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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635651/effects-of-tetrodotoxin-in-mouse-models-of-visceral-pain
#1
Rafael González-Cano, Miguel Ángel Tejada, Antonia Artacho-Cordón, Francisco Rafael Nieto, José Manuel Entrena, John N Wood, Cruz Miguel Cendán
Visceral pain is very common and represents a major unmet clinical need for which current pharmacological treatments are often insufficient. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that exerts analgesic actions in both humans and rodents under different somatic pain conditions, but its effect has been unexplored in visceral pain. Therefore, we tested the effects of systemic TTX in viscero-specific mouse models of chemical stimulation of the colon (intracolonic instillation of capsaicin and mustard oil) and intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634406/enhancing-kcc2-function-counteracts-morphine-induced-hyperalgesia
#2
Francesco Ferrini, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Antoine G Godin, Miorie Le Quang, Yves De Koninck
Morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) is a severe adverse effect accompanying repeated morphine treatment, causing a paradoxical decrease in nociceptive threshold. Previous reports associated MIH with a decreased expression of the Cl(-) extruder KCC2 in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, weakening spinal GABAA/glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition. Here, we tested whether the administration of small molecules enhancing KCC2, CLP257 and its pro-drug CLP290, may counteract MIH. MIH was typically expressed within 6-8 days of morphine treatment...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632962/a-novel-minimally-invasive-wireless-technology-for-neuromodulation-via-percutaneous-intercostal-nerve-stimulation-pns-for-post-herpetic-neuralgia-a-case-report-with-short-term-follow-up
#3
Bart Billet, Roel Wynendaele, Niek E Vanquathem
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) of primary afferent neurons provides control of localized chronic pain. This technique applies permanent electrical stimulation at the target area via a minimally invasive, subcutaneous placement of an electrode. OBJECTIVE: To assess analgesic effects of a minimally invasive wireless neuromodulation in the treatment of chronic intractable pain secondary to post-herpetic neuralgia. CASE SUMMARY: A 78-year-old man presented with severe intractable post herpetic neuralgic pain...
June 20, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629979/nasal-vaccination-with-poly-%C3%AE-amino-ester-poly-d-l-lactide-co-glycolide-hybrid-nanoparticles
#4
Genada Sinani, Melike Sessevmez, M Koray Gök, Saadet Özgümüş, Alper Okyar, H Oya Alpar, Erdal Cevher
Mucosal vaccination stimulates both mucosal and systemic immunity. However, mucosal applications of vaccine antigens in their free form generally result in poor systemic immune responses and need adjuvantation. In this study, bovine serum albumin loaded, new hybridised poly(β-amino ester)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method, characterised and evaluated in vivo as nasal vaccine carriers. Cationic spherical particles with a mean size of 240nm, good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628810/gh-administration-decreases-subcutaneous-abdominal-adipocyte-size-in-men-with-abdominal-obesity
#5
Miriam A Bredella, Kalypso Karastergiou, Stijn A Bos, Anu V Gerweck, Martin Torriani, Susan K Fried, Karen K Miller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of short-term GH administration on abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte size and CT attenuation in men with abdominal obesity. DESIGN: 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of GH (starting dose 2μg/kg/d) vs placebo of 15 abdominally obese men (mean age: 34±6years; mean BMI: 37.7±6.1kg/m(2), mean IGF-1 SDS: -1.9±0.5) who underwent abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) aspirations to determine adipocyte size, CTs for body composition and measures of glucose tolerance at baseline and 6weeks...
June 12, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627722/pterostilbene-inhibits-lipogenic-activity-similar-to-resveratrol-or-caffeine-but-differently-modulates-lipolysis-in-adipocytes
#6
Saioa Gomez-Zorita, Chloé Belles, Anaïs Briot, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, Maria P Portillo, Christian Carpéné
The anti-obesity effects of resveratrol shown in rodents are not transposed into an efficient therapy of human obesity. Consequently, the search for molecules mimicking or surpassing resveratrol actions is ongoing. The natural phenolic compound pterostilbene exhibits beneficial health effects and has the capacity to limit fat mass in animal models. In this study, we tested whether pterostilbene modulates triacylglycerol accumulation/breakdown. Prolonged exposure to pterostilbene or resveratrol inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-F442A preadipocytes...
June 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625749/preclinical-evaluation-of-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1-r-specific-68-ga-and-44-sc-labeled-dota-napamide-in-melanoma-imaging
#7
Gábor Nagy, Noémi Dénes, Adrienn Kis, Judit P Szabó, Ervin Berényi, Ildikó Garai, Péter Bai, István Hajdu, Dezső Szikra, György Trencsényi
PURPOSE: Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) enhances melanogenesis in melanoma malignum by binding to melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1-R). Earlier studies demonstrated that alpha-MSH analog NAPamide molecule specifically binds to MC1-R receptor. Radiolabeled NAPamide is a promising radiotracer for the non-invasive detection of melanin producing melanoma tumors by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this present study the MC1-R selectivity of the newly developed Sc-44-labeled DOTA-NAPamide was investigated in vitro and in vivo using melanoma tumors...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625546/the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-and-central-angiotensinergic-mechanisms-in-the-control-of-sodium-intake-induced-by-different-stimuli
#8
Camila F Roncari, Richard B David, Patrícia M De Paula, Débora S A Colombari, Laurival A De Luca, Eduardo Colombari, José V Menani
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a typical facilitatory stimulus for sodium appetite. Surprisingly, hyperosmolarity and central cholinergic stimulation, two classical antinatriorexigenic stimuli, also facilitate NaCl intake when they are combined with injections of the α2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we tested the relative importance of central angiotensinergic and cholinergic mechanisms for the control of water and NaCl intake by combining different dipsogenic or natriorexigenic stimuli with moxonidine injection into the LPBN...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623445/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-resolves-low-ghrp-2-stimulated-growth-hormone-levels-in-obese-patients
#9
Emi Ohara, Hirotake Tokuyama, Takumi Kitamoto, Aya Kitahara, Aiko Hayashi, Hideki Hayashi, Minoru Takemoto, Koutaro Yokote
Because growth hormone (GH) secretion is reportedly decreased in obese patients, we examined not only the factors associated with the decreased GH secretion but also GH response to the GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2-load test before and after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LSG). The study comprised 28 individuals aged 19-65 years [mean body mass index (BMI), 39.4 ± 9.4 kg/m(2)]. In the univariate analysis, GH secretion peaks correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.59, p = 0.001), visceral adipose tissue (r = -0...
June 16, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620356/quantifying-biochemical-alterations-in-brown-and-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissues-of-mice-using-fourier-transform-infrared-widefield-imaging
#10
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Owen T Carmichael, Ping He, Diana C Albarado, Christopher D Morrison, Carol J Hirschmugl
Stimulating increased thermogenic activity in adipose tissue is an important biological target for obesity treatment, and label-free imaging techniques with the potential to quantify stimulation-associated biochemical changes to the adipose tissue are highly sought after. In this study, we used spatially resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging to quantify biochemical changes caused by cold exposure in the brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (BAT and s-WAT) of 6 week-old C57BL6 mice exposed to 30°C (N = 5), 24°C (N = 5), and 10°C (N = 5) conditions for 10 days...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615516/efficacy-safety-and-proper-dose-analysis-of-pegylated-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-as-support-for-dose-dense-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-node-positive-chinese-breast-cancer-patients
#11
Fan Zhang, RuiXia LingHu, XingYang Zhan, Ruisheng Li, Fan Feng, Xudong Gao, Lei Zhao, Junlan Yang
For high-risk breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, dose-dense every-two-week epirubicin/cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (ddEC-P) regimen is the optimal postoperative adjuvant therapy. However, this regimen is limited by the grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN). There is an urgent need to explore the efficacy, safety and proper dosage of PEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF) as support for ddEC-P in Chinese breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611684/protective-role-for-lpa3-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-myocardial-infarction-but-not-by-isoproterenol
#12
Lin Cai, Guangpu Fan, Fang Wang, Si Liu, Tiewei Li, Xiangfeng Cong, Jerold Chun, Xi Chen
Background: We previously reported that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro via one of its G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, LPA3. In this study, we examined the role of LPA3 in cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and myocardial infarction. Methods:In vitro, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) were subjected to LPA3 knocked-down, or pretreated with a β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist (propranolol) before LPA/ISO treatment. Cardiomyocyte size and hypertrophic gene (ANP, BNP) mRNA levels were determined...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605462/increased-triacylglycerol-lipase-activity-in-adipose-tissue-of-lean-and-obese-men-during-endurance-exercise
#13
Anatoli Petridou, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Jamurtas, Gedeon Loules, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Ioannis Fatouros, Vassilis Mougios
Context: Although there is increasing information on the mechanism of lipolysis in adipose tissue, the effect of exercise on individual factors of lipolysis is less well understood. Objective: We aimed to compare changes in adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase activity and gene expression of adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), perilipin 1, and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) during exercise between lean and obese men...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595994/-news-techniques-of-pacing-in-congenital-heart-diseases
#14
Mathieu Le Bloa, Jean-Benoît Thambo
The number of children and adult with congenital heart disease requiring implantation of cardiac pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillator is constantly increasing. The lead between stimulation/defibrillation site and the generator constitutes the main weakpoint of those devices despite the numerous recent technological advances: use of bipolar probes, corticoid elution electrodes, insulation improvement, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility. Risk of device failure remains high in this population. Long term adverse events with endovascular devices remain high...
June 5, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595108/insulin-signaling-in-various-equine-tissues-under-basal-conditions-and-acute-stimulation-by-intravenously-injected-insulin
#15
Tobias Warnken, Ralph Brehm, Karsten Feige, Korinna Huber
The aim of the study was to analyze key proteins of the equine insulin signaling cascade and their extent of phosphorylation in biopsies from muscle tissue (MT), liver tissue (LT), and nuchal AT, subcutaneous AT, and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. This was investigated under unstimulated (B1) and intravenously insulin stimulated (B2) conditions, which were achieved by injection of insulin (0.1 IU/kg bodyweight) and glucose (150 mg/kg bodyweight). Twelve warmblood horses aged 15 ± 6.8 yr (yr), weighing 559 ± 79 kg, and with a mean body condition score of 4...
May 12, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593997/severe-congenital-neutropenias
#16
REVIEW
Julia Skokowa, David C Dale, Ivo P Touw, Cornelia Zeidler, Karl Welte
Severe congenital neutropenias are a heterogeneous group of rare haematological diseases characterized by impaired maturation of neutrophil granulocytes. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia are prone to recurrent, often life-threatening infections beginning in their first months of life. The most frequent pathogenic defects are autosomal dominant mutations in ELANE, which encodes neutrophil elastase, and autosomal recessive mutations in HAX1, whose product contributes to the activation of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) signalling pathway...
June 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591651/transplantation-of-human-pancreatic-endoderm-cells-reverses-diabetes-post-transplantation-in-a-prevascularized-subcutaneous-site
#17
Andrew R Pepper, Rena Pawlick, Antonio Bruni, John Wink, Yasmin Rafiei, Doug O'Gorman, Richard Yan-Do, Boris Gala-Lopez, Tatsuya Kin, Patrick E MacDonald, A M James Shapiro
Beta-cell replacement therapy is an effective means to restore glucose homeostasis in select humans with autoimmune diabetes. The scarcity of "healthy" human donor pancreata restricts the broader application of this effective curative therapy. "β-Like" cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with the capacity to secrete insulin in a glucose-regulated manner, have been developed in vitro, with limitless capacity for expansion. Here we report long-term diabetes correction in mice transplanted with hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm cells (PECs) in a prevascularized subcutaneous site...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587730/deep-brain-stimulation-failure-due-to-external-cardioversion-in-a-patient-with-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Michał Sobstyl, Małgorzata Michałowska, Urszula Fiszer, Mirosław Ząbek
We report a case of deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware failure due to emergently performed subcutaneous coronary angioplasties complicated by cardioversion for rapid worsening of angina pectoris and some trouble shooting problems emerged after invasive cardiovascular procedures. The patient with prior implantation of permanent pacemaker due to vasovagal syndrome underwent successful left-sided unilateral electrode implantation into the subthalamic nucleus. During 21 months follow-up period the patient experienced 2 times episodes of aggravation of unstable angina pectoris 15 and 21 months respectively, which necessities emergent coronary angioplasties...
May 30, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575883/effects-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-on-intestinal-flora-in-peritoneal-fibrosis
#19
Muammer Bilici, Ibrahim Ilker Oz, Sevil Uygun Ilikhan, Ali Borazan
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on intestinal flora in peritoneal fibrosis. METHODS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as the control group, which received 0.9% saline (3 mL/d) intraperitoneally; the chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally, and the ESA group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally and epoetin beta (3 doses of 20 IU/kg/wk) subcutaneously...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574591/bone-marrow-adipocytes-support-haematopoietic-stem-cell-survival
#20
Domenico Mattiucci, Giulia Maurizi, Valerio Izzi, Lorenzo Cenci, Marco Ciarlantini, Stefania Mancini, Emanuela Mensà, Raffaele Pascarella, Marco Vivarelli, Attilio Olivieri, Pietro Leoni, Antonella Poloni
In bone marrow (BM), haematopoietic elements are mingled with adipocytes (BM-A), which are the most abundant stromal component in the niche. BM-A progressively increase with ageing, eventually occupying up to 50% of BM cavities. In this work, the role played by BM-A was explored by studying primary human BM-A isolated from hip surgery patients at the molecular level, through microarray analysis, and at the functional level, by assessing their relationship with primary human haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) by the long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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