inhibitory concentration of the hERG channel (hERG IC50) to the peak serum concentration of unbound drug (Cmax) is used during drug development to screen out chemical entities likely to cause TdP. PURPOSE: To validate the use of the hERG IC50/Cmax ratio to predict of TdP risk from a culprit drug by its correlation with TdP incidence...
January 30, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361326/evidence-based-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-acute-agitation-part-1-onset-of-efficacy
#3
Leslie S Zun
BACKGROUND: The main goal of antipsychotic medication in the management of acute agitation in the emergency department is to rapidly induce calm without oversedation, enabling patients to participate in their own care. However, there is a paucity of comparative studies, particularly with newer fast-acting second-generation antipsychotic agents. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: This structured evidence-based review compared the onset of efficacy of antipsychotic treatments for acute agitation using data from randomized controlled trials identified by a literature search of the PubMed database...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355909/risperidone-versus-other-antipsychotics-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness-and-co-occurring-substance-misuse
#4
REVIEW
Henk S Temmingh, Taryn Williams, Nandi Siegfried, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Up to 75% of people with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have co-occurring substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis can have an adverse effect on treatment and prognosis of SMI. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of risperidone compared to treatment with other antipsychotics (first-generation and other second-generation antipsychotics) used in people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance misuse...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355304/computationally-assessing-the-bioactivation-of-drugs-by-n-dealkylation
#5
Na Le Dang, Tyler B Hughes, Grover Paul Miller, S Joshua Swamidass
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) oxidize alkylated amines commonly found in drugs and other biologically active molecules, splitting them into an amine and an aldehyde. Metabolic studies usually neglect to report or investigate aldehydes, even though they can be toxic. It is assumed that they are efficiently detoxified into carboxylic acids and alcohols. Nevertheless, some aldehydes are reactive and escape detoxification pathways to cause adverse events by forming DNA and protein adducts. Herein, we modeled N-dealkylations that produce both amine and aldehyde metabolites and then predicted the reactivity of the aldehyde...
January 22, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280533/comparative-effects-of-aripiprazole-and-selected-antipsychotic-drugs-on-lipid-peroxidation-in-plasma
#6
Anna Dietrich-Muszalska, Jolanta Kolińska-Łukaszuk
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of a new antipsychotic aripiprazole, unique due to its mechanism of action, with the effects of selected antipsychotic drugs such as quetiapine, olanzapine, clozapine, risperidone and ziprasidone (at the final concentrations corresponding to clinically effective doses used for the treatment of acute episodes of schizophrenia) on lipid peroxidation in human plasma measured by the level of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), which is a marker of oxidative stress...
December 27, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275963/qt-prolongation-torsades-de-pointes-and-psychotropic-medications-a-5-year-update
#7
REVIEW
Scott R Beach, Christopher M Celano, Alan M Sugrue, Caitlin Adams, Michael J Ackerman, Peter A Noseworthy, Jeff C Huffman
BACKGROUND: Some psychotropic medications have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and QT prolongation, especially in those with medical illness, and are linked to lethal ventricular arrhythmias, such as Torsades de Pointes (TdP). In 2013, we published a review of QT prolongation, TdP, and psychotropic medications. OBJECTIVE: We provide an update over the past 5 years on the specific concerns most relevant to clinicians who see medically ill patients...
November 3, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273271/clozapine-use-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-a-comorbid-substance-use-disorder-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Belén Arranz, Marina Garriga, Clemente García-Rizo, Luis San
Lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) in patients with schizophrenia is nearly 50%. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis are the substances most frequently used, with a high percentage of poly-substance users. There are few available data about pharmacological approaches in this population. Amongst antipsychotics, clozapine shows positive evidence in the literature. The aim of the present article is to provide systematic review on the efficacy of clozapine in SUD improvement in schizophrenic patients...
December 19, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162032/the-metabolic-side-effects-of-12-antipsychotic-drugs-used-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-on-glucose-a-network-meta-analysis
#9
Yangyu Zhang, Yingyu Liu, Yingying Su, Yueyue You, Yue Ma, Guang Yang, Yan Song, Xinyu Liu, Mohan Wang, Lili Zhang, Changgui Kou
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics have serious metabolic side effects on blood glucose. However, the comparative influence of these drugs on blood glucose levels has not been comprehensively evaluated. We conducted a network meta-analysis to create a hierarchy of the side effects of 12 antipsychotic drugs on changes in blood glucose levels. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases (last search June 2016) was conducted to identify studies that reported randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing changes in blood glucose levels between patients receiving one of 12 antipsychotic drugs or a placebo for the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders...
November 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103822/ziprasidone-a-second-generation-antipsychotic-drug-triggers-a-macrophage-inflammatory-response-in-vitro
#10
Thiago Duarte, Fernanda Barbisan, Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Ivo Emílio da Cruz Jung, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Cibele Ferreira Teixeira, Moises Henrique Mastella, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. However, most of these drugs present side effects causing obesity and other serious metabolic alterations that correlate with grade of chronic inflammation. In contrast, ziprasidone's (ZIP) metabolic side effects are attenuated relative to those of other antipsychotic drugs, but some reports suggest that this drug could cause allergic, hypersensitive reactions in susceptible patients. At present, the mechanism of ZIP's effect on peripheral inflammatory metabolism is not well characterized...
November 2, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098925/the-world-federation-of-societies-of-biological-psychiatry-wfsbp-guidelines-for-the-biological-treatment-of-bipolar-disorders-acute-and-long-term-treatment-of-mixed-states-in-bipolar-disorder
#11
Heinz Grunze, Eduard Vieta, Guy M Goodwin, Charles Bowden, Rasmus W Licht, Jean-Michel Azorin, Lakshmi Yatham, Sergey Mosolov, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Siegfried Kasper
OBJECTIVES: Although clinically highly relevant, the recognition and treatment of bipolar mixed states has played only an underpart in recent guidelines. This WFSBP guideline has been developed to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar mixed states in adults. METHODS: Material used for these guidelines is based on a systematic literature search using various data bases. Their scientific rigour was categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F), and different grades of recommendation to ensure practicability were assigned...
November 3, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077621/a-systematic-review-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-chronic-pain-management-olanzapine-demonstrates-potential-in-central-sensitization-fibromyalgia-and-headache-migraine
#12
Xavier F Jimenez, Tharani Sundararajan, Edward C Covington
INTRODUCTION: Many psychopharmacologic agents are used as primary or adjunct agents in pain management. Atypical antipsychotics (AAs) have also been used as adjuncts in pain management regimens in a variety of manners; however, their efficacy in this capacity is unclear. METHODS: A systematic review of all studies examining AA use for pain was conducted. Three literature databases were utilized to search for word combinations of "pain" and a variety of commonly-prescribed AAs (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, clozapine, paliperidone, iloperidone, lurasidone)...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075885/long-term-metabolic-effects-of-aripiprazole-ziprasidone-and-quetiapine-a-pragmatic-clinical-trial-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-a-first-episode-of-non-affective-psychosis
#13
Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Rocío Pérez-Iglesias, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Paula Suárez Pinilla, Álvaro Díaz Martínez, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
INTRODUCTION: The use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) has been associated with metabolic changes. However, there are differences in the metabolic profile between SGAs. We have previously observed that ziprasidone had a more benign early metabolic profile compared to aripiprazole and quetiapine. However, a long-term follow-up is preferred to detect clinically relevant impairment in metabolic parameters. We aimed to compare the effect of aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and quetiapine on metabolic measures in first-episode non-affective psychosis patients after 1 year of treatment...
January 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075309/weight-changes-before-and-after-lurasidone-treatment-a-real-world-analysis-using-electronic-health-records
#14
Jonathan M Meyer, Daisy S Ng-Mak, Chien-Chia Chuang, Krithika Rajagopalan, Antony Loebel
BACKGROUND: Severe and persistent mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with increased risk of obesity compared to the general population. While the association of lurasidone and lower risk of weight gain has been established in short and longer-term clinical trial settings, information about lurasidone's association with weight gain in usual clinical care is limited. This analysis of usual clinical care evaluated weight changes associated with lurasidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023898/impact-of-ketamine-use-on-adjunctive-analgesic-and-sedative-medications-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#15
Kaitlin A Pruskowski, Kelly Harbourt, Mehrnaz Pajoumand, Sai-Ho Jason Chui, H Neal Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Ketamine may be used to manage pain and agitation that is refractory to "traditional" agents such as fentanyl, propofol, benzodiazepines, and dexmedetomidine; however, literature describing the use of ketamine continuous infusions for this purpose in critically ill trauma patients is limited. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the initiation of a ketamine continuous infusion on sedative and analgesic use in critically ill trauma patients...
October 10, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835042/-analysis-of-early-response-to-the-antipsychotic-treatment-and-related-factors-in-acute-schizophrenia-patients
#16
M X Sun, J Ma, X Wang, Y F Yang, W W Li, Y Zhang, J Y Zhao, Y H Du, H X Zhang, D Zhang, L X Lü
Objective: The objective was to assess the relationship between early response and later response to antipsychotics, and the relationship between antipsychotics and early response. Methods: Data were retrospectively analyzed from patients with schizophrenia and they were hospitalized in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College from May, 2013 to September, 2015.The patients were divided into theearly response group (PANSS total score improvement ≥20% at week 2) and early nonresponse group...
August 15, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828223/effects-of-haloperidol-olanzapine-ziprasidone-and-pha-543613-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-the-morris-water-maze-test-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-mk-801-treated-mice
#17
Houxu Ning, Dong Cao, Haidong Wang, Bing Kang, Shiping Xie, Yujing Meng
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment is the core symptom of schizophrenia, significantly impacting the functional outcome. Improvement of cognitive function has been an important aspect of the treatment of schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is to demonstrate the effects of first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol, second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine and ziprasidone, and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist PHA-543613 on spatial learning and memory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of haloperidol (2 mg/kg), olanzapine (2...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807495/the-colorful-spectrum-of-tourette-syndrome-and-its-medical-surgical-and-behavioral-therapies
#18
Jan Roth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, more common in males than females, with onset before age 18. TS is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal/phonic tics, persisting for more than a year. Tics are unvoluntary, abrupt, rapid, repetitive, but non-rhythmic movements or sounds (vocalizations). They are preceded by an inner urge. Tics can be temporarily suppressed, but this leads to a powerful re-emergence. The performance of tics results in immediate but transient relief...
August 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805144/a-qm-protein-ligand-investigation-of-antipsychotic-drugs-with-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-d2r
#19
Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Yusuf Serhat Is, Serdar Durdagi, Matthias Stein, Mine Yurtsever
The dopamine D2 Receptor (D2R) is a member of the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor family and plays a critical role in neurotransmission activities in the human brain. Dysfunction in dopamine receptor signaling may lead to mental health illnesses such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. D2R is the target protein of the commonly used antipsychotic drugs such as risperidone, clozapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and quetiapine. Due to their significant side effects and non-selective profiles, the discovery of novel drugs has become a challenge for researchers working in this field...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791693/atypical-antipsychotics-for-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-youths
#20
REVIEW
Jik H Loy, Sally N Merry, Sarah E Hetrick, Karolina Stasiak
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review, last published in 2012 (Loy 2012). Children and youths with disruptive behaviour disorders may present to health services, where they may be treated with atypical antipsychotics. There is increasing usage of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of disruptive behaviour disorders. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect and safety of atypical antipsychotics, compared to placebo, for treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths...
August 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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