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UTI in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323886/contribution-of-urinary-tract-infection-to-the-burden-of-febrile-illnesses-in-young-children-in-rural-kenya
#1
Wechuli Geoffrey Masika, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Thomas L Holland, Janice Armstrong
INTRODUCTION: The clinical features of UTI in young children may not localize to the urinary tract and closely resemble other febrile illnesses. In malaria endemic areas, a child presenting with fever is often treated presumptively for malaria without investigation for UTI. Delayed or inadequate treatment of UTI increases the risk of bacteremia and renal scarring in young children and subsequently complications as hypertension and end stage renal disease in adulthood. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a hospital in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315724/molecular-detection-of-six-virulence-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-detected-in-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#2
Ali Badamchi, Hossein Masoumi, Shima Javadinia, Ramin Asgarian, Azardokht Tabatabaee
Although a vast majority of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by E. coli, epidemiological reports have indicated an increasing rate of such infections caused by some other opportunistic organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenesis mechanisms of P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect some virulence factor genes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates detected in patients with UTI, in children hospital of Tehran, Tehran, Iran...
March 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302674/urine-culture-follow-up-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-a-pediatric-urgent-care-network
#3
Dipanwita Saha, Jimisha Patel, Don Buckingham, David Thornton, Terry Barber, Joshua R Watson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empiric antibiotic therapy for presumed urinary tract infection (UTI) leads to unnecessary antibiotic exposure in many children whose urine culture results fail to confirm the diagnosis. The objective of this quality improvement study was to improve follow-up management of negative urine culture results in the off-campus urgent care network of Nationwide Children's Hospital to reduce inappropriate antibiotic exposure in children. METHODS: A multidisciplinary task force developed and implemented a protocol for routine nurse and clinician follow-up of urine culture results, discontinuation of unnecessary antibiotics, and documentation in the electronic medical record...
March 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284733/utility-of-a-routine-urinalysis-in-children-who-require-clean-intermittent-catheterization
#4
C S Forster, D B Haslam, E Jackson, S L Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Children who require clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) frequently have positive urine cultures. However, diagnosing a urinary tract infection (UTI) can be difficult, as there are no standardized criteria. Routine urinalysis (UA) has good predictive accuracy for UTI in the general pediatric population, but data are limited on the utility of routine UA in the population of children who require CIC. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of UA parameters (e...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271057/the-need-for-improved-detection-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-young-children
#5
Tracy E Bunting-Early, Nader Shaikh, Lynn Woo, Christopher S Cooper, T Ernesto Figueroa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An estimated 400,000 urinary tract infections (UTIs) are diagnosed annually in children aged <3 years in the United States; yet >50% of febrile UTIs may be missed in this population. Here, we explored possible barriers to diagnosing febrile UTIs in very young children through social research of community pediatricians. METHODS: Following qualitative interviews, a quantitative survey was developed that included a high-risk case for febrile UTI, presented before prompting for the topic of the survey, to gauge practice of delayed testing...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265323/bladder-and-bowel-dysfunction-in-children-an-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-a-common-but-underdiagnosed-pediatric-problem
#6
REVIEW
Joana Dos Santos, Roberto I Lopes, Martin A Koyle
Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) describes a spectrum of lower urinary symptoms (LUTS) accompanied by fecal elimination issues that manifest primarily by constipation and/or encopresis. This increasingly common entity is a potential cause of significant physical and psychosocial burden for children and families. BBD is commonly associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), which at its extreme may lead to renal scarring and kidney failure. Additionally, BBD is frequently seen in children diagnosed with behavioural and neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265311/continuous-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-setting-of-prenatal-hydronephrosis-and-vesicoureteral-reflux
#7
REVIEW
Nathan C Wong, Martin A Koyle, Luis H Braga
Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) has traditionally been offered for children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) or those at risk, including children diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis (HN) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, indications for antibiotic prophylaxis are controversial, data on who should benefit from this therapy is conflicting and, thus, guidelines are unable to provide conclusive recommendations. In the setting of prenatal HN, although randomized trials are currently underway, most evidence is derived from low- to moderate-quality observational studies...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217697/the-association-between-bacteria-and-urinary-stones
#8
REVIEW
Andrew L Schwaderer, Alan J Wolfe
Urinary stone disease (USD) is an increasing clinical problem in both children and adults. One in ten individuals will experience a urinary stone, yet the mechanisms responsible for urinary stones remain largely unknown. Bacteria have long been recognized to contribute to struvite urinary stones; however, the role of bacteria in the development of the more common calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stones has not been extensively investigated. However, several findings do indicate a possible association between urinary stones and bacteria, including the high rate of urinary tract infections (UTI) in urinary stone patients and multiple case series of culture-positive urinary stones, including stones composed of CaOx or CaPhos...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215835/the-swedish-infant-high-grade-reflux-trial-uti-and-renal-damage
#9
Josefin Nordenström, Sofia Sjöström, Ulla Sillén, Rune Sixt, Per Brandström
INTRODUCTION: High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is associated with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal damage. Breakthrough UTI despite continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) during the first years of life is a matter of concern and evokes early intervention. We investigated whether early endoscopic treatment (ET) of VUR grade 4-5 can reduce the risk of UTI recurrence and renal scarring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled, multicentre, 1-year follow-up trial comprised 77 infants, <8 months of age with VUR grade 4-5 (Table) randomized to CAP (n = 39) or ET (with prophylaxis until resolution) (n = 38)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215176/the-comparison-the-serum-strem1-levels-between-children-with-upper-and-lower-uti
#10
Samileh Noorbakhsh, Fahime Ehsanipour, Vida Zarabi, Zahra Movahedi, Nahid Rahimzadeh
Back ground: UTI is a common and important clinical problem in Iranian children which is often difficult on clinical grounds. Distinguishing the upper UTI from lower UTI is very important for clinician. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of serum STREM-1 level in patients with UTI to find out if it can use for distinguishing upper UTI from lower UTI or not. METHODS: In this prospective cross sectional study (2010-2011) we compared the serum level of STREM-1 (pg. /ml) in 36 proven UTI cases (24 upper and 12 lower UTI ) with 25 normal children (without UTI) in Rasoul Akram hospital Tehran, Iran...
February 16, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210838/urinary-ngal-deficiency-in-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#11
Catherine S Forster, Kathryn Johnson, Viral Patel, Rebecca Wax, Nancy Rodig, Jonathan Barasch, Richard Bachur, Richard S Lee
INTRODUCTION: Children with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) often show no identifiable cause of their infections. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to be upregulated within the uroepithelium and kidney of patients with UTI and exhibits a localized bacteriostatic effect through iron chelation. We hypothesize that some patients with rUTI without an identifiable cause of their recurrent infections have locally deficient NGAL production. We therefore explored whether a lack of NGAL production may be a factor in the pathogenesis of rUTI...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199403/comparison-of-microbiological-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-children-by-routine-health-service-laboratories-and-a-research-laboratory-diagnostic-cohort-study
#12
Kate Birnie, Alastair D Hay, Mandy Wootton, Robin Howe, Alasdair MacGowan, Penny Whiting, Michael Lawton, Brendan Delaney, Harriet Downing, Jan Dudley, William Hollingworth, Catherine Lisles, Paul Little, Kathryn O'Brien, Timothy Pickles, Kate Rumsby, Emma Thomas-Jones, Judith Van der Voort, Cherry-Ann Waldron, Kim Harman, Kerenza Hood, Christopher C Butler, Jonathan A C Sterne
OBJECTIVES: To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory. POPULATION AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard), was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191787/urinary-excretion-of-egf-and-mcp-1-in-children-with-vesicoureteral-reflux
#13
Valentina Pastore, Fabio Bartoli
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) as reflux nephropathy (RN) biomarkers before and after endoscopic treatment of moderate to severe vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 72 children with moderate to severe VUR. All patients underwent endoscopic treatment using Macroplastique ® or Deflux®. Vesico-ureteral reflux resolution was tested by post-operative voiding cystourethrography after 3 months and 2 years...
February 10, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185626/prevalence-of-concomitant-acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-neonates-with-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#14
Sowdhamini S Wallace, Danielle N Brown, Andrea T Cruz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of concomitant acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in neonates with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study from 2005 to 2013 of infants ≤30 days old evaluated in the emergency department of a quaternary care children's hospital with fever and laboratory-confirmed UTI. Definite ABM was defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture with growth of pathogenic bacteria and probable ABM if pleocytosis with ≥ 20 white blood cell was present in an antibiotic-pretreated patient...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182124/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-ethiopian-children
#15
Melese Hailu Legese, Gebru Mulugeta Weldearegay, Daniel Asrat
BACKGROUND: Infections by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an emerging problem in children nowadays. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among children suspected of septicemia and urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2014. A total of 322 study participants suspected of septicemia and UTIs were recruited...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154883/-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#16
E Lellig, M Apfelbeck, J Straub, A Karl, S Tritschler, C G Stief, M Riccabona
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys...
February 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141597/genital-region-cleansing-wipes-effects-on-urine-culture-contamination
#17
Mehmet Burak Selek, Bayhan Bektöre, Ogün Sezer, Tuğba Kula Atik, Orhan Baylan, Mustafa Özyurt
INTRODUCTION: Urine culture is the gold standard test for revealing the microbial agent causing urinary tract infection (UTI). Culture results are affected by sampling techniques; improper sampling leads to contamination of urine and thus contamination of the culture with urogenital flora. We aimed to evaluate the effect of urogenital cleansing, performed with chlorhexidine-containing genital region cleansing wipes (GRCW) on contamination rates. METHODOLOGY: A total of 2,665 patients with UTI-related complaints and with urine culture requests from various outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096977/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistance-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-analyses-of-esbl-producers-from-nepal
#18
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Pooja Maharjan, Hridaya Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Deliya Paudel, Sujan Sayami, Puspa Raj Khanal
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087926/urinary-tract-infections-in-infants-and-children
#19
Theresa A Schlager
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections in children and symptoms may be nonspecific. The risk of renal scarring is highest in children under 1 year of age with febrile UTI and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although treatment of UTI is usually straightforward, given increased rates of antimicrobial resistance worldwide, the choice of treatment for pediatric UTI should be guided by community resistance patterns whenever feasible. The benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis after first UTI and/or in the presence of VUR remains controversial, but a recent meta-analysis supports continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis in children with VUR, indicating a need for more research in this area...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087230/the-impact-of-obesity-on-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-and-renal-scarring-in-children-with-vesicoureteral-reflux
#20
H J Byun, J Y Ha, W Jung, B H Kim, C H Park, C I Kim
INTRODUCTION: It has become clear that obesity is associated with a variety of infectious diseases, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity and the degree of febrile UTI (fUTI) and renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to stratify the results into obesity subcategories. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 186 patients were diagnosed with VUR between January 2002 and December 2008...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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