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subcutaneous stimulation

Katja Venborg Pedersen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Ole Graumann, Susanne Sloth Osther, Anne Estrup Olesen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Palle Jørn Sloth Osther
Background and purpose Visceral and somatic afferents activate the same neuronal structures in the central nervous system. Assessing somatosensory function and trophic changes in the referred pain area may therefore indirectly increase information on mechanisms involved in painful visceral diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and trophic changes in the flank corresponding to the referred pain area in patients with kidney stone disease. Methods A total of 24 patients with unilateral pain-causing kidney stone disease were studied before and after endoscopic percutaneous kidney stone surgery...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Lázaro Moreira Marques Neto, Nicholas Zufelato, Ailton Antônio de Sousa-Júnior, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Adeliane Castro da Costa, Andris Figueiroa Bakuzis, André Kipnis, Ana Paula JunqueiraKipnis
Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) stimulate innate immunity; however, they have never been demonstrated to be capable of aiding the generation of specific cellular immune responses. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether iron oxide-based NPs have adjuvant properties in generating cellular Th1, Th17 and TCD8 (Tc1) immune responses. For this purpose, a fusion protein (CMX) composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens was used as a subunit vaccine. Citrate-coated MnFe2 O4 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy...
June 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
L Duez, E Qerama, T S Jensen, A Fuglsang-Frederiksen
Background and aims To our knowledge there are no studies that have examined the effects of the experimental pain on muscle fibre excitability as measured by the amplitudes of the potentials evoked by direct muscle stimulation (DMS) in a muscle at rest. We hypothesized that evoked pain can modulate the muscle compound action potential (CMAP) obtained by DMS possibly due to changes in muscle fibre excitability. Methods Pain was evoked by intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline in 50 men. Ten control subjects were infused with isotonic saline...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Mirko Tessari, Veronica Tisato, Erika Rimondi, Paolo Zamboni, Anna Maria Malagoni
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in patients at low mobility with leg edema. METHODS: A pilot, two-arm, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Fifty patients (age, 58.4 ± 9 years; male, 14), randomly allocated to a group (IPC) undergoing 1 month (n = 29) of an in-home cycle of IPC and to a control (C) group (n = 21), were studied. Leg edema was evaluated by measuring subcutaneous thickness (high-resolution ultrasound) and circumferences (metric tape), both assessed at different levels of the lower limbs, and volume (water plethysmography)...
July 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Mario García-Domínguez, Ana Lastra, Alicia R Folgueras, Rafael Cernuda-Cernuda, María Teresa Fernández-García, Agustín Hidalgo, Luis Menéndez, Ana Baamonde
In the present study, we characterize the antinociceptive effects produced by the chemokine CCL4 in mice. The intraplantar administration of very low doses of CCL4 (0.1-3 pg) produced bilateral antinociception assessed by the unilateral hot-plate test (UHP) without evoking chemotactic responses at the injection site. Moreover, the subcutaneous administration of CCL4 (3-100 pg/kg) also yielded bilateral antinociception in the UHP and the paw pressure test and reduced the number of spinal neurons that express Fos protein in response to noxious stimulation...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Alice S Ryan, Heidi K Ortmeyer
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are characterized by metabolic inflexibility, a condition described as an inability to switch from fat oxidation during fasting to carbohydrate oxidation during hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of metabolic flexibility in 103 obese (37-59% fat), sedentary (VO2 max: 19.4 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min), postmenopausal (45-76 years) women, and changes in metabolic flexibility with exercise and weight loss interventions...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Mark T Orr, Susan Lin, Mohammed O Suraju, Adrian Simpson, Molly Blust, Tiep Pham, Jeffrey A Guderian, Mark A Tomai, James Elvecrog, Karl Pedersen, William A Petri, Christopher B Fox
Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytic a is the third leading cause of parasitic mortality globally, with some 100,000 deaths annually, primarily among young children. Protective immunity to amebiasis is associated with fecal IgA and IFN-γ in humans; however, no vaccine exists. We have previously identified recombinant LecA as a potential protective vaccine antigen. Here we describe the development of a stable, manufacturable PEGylated liposomal adjuvant formulation containing two synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands: GLA (TLR4) and 3M-052 (TLR7/8)...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Jinyan Yun, Haiguo Jin, Yang Cao, Lichun Zhang, Yumin Zhao, Xin Jin, Yongsheng Yu
In this study, we performed high throughput RNA sequencing at the primary bovine preadipocyte (Day-0), mid-differentiation (Day-4), and differentiated adipocyte (Day-9) stages in order to characterize the transcriptional events regulating differentiation and function. The preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous fetal bovine adipose tissues and were differentiated into mature adipocytes. The adipogenic characteristics of the adipocytes were detected during various stages of adipogenesis (Day-0, Day-4, and Day-9)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ginger E Nicol, Michael D Yingling, Karen S Flavin, Julia A Schweiger, Bruce W Patterson, Kenneth B Schechtman, John W Newcomer
Importance: Antipsychotic medications are commonly used to treat nonpsychotic disruptive behavioral disorders in youths. Objective: To characterize the metabolic effects of first exposure to antipsychotics in youths using criterion standard assessments of body composition and insulin sensitivity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial recruited antipsychotic-naive youths aged 6 to 18 years in the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were diagnosed with 1 or more psychiatric disorders and clinically significant aggression and in whom antipsychotic treatment was considered...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Amanda C Warken, Leandro S Lopes, Nathieli B Bottari, Patrícia Glombowsky, Gabriela M Galli, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Aleksandro S DA Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of subcutaneous mineral supplementation would affect metabolic parameters, immunological response, milk quality and composition of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Twelve pregnant primiparous Holstein cows, were divided into two groups: six animals supplemented with the mineral complex (magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium and copper), and six animals used as controls. Milk samples were collected every two other weeks postpartum up to sixty days of lactation to analyze composition and quality...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Ji Hye Hwang, Hyo Won Jung, Seok Yong Kang, An Na Kang, Jun Nan Ma, Xiang Long Meng, Min Sub Hwang, Yong-Ki Park
Acupuncture with MOK, a polyherbal medicine (MOK pharmacopuncture), has been used for the treatment of thyroid syndromes including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in traditional Korean medicine. The present study investigated the effect of MOK pharmacopuncture on hypothyroidism and the mechanism underlying its antioxidation and immune regulation effects. Hypothyroidism was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of Propylthiouracil (PTU; 10 mg/kg) once daily for 4 weeks. MOK was administered by acupuncture on the acupoints around the thyroid gland of PTU-induced hypothyroidism rats once daily for 2 weeks following hypothyroidism induction...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ana I Duarte, Marie Sjögren, Maria S Santos, Catarina R Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, Maria Björkqvist
Neuronal loss alongside altered energy metabolism, are key features of Huntington's disease (HD) pathology. The orexigenic gut-peptide hormone ghrelin is known to stimulate appetite and affect whole body energy metabolism. Liraglutide is an efficient anti-type 2 diabetes incretin drug, with neuroprotective effects alongside anorectic properties. Combining liraglutide with the orexigenic peptide ghrelin may potentially promote brain/cognitive function in HD. The R6/2 mouse model of HD exhibits progressive central pathology, weight loss, deranged glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle atrophy and altered body composition...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daisuke Tatebayashi, Koichi Himori, Ryotaro Yamada, Yuki Ashida, Mitsunori Miyazaki, Takashi Yamada
Eccentric (ECC) contractions are used to maintain skeletal muscle mass and strength in healthy subjects and patients. Here we investigated the effects of ECC training induced by electrical stimulation (ES) on muscle wasting in colon 26 (C-26) tumor-bearing mice. Mice were divided into four groups: control (CNT), CNT + ECC, C-26, and C-26 + ECC. Cancer cachexia was induced by a subcutaneous injection of C-26 cells and developed for four weeks. In experiment 1, muscle protein synthesis rate and mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 signaling were investigated six hours after one bout of ECC-ES (2 s contraction given every 6 s, 20°/s, 4 sets of 5 contractions)...
2018: PloS One
Satoshi Nakagawa, Satoshi Serada, Reisa Kakubari, Kosuke Hiramatsu, Takahito Sugase, Shinya Matsuzaki, Satoko Matsuzaki, Yutaka Ueda, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Tomoharu Ohkawara, Minoru Fujimoto, Tadamitsu Kishimoto, Tadashi Kimura, Tetsuji Naka
Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the leading cause of gynecological cancer-related deaths and novel therapeutic strategies are required. Programmed cell death 1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), which are key mediators of host immune tolerance, are associated with OvCa progression. Recent evidence indicates the importance of IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 for immune tolerance in OvCa. This study aimed to reveal the therapeutic potential of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), an endogenous inhibitor of the janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway, for the treatment of OvCa...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Diana M Sama, Shaun W Carlson, Binoy Joseph, Stefanie Saenger, Friedrich Metzger, Kathryn E Saatman
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury can result in lasting cognitive dysfunction due to degeneration of mature hippocampal neurons as well as the loss of immature neurons within the dentate gyrus. While endogenous neurogenesis affords a partial recovery of the immature neuron population, hippocampal neurogenesis may be enhanced through therapeutic intervention. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has the potential to improve cognitive function and promote neurogenesis after TBI, but its short half-life in the systemic circulation makes it difficult to maintain a therapeutic concentration...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Lu-Shuang Xie, Na Zhao, Hui Yang, Biao Huang, Yong Tang, Qiao-Feng Wu, Xiang-Hong Jing, Shu-Guang Yu
OBJECTIVE: To observe whether the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV 1) plays a role in moxibustion (Moxi)-induced regulation of local immune inflammatory response. METHODS: Fifteen C 57 BL/6 J and 15 TRPV 1-/- mice were randomly and respectively divided into blank control, Moxi-30 min and Moxi-72 h groups (5 mice/group). The Moxi intervention ([46±1] ℃) was applied to the left "Zusanli" (ST 36) for 30 min. The local tissue of the left ST 36 region was collected for observing the histological changes after H.E...
May 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Yong-Ming Li
The "superficial fascia" is often interpreted as "tendon-membrane like structure" in acupuncture field and it is speculated that acupuncture stimulation-induced structural alteration of the superficial fascia may contribute to the alleviation of many medical conditions. The fact is that the superficial fascia mainly consists of subcutaneous adipose tissue and fibrotic network (which function in storing, supporting and buffering external pressure and are not responsible for producing " Deqi " or "needling sensations"), and has no typical tendon or membrane structure in hypodermis...
May 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Gerald C Smaldone
Pulmonary diseases frequently involve imbalances in immunity. The inability to control bacteria in tuberculosis is a failed response to a pathogen. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive fibrotic lung disease, can lead to respiratory failure and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progresses until death and in recent years has been labeled an autoimmune disease. Proposed mechanistic pathways of pathophysiology involve uncontrolled healing governed by pro-fibrotic cytokines that are unresponsive to the standard anti-inflammatory agents (e...
June 7, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Sebastiano La Maestra, Guido Frosina, Rosanna T Micale, Chiara D'Oria, Silvano Garibaldi, Antonio Daga, Alessandra Pulliero, Alberto Izzotti
Oligonucleotide overloading results in type I interferonopathies such as the Aicardi-Goutiéres Syndrome, a progressive encephalopathy determined by an immune response against endogenous DNA/RNA molecules. No therapy targeting pathogenic mechanisms is available for affected patients. Accordingly, we set up an in vitro/in vivo experimental model aimed at reproducing the pathogenic mechanisms of type I interferonopathies, in order to develop an effective pharmacological modulation and toxicological alterations caused by intracranial delivery of encapsulated CpG...
June 4, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Luana A Biondo, Helena A Batatinha, Camila O Souza, Alexandre A S Teixeira, Loreana S Silveira, Maria I Alonso-Vale, Lila M Oyama, Michele J Alves, Marilia Seelaender, José C R Neto
Doxorubicin (DX) is a chemotherapeutic drug that is used in clinical practice that promotes deleterious side effects in non-tumor tissues such as adipose tissue. We showed that DX leads to extensive damage in adipose tissue via a disruption in 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PPAR-gamma signaling. Thus, we investigated whether co-treatment with the biguanide drug metformin (MET) could prevent the side effects of DX through the activation of AMPK in adipose tissue. The goal of the present study was to verify the effects of DX and adjuvant MET treatment in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and to determine whether MET could protect against chemotherapy-induced side effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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