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quantum yield review

Lin Cui, Chen-Chen Li, Bo Tang, Chun-Yang Zhang
Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct characteristics of high brightness, large Stokes shift and broad absorption spectra, large molar extinction coefficients, high quantum yield, good photostability and long fluorescence lifetime. The QDs have replaced the conventional fluorophores with wide applications in immunoassays, microarrays, fluorescence imaging, targeted drug delivery and therapy. The integration of QDs with various nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, carbon allotropes, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), metal oxides and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) brings new opportunities and possibilities in nanoscience and nanotechnology...
May 8, 2018: Analyst
Magdalena Makarska-Bialokoz
The specific spectroscopic and redox properties of porphyrins predestine them to fulfill the role of sensors during interacting with different biologically active substances. Monitoring of binding interactions in the systems porphyrin-biologically active compound is a key question not only in the field of physiological functions of living organisms, but also in environmental protection, notably in the light of the rapidly growing drug consumption and concurrently the production of drug effluents. Not always beneficial action of drugs on natural porphyrin systems induces to further studies, with commercially available porphyrins as the model systems...
April 18, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Odilon A P Tavares, Maria Letizia Terranova
The task of an accurate determination of alpha-decay rate of 147 Sm isotope, a topic of importance in both basic and applied science, has been performed in the present research following two different routes. First, a critical review and data analysis of the whole set of half-life values obtained till date yielded an average of 106.3 ± 0.5 Ga. Second, a one-parameter, semi-empirical model for alpha emission from nuclei, developed in the framework of quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism through a Coulomb-plus-centrifugal-plus-overlapping potential barrier, that yielded a value of 108...
April 6, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yoon Jeong, Yun-Min Kook, Kangwon Lee, Won-Gun Koh
Fluorescence-based biosensor platforms have been intensively investigated not only to increase the sensitivity but also to improve the performance of biosensors. By exploiting metal from the macroscopic down to the nanoscopic surface, various architectures have been devised to manipulate fluorescence signals (enhancement, quenching) within near-optical fields. The interaction of a metallic surface with proximal fluorophores (in the range of 5-90 nm) has beneficial effects on optical properties such as an increased quantum yield, improved photostability and a reduced lifetime of fluorophores...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Gloria Tabacchi
Empty spaces are abhorred by nature that immediately rushes in to fill the void. Humans have learnt pretty well how to make ordered empty nanocontainers, and to get useful products out of them. When such an order is imparted to molecules, new properties may appear, often yielding advanced applications. This review illustrates how the organized void space inherently present in various materials - zeolites, clathrates, mesoporous silica/organosilica, and metal organic frameworks (MOF), for example, can be exploited to create confined, organized, and self-assembled supramolecular structures of low-dimensionality...
March 24, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Luca Malfatti, Plinio Innocenzi
Carbon dots are an emerging class of carbon-based nanostructures produced by low-cost raw materials which exhibit a widely-tunable photoluminescence and a high quantum yield. The potential of these nanomaterials as a substitute of semiconductor quantum dots in optoelectronics and biomedicine is very high, however they need a customized chemistry to be integrated in host-guest systems or functionalized in core-shell structures. This review is focused on recent advances of the sol-gel chemistry applied to the C-dots technology...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Quinten A Akkerman, Gabriele Rainò, Maksym V Kovalenko, Liberato Manna
Lead halide perovskites (LHPs) in the form of nanometre-sized colloidal crystals, or nanocrystals (NCs), have attracted the attention of diverse materials scientists due to their unique optical versatility, high photoluminescence quantum yields and facile synthesis. LHP NCs have a 'soft' and predominantly ionic lattice, and their optical and electronic properties are highly tolerant to structural defects and surface states. Therefore, they cannot be approached with the same experimental mindset and theoretical framework as conventional semiconductor NCs...
May 2018: Nature Materials
David Écija, José I Urgel, Ari P Seitsonen, Willi Auwärter, Johannes V Barth
Metallo-supramolecular engineering on surfaces provides a powerful strategy toward low-dimensional coordination architectures with prospects for several application fields. To date, most efforts have relied on transition metal centers, and only recently did we pioneer lanthanide-directed assembly. Coordination spheres and motifs with rare-earth elements generally display distinct properties and structural features. The size of the cations and shielding role of the 4f orbitals induces high coordination numbers, frequently entailing flexible coordination geometries...
February 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
S C Nunes, V de Zea Bermudez
The development of sophisticated organized materials exhibiting enhanced properties is a challenging topic of the domain of organic/inorganic hybrid materials. This review, composed of four sections, reports the work we have carried out over the last 10 years on the synthesis of amide cross-linked alkyl/siloxane hybrids by means of sol-gel chemistry and self-directed assembly/self-organization routes relying on weak interactions (hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding). The various as-produced lamellar structures displaying a myriad of morphologies, often closely resembling those found in natural materials, are discussed...
February 6, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Isaac N Mills, Jonathan A Porras, Stefan Bernhard
The exponential growth in published studies on phosphorescent metal complexes has been triggered by their utilization in optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, and biological labeling applications. Very recent breakthroughs in organic photoredox transformations have further increased the research efforts dedicated to discerning the inner workings and structure-property relationships of these chromophores. Initially, the principal focus was on the Ru(II)-tris-diimine complex family. However, the limited photostability and lack of luminescence tunability discovered in these complexes prompted a broadening of the research to include 5d transition metal ions...
February 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xiqian Jiang, Lingfei Wang, Shaina L Carroll, Jianwei Chen, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang
SIGNIFICANCE: The concentrations of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are critical to various biochemical processes. Small-molecule fluorescent probes have been widely used to detect and/or quantify ROS/RNS in many redox biology studies and serve as an important complementary to protein-based sensors with unique applications. Recent Advances: New sensing reactions have emerged in probe development, allowing more selective and quantitative detection of ROS/RNS, especially in live cells...
February 16, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Berhane Temelso, Elizabeth F Morrison, David L Speer, Bobby C Cao, Nana Appiah-Padi, Grace Kim, George C Shields
Sulfate aerosols' cooling effect on the global climate has spurred research to understand their mechanisms of formation. Both theoretical and laboratory studies have shown that the formation of sulfate aerosols is enhanced by the presence of a base like ammonia. Stronger alkylamine bases such as monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) further increase aerosol formation rates by many orders of magnitude relative to that of ammonia. However, recent lab measurements have found that the presence of ammonia and alkylamines together increases nucleation rates by another 1-2 orders of magnitude relative to the stronger alkylamines alone...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Yasmine Braeken, Srujan Cheruku, Anitha Ethirajan, Wouter Maes
During the last decade, conjugated polymers have emerged as an interesting class of fluorescence imaging probes since they generally show high fluorescence brightness, high photostability, fast emission rates, non-blinking behavior and low cytotoxicity. The main concern related to most conjugated polymers is their lack of hydrophilicity and thereby poor bio-availability. This can, however, be overcome by the formulation of conjugated polymer nanoparticles in aqueous medium. This review provides an overview of the different techniques employed for the preparation of conjugated polymer nanoparticles, together with methods to improve their photoluminescence quantum yields...
December 12, 2017: Materials
Olga A Krasheninina, Darya S Novopashina, Evgeny K Apartsin, Alya G Venyaminova
In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the use of pyrene-modified oligonucleotides as a platform for functional nucleic acid-based constructs. Pyrene is of special interest for the development of nucleic acid-based tools due to its unique fluorescent properties (sensitivity of fluorescence to the microenvironment, ability to form excimers and exciplexes, long fluorescence lifetime, high quantum yield), ability to intercalate into the nucleic acid duplex, to act as a π-π-stacking (including anchoring) moiety, and others...
November 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Juan Hu, Zi-Yue Wang, Chen-Chen Li, Chun-Yang Zhang
Single-molecule detection provides a simple and ultrasensitive platform to quantify target molecules by simply counting the individual fluorescence signals. Quantum dots (QDs) are novel semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct characteristics of high brightness, large Stokes shift and broad absorption spectra, high molar extinction coefficients, high quantum yield, good photostability and long fluorescence lifetime. The combination of single-molecule detection with QDs enables the development of single QD-based nanosensors with extremely high sensitivity...
December 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Dan Li, Zhenhua Chen, Xifan Mei
Noble metal nanoclusters have attracted great attentions in the area of fluorescence related applications due to their special properties such as low toxicity, excellent photostability and bio-compatibility. However, they still describe disadvantages for low quantum yield compared to quantum dots and organic dyes though the brightness of the fluorescence play an important role for the efficiency of the applications. Attentions have been attracted for exploring strategies to enhance the fluorescence based on the optical fundamentals through various protocols...
December 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Veerasamy Sathish, Arumugam Ramdass, Murugesan Velayudham, Kuang-Lieh Lu, Pounraj Thanasekaran, Seenivasan Rajagopal
The detection of chemical explosives is a major area of research interest and is essential for the military as well as homeland security to counter the catastrophic effects of global terrorism. In recent years, tremendous effort has been devoted to the development of luminescent materials for the detection of explosives in the vapor, solution, and solid states with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity and a rapid response time. Apart from the wide range of organic fluorescent chemosensors, transition metal complexes play a prominent role in the sensing of nitroaromatic explosives owing to their rich photophysical characteristics...
November 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Michael Atiyah, Maciej Dunajski, Lionel J Mason
We review aspects of twistor theory, its aims and achievements spanning the last five decades. In the twistor approach, space-time is secondary with events being derived objects that correspond to compact holomorphic curves in a complex threefold-the twistor space. After giving an elementary construction of this space, we demonstrate how solutions to linear and nonlinear equations of mathematical physics-anti-self-duality equations on Yang-Mills or conformal curvature-can be encoded into twistor cohomology...
October 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Qingsong Shan, Jizhong Song, Yousheng Zou, Jianhai Li, Leimeng Xu, Jie Xue, Yuhui Dong, Boning Han, Jiawei Chen, Haibo Zeng
Metal halide perovskites have drawn significant interest in the past decade. Superior optoelectronic properties, such as a narrow bandwidth, precise and facile tunable luminance over the entire visible spectrum, and high photoluminescence quantum yield of up to ≈100%, render metal halide perovskites suitable for next-generation high-definition displays and healthy lighting systems. The external quantum efficiency of perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) increases from 0.1 to 11.7% in three years; however, the energy conversion efficiency and the long-term stability of perovskite LEDs are inadequate for practical application...
December 2017: Small
Raffaello Mazzaro, Francesco Romano, Paola Ceroni
Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) synthesized by plasma-induced or high temperature processes (e.g., thermal disproportionation of hydrogen silsesquioxane at T > 1100 °C) display bright (photoluminescence quantum yield up to 70%) and long-lived luminescence (hundreds of μs), which can be tuned from green to red and near-infra-red spectral regions according to nanocrystal dimensions. The present review focuses on the parameters affecting the optical properties of these SiNCs, namely size, shape, surface, degree of crystallinity, and on a method to increase their brightness by functionalising SiNCs with dyes to build up a light-harvesting antenna...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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