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quantum yield review

Karunya Albert, Hsin-Yun Hsu
Carbon-based nanomaterials serve as a type of smart material for photo-triggered disease theranostics. The inherent physicochemical properties of these nanomaterials facilitate their use for less invasive treatments. This review summarizes the properties and applications of materials including fullerene, nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodots and nanographenes for photodynamic nanomedicine in cancer and antimicrobial therapies. Carbon nanomaterials themselves do not usually act as photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents owing to the high hydrophobicity, however, when the surface is passivated or functionalized, these materials become great vehicles for PDT...
November 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ali Bagheri, Hamidreza Arandiyan, Cyrille Boyer, May Lim
The development of drug delivery systems (DDSs) using near infrared (NIR) light and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) has generated intensive interest over the past five years. These NIR-initiated DDSs not only offer a high degree of spatial and temporal determination of therapeutic release but also provide precise control over the released dosage. Furthermore, these nanoplatforms confer several advantages over conventional light-based DDSs-NIR offers better tissue penetration depth and a reduced risk of cellular photo-damage caused by exposure to light at high-energy wavelengths (e...
July 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Yani Chen, Minhong He, Jiajun Peng, Yong Sun, Ziqi Liang
Recently, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have sparked tremendous research interest because of their ground-breaking photovoltaic performance. The crystallization process and crystal shape of perovskites have striking impacts on their optoelectronic properties. Polycrystalline films and single crystals are two main forms of perovskites. Currently, perovskite thin films have been under intensive investigation while studies of perovskite single crystals are just in their infancy. This review article is concentrated upon the control of perovskite structures and growth, which are intimately correlated for improvements of not only solar cells but also light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors...
April 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Daria V Smirnova, Natalia N Ugarova
Firefly luciferase is widely used in molecular biology and bioanalytical systems as a reporter molecule due to the high quantum yield of the bioluminescence, availability of stable mutant forms of the enzyme with prescribed spectral characteristics and abundance of bacterial expression systems suitable for production of recombinant proteins in limitless quantities. In this review, we described fusion proteins of luciferase with biotin-binding domain and streptavidin, with proteins A and G, antibodies, with DNA- and RNA-binding proteins, as well as fusion proteins designed for BRET systems...
October 31, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Atanu Acharya, Alexey M Bogdanov, Bella L Grigorenko, Ksenia B Bravaya, Alexander V Nemukhin, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Anna I Krylov
Photoinduced reactions play an important role in the photocycle of fluorescent proteins from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family. Among such processes are photoisomerization, photooxidation/photoreduction, breaking and making of covalent bonds, and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT). Many of these transformations are initiated by electron transfer (ET). The quantum yields of these processes vary significantly, from nearly 1 for ESPT to 10(-4)-10(-6) for ET. Importantly, even when quantum yields are relatively small, at the conditions of repeated illumination the overall effect is significant...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Reviews
S Y New, S T Lee, X D Su
12 years after the introduction of DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs), exciting progress has been made and yet we are still in the midst of trying to fully understand this nanomaterial. The prominent excellence of DNA-AgNCs is undoubtedly its modulatable emission property, of which how variation in DNA templates causes emission tuning remains elusive. Based on the up-to-date DNA-AgNCs, we aim to establish the correlation between the structure/sequence of DNA templates and emission behaviour of AgNCs...
October 7, 2016: Nanoscale
Marcus Adam, Nikolai Gaponik, Alexander Eychmüller, Talha Erdem, Zeliha Soran-Erdem, Hilmi Volkan Demir
Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have gained substantial interest as spectrally tunable and bright fluorophores for color conversion and enrichment solids. However, they suffer from limitations in processing their solutions as well as efficiency degradation in solid films. As a remedy, embedding them into crystalline host matrixes has stepped forward for superior photostability, thermal stability, and chemical durability while simultaneously sustaining high quantum yields. Here, we review three basic methods for loading the macrocrystals with nanocrystals, namely relatively slow direct embedding, as well as accelerated methods of vacuum-assisted and liquid-liquid diffusion-assisted crystallization...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Mehrnaz Hatami, Khalil Kariman, Mansour Ghorbanpour
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess remarkable physicochemical characteristics suitable for different applications in medicine, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, energy, cosmetics and electronics. Because of their ultrafine size and high surface reactivity, ENMs can enter plant cells and interact with intracellular structures and metabolic pathways which may produce toxicity or promote plant growth and development by diverse mechanisms. Depending on their type and concentration, ENMs can have positive or negative effects on photosynthesis, photochemical fluorescence and quantum yield as well as photosynthetic pigments status of the plants...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Vincent Martinez, Maged Henary
Nile red and Nile blue are highly fluorescent and photostable organic dyes from the benzo[a]phenoxazine family. They have been used as histological stains for imaging lysosomes and lipids in vitro. The dyes' high quantum yields and solvent-dependent optical properties make them ideal scaffolds for the development of pH probes and local polarity indicators. Reviews of the literature in this area are scarce with only one review ever published in 2006. It has been 10 years since and the field has evolved. This review aims to expand upon topics covered by the previous reviewers and to report on recent advances in the literature...
July 13, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chenglin Yan, Haiguang Zhao, Dmitrii F Perepichka, Federico Rosei
Lanthanide doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) have emerged as a new class of luminescent materials, with major discoveries and overall significant progress during the last decade. Unlike multiphoton absorption in organic dyes or semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanide doped UCNPs involve real intermediate quantum states and convert infrared (IR) into visible light via sequential electronic excitation. The relatively high efficiency of this process even at low radiation flux makes UCNPs particularly attractive for many current and emerging areas of technology...
August 2016: Small
Hirohisa Komatsu, Katsuhiro Wada, Terumitsu Kanjoh, Hideaki Miyashita, Mayumi Sato, Masanobu Kawachi, Masami Kobayashi
In this review, we introduce our recent studies on divinyl chlorophylls functioning in unique marine picoplankton Prochlorococcus sp. (1) Essential physicochemical properties of divinyl chlorophylls are compared with those of monovinyl chlorophylls; separation by normal-phase and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with isocratic eluent mode, absorption spectra in four organic solvents, fluorescence information (emission spectra, quantum yields, and life time), circular dichroism spectra, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and redox potentials...
June 23, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
Sjoerd A Veldhuis, Pablo P Boix, Natalia Yantara, Mingjie Li, Tze Chien Sum, Nripan Mathews, Subodh G Mhaisalkar
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have cemented their position as an exceptional class of optoelectronic materials thanks to record photovoltaic efficiencies of 22.1%, as well as promising demonstrations of light-emitting diodes, lasers, and light-emitting transistors. Perovskite materials with photoluminescence quantum yields close to 100% and perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 8% and current efficiencies of 43 cd A(-1) have been achieved. Although perovskite light-emitting devices are yet to become industrially relevant, in merely two years these devices have achieved the brightness and efficiencies that organic light-emitting diodes accomplished in two decades...
August 2016: Advanced Materials
Vladimir Sukhov
This review summarizes current works concerning the effects of electrical signals (ESs) on photosynthesis, the mechanisms of the effects, and its physiological role in plants. Local irritations of plants induce various photosynthetic responses in intact leaves, including fast and long-term inactivation of photosynthesis, and its activation. Irritation-induced ESs, including action potential, variation potential, and system potential, probably causes the photosynthetic responses in intact leaves. Probable mechanisms of induction of fast inactivation of photosynthesis are associated with Ca(2+)- and (or) H(+)-influxes during ESs generation; long-term inactivation of photosynthesis might be caused by Ca(2+)- and (or) H(+)-influxes, production of abscisic and jasmonic acids, and inactivation of phloem H(+)-sucrose symporters...
May 6, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
H De Raedt, M I Katsnelson, K Michielsen
We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments...
May 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Tracy L Lohr, Zhi Li, Tobin J Marks
To reduce global reliance on fossil fuels, new renewable sources of energy that can be used with the current infrastructure are required. Biomass represents a major source of renewable carbon based fuel; however, the high oxygen content (∼40%) limits its use as a conventional fuel. To utilize biomass as an energy source, not only with current infrastructure, but for maximum energy return, the oxygen content must be reduced. One method to achieve this is to develop selective catalytic methods to cleave C-O bonds commonly found in biomass (aliphatic and aromatic ethers and esters) for the eventual removal of oxygen in the form of volatile H2O or carboxylic acids...
May 17, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ufana Riaz, Syed M Ashraf, Anurakshee Verma
BACKGROUND: Nanocomposites consisting of spatially confined polymeric chains are of great interest due to their application in optoelectronic and photonics devices. Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted much attention in industry as well as academia owing to their remarkable physical and chemical properties as compared to conventional polymer nanocomposites. METHODS: In present study, comparative investigation of the in-situ polymerization of poly(ophenylenediamine) intercalated montmorillonite has been done via two methods i...
2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Mengyi Xiong, Qiming Rong, Hong-Min Meng, Xiao-Bing Zhang
Two-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNSs) with planar graphene-like structure have stimulated increasingly research interest in recent years due to their unique physicochemical properties. CNNSs possess superior stability, high fluorescence quantum yield, low-toxicity, excellent biocompatibility, unique electroluminescent and photoelectrochemical properties, which make them appropriate candidates for biosensing. In this review, we first introduce the preparation and unique properties of CNNSs, with emphasis on their superior properties for biosensing...
March 18, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Florian Venghaus, Wolfgang Eisfeld
Robust diabatization techniques are key for the development of high-dimensional coupled potential energy surfaces (PESs) to be used in multi-state quantum dynamics simulations. In the present study we demonstrate that, besides the actual diabatization technique, common problems with the underlying electronic structure calculations can be the reason why a diabatization fails. After giving a short review of the theoretical background of diabatization, we propose a method based on the block-diagonalization to analyse the electronic structure data...
March 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nobuhiro Yanai, Nobuo Kimizuka
An emerging field of triplet energy migration-based photon upconversion (TEM-UC) is reviewed. Highly efficient photon upconversion has been realized in a wide range of chromophore assemblies, such as non-solvent liquids, ionic liquids, amorphous solids, gels, supramolecular assemblies, molecular crystals, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The control over their assembly structures allows for unexpected air-stability and maximum upconversion quantum yield at weak solar irradiance that has never been achieved by the conventional molecular diffusion-based mechanism...
April 7, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
S N Aisyiyah Jenie, Sally E Plush, Nicolas H Voelcker
Luminescence-based detection paradigms have key advantages over other optical platforms such as absorbance, reflectance or interferometric based detection. However, autofluorescence, low quantum yield and lack of photostability of the fluorophore or emitting molecule are still performance-limiting factors. Recent research has shown the need for enhanced luminescence-based detection to overcome these drawbacks while at the same time improving the sensitivity, selectivity and reducing the detection limits of optical sensors and biosensors...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
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