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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223490/implicit-causality-bias-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Haley C Dresang, Lyn S Turkstra
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury often experience impairments in pragmatic language functions. Pragmatic language has been studied primarily in connected language genres such as narratives. It may be, however, that individuals with traumatic brain injury also miss microscopic cues, such as social cues embedded in single word meanings or sentence structure. The current study examined one type of sentence-level pragmatic language cue: implicit causality bias...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222595/-prostate-cancer-risk-calculator-mobile-applications-apps-a-systematic-review-and-scoring-using-the-validated-user-version-of-the-mobile-application-rating-scale-umars
#2
Ahmed Adam, Julian C Hellig, Marlon Perera, Damien Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk
PURPOSE: The use of mobile phone applications (Apps) has modernised the conventional practice of medicine. The diagnostic ability of the current Apps in prostate specific antigen monitoring, and its diagnostic ability within prostate cancer (PCa) risk calculators have not yet been appraised. We aimed to review, rate and assess the everyday functionality, and utility of all the currently available PCa risk calculator Apps. METHODS: A systematic search on iTunes, Google Play Store, Blackberry World and Windows Apps Store, was performed on 23/11/2017, using the search term 'prostate cancer risk calculator'...
December 8, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220528/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-neuropsychological-performance-of-the-child-at-5-years-of-age
#3
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Zeyan Liew, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
Context: Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. Objective: To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Design: Follow-up study. Participants: A cohort of 1,153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216861/impaired-mixed-emotion-processing-in-the-right-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-an-fmri-study
#4
Ádám György Szabó, Kinga Farkas, Csilla Marosi, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Rudas, János Réthelyi, Gábor Csukly
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a negative effect on the activity of the temporal and prefrontal cortices in the processing of emotional facial expressions. However no previous research focused on the evaluation of mixed emotions in schizophrenia, albeit they are frequently expressed in everyday situations and negative emotions are frequently expressed by mixed facial expressions. METHODS: Altogether 37 subjects, 19 patients with schizophrenia and 18 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216477/human-laterality-for-manipulation-and-gestural-communication-related-to-60-everyday-activities-impact-of-multiple-individual-related-factors
#5
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
Literature on laterality emphasises the importance of implementing a comprehensive investigation of humans' and non-humans' laterality for both non-communication and communication functions. Adopting a global approach should enhance our understanding of the mechanistic drivers of human brain functional lateralisation and help to explore further the nature of the left-hemispheric systems for both functions. This study investigated human laterality for both functions by taking, for the first time, numerous behaviours and multiple potential influential factors into consideration...
November 11, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214139/the-effects-of-advance-notice-on-problem-behavior-occasioned-by-interruptions-of-an-ongoing-activity-in-a-young-girl-with-autism
#6
Stephanie Vasquez, Adam Brewer, Yanerys Leon, Janet Vasquez
The current study describes a trial-based functional analysis of problem behavior conducted in a home setting for a 7-year-old girl with autism. Problem behavior was occasioned by interruptions to an ongoing activity. Advance notice, in the form of a 2-min warning, and the sound of a timer were used to signal termination of a current activity and were effective at reducing problem behavior along with increasing compliance to the interruptive demands. A trial-based functional analysis, which are not common in the applied literature, was conducted in a home setting for young girl with autism, using antecedent and consequence modifications described by Hagopian, Bruzek, Bowman, and Jennett (2007), identified the variables that occasioned and maintained problem behavior were interruptions to an ongoing activity followed by regaining uninterrupted access to the previous activity...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213235/changes-in-predictive-task-switching-with-age-and-with-cognitive-load
#7
Shelly Levy-Tzedek
Predictive control of movement is more efficient than feedback-based control, and is an important skill in everyday life. We tested whether the ability to predictively control movements of the upper arm is affected by age and by cognitive load. A total of 63 participants were tested in two experiments. In both experiments participants were seated, and controlled a cursor on a computer screen by flexing and extending their dominant arm. In Experiment 1, 20 young adults and 20 older adults were asked to continuously change the frequency of their horizontal arm movements, with the goal of inducing an abrupt switch between discrete movements (at low frequencies) and rhythmic movements (at high frequencies)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212350/the-effects-of-cognitive-training-on-cognitive-abilities-and-everyday-function-a-10-week-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Bo Chen, Yiluo Wei, Wengen Deng, Shaobang Sun
With a random groups design, the current study examined whether a 10-week cognitive training could improve healthy older adult's cognitive functions and everyday problem-solving and whether high ecological validity trainings would have greater positive impact upon everyday problem-solving than low ecological validity trainings. Eighty-six healthy Chinese older adult participants were assigned randomly to five groups, including one control group receiving no training and four groups receiving low ecological memory training, high ecological memory training, low ecological reasoning training, and high ecological reasoning training, respectively...
January 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211117/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-melbourne-decision-making-questionnaire-to-brazilian-portuguese
#9
Charles Cotrena, Laura Damiani Branco, Rochele Paz Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Decision making (DM) is among the most important abilities for everyday functioning. However, the most widely used measures of DM come from behavioral paradigms, whose ecological validity and standalone use has been criticized in the literature. Though these issues could be addressed by the use of DM questionnaires as a complementary assessment method, no such instruments have been validated for use in Brazilian Portuguese. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct the translation and validation of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) for use in a Brazilian population...
December 4, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209957/salvianolate-reduces-glucose-metabolism-disorders-in-dimethylnitrosamine-induced-cirrhotic-rats
#10
Li-Rui Tang, Yan-Yan Tao, Cheng-Hai Liu, Hai-Nan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the preventive effect of salvianolate (Sal B) on glucose metabolism disorders of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Fifty-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=10) and a cirrhotic group (n=45) according to a random number table. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of DMN. The cirrhotic rats were divided into model, Sal B and metformin groups (n=15), respectively. Rats in the model group were given saline, two treatment groups were given Sal B (50 mg/kg), metformin (150 mg/kg) respectively for 28 consecutive days, while rats in the control group were injected 0...
December 5, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198249/the-closing-in-phenomenon-in-an-ecological-walking-task
#11
Natascia De Lucia, Dario Grossi, Graziella Milan, Luigi Trojano
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may show the Closing-in (CI), a tendency to reproduce figures close to or superimposed on the model. AD patients with CI might manifest reduced functional independence compared to AD patients without CI, but no study directly assessed if CI can hamper common daily living activities. To address this issue here we investigated whether AD patients with CI veer their walking trajectory toward irrelevant objects more often than AD patients without CI...
December 4, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197416/joint-awareness-in-posttraumatic-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee-validation-of-the-forgotten-joint-score-in-long-term-condition-after-tibial-plateau-fracture
#12
Florian Baumann, Johannes Weber, Daniel Mahr, Martin Bäumlein, Maximilian Kerschbaum, Karolina Müller, Paavo Rillmann, Michael Nerlich, Markus Loibl
BACKGROUND: Evaluating patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in early osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is difficult. Established measurement tools are focused on one of the two major patient groups in knee surgery: young, highly active patients, or older patients with advanced degenerative OA of the knee. Joint awareness in everyday life is a crucial criterion in measuring PRO. The purpose of this study was to validate a German version of the "Forgotten Joint Score" (FJS) in patients after surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures...
December 2, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196760/transfer-of-an-induced-preferred-retinal-locus-of-fixation-to-everyday-life-visual-tasks
#13
Maria J Barraza-Bernal, Katharina Rifai, Siegfried Wahl
Subjects develop a preferred retinal locus of fixation (PRL) under simulation of central scotoma. If systematic relocations are applied to the stimulus position, PRLs manifest at a location in favor of the stimulus relocation. The present study investigates whether the induced PRL is transferred to important visual tasks in daily life, namely pursuit eye movements, signage reading, and text reading. Fifteen subjects with normal sight participated in the study. To develop a PRL, all subjects underwent a scotoma simulation in a prior study, where five subjects were trained to develop the PRL in the left hemifield, five different subjects on the right hemifield, and the remaining five subjects could naturally chose the PRL location...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191480/preterm-birth-leads-to-hyper-reactive-cognitive-control-processing-and-poor-white-matter-organization-in-adulthood
#14
Alexander Olsen, Emily L Dennis, Kari Anne I Evensen, Ingrid Marie Husby Hollund, Gro C C Løhaugen, Paul M Thompson, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Live Eikenes, Asta K Håberg
Individuals born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤ 1500 g) are at high risk for perinatal brain injuries and deviant brain development, leading to increased chances of later cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. Here we investigated the neuronal underpinnings of both reactive and proactive cognitive control processes in adults with VLBW. We included 32 adults born preterm with VLBW (before 37th week of gestation) and 32 term-born controls (birth weight ≥10th percentile for gestational age) between 22 and 24 years of age that have been followed prospectively since birth...
November 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190392/reminiscence-in-everyday-conversations-a-naturalistic-observation-study-of-older-adults
#15
Burcu Demiray, Marianne Mischler, Mike Martin, Bob G Knight
Objectives: We examined older adults' social reminiscence behavior in everyday life, and the relation between reminiscence functions and well-being. Method: The sample included 2,164 sound snippets that included speech from 45 healthy older adults. We examined reminiscence in daily conversations using the Electronically Activated Recorder. Across four days, we collected a random sample of about 280 sound files (30 seconds long) per participant. Participants' utterances were coded for whether they included reminiscence, for their functions and conversation partners...
November 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185845/a-qualitative-study-on-the-effects-of-psychoactive-substance-use-upon-artistic-creativity
#16
Fruzsina Iszaj, Bea Ehmann, Mark D Griffiths, Zsolt Demetrovics
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use has often been claimed to help generate and facilitate the artistic creative process. AIMS: This study explored the role of artists' substance use in their creative processes and their efforts to balance between enhancement and relaxation. METHODS: Semistructured interviews concerning the artistic creative process and the role of psychoactive substance use were recorded with 72 artists and analyzed using content analysis...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184533/correlations-between-motor-symptoms-across-different-motor-tasks-quantified-via-random-forest-feature-classification-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Andreas Kuhner, Tobias Schubert, Massimo Cenciarini, Isabella Katharina Wiesmeier, Volker Arnd Coenen, Wolfram Burgard, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph Maurer
Background: Objective assessments of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' motor state using motion capture techniques are still rarely used in clinical practice, even though they may improve clinical management. One major obstacle relates to the large dimensionality of motor abnormalities in PD. We aimed to extract global motor performance measures covering different everyday motor tasks, as a function of a clinical intervention, i.e., deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181427/effect-of-short-term-colored-light-exposure-on-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-oxygenation-and-systemic-physiological-activity
#18
Felix Scholkmann, Timo Hafner, Andreas Jaakko Metz, Martin Wolf, Ursula Wolf
There is not yet a comprehensive view of how the color of light affects the cerebral and systemic physiology in humans. The aim was to address this deficit through basic research. Since cerebral and systemic physiological parameters are likely to interact, it was necessary to establish an approach, which we have termed "systemic-physiology-augmented functional near-infrared spectroscopy (SPA-fNIRS) neuroimaging." This multimodal approach measures the systemic and cerebral physiological response to exposure to light of different colors...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181044/clinical-features-management-and-mortality-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-patients-with-heart-failure-observations-from-the-commit-hf-registry
#19
Łukasz Siedlecki, Bożena Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Łukasz Pyka, Bogumiła Król, Wioletta Szczurek, Mariusz Gąsior
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF) are two common diseases that often co-exist. Aim: To explore clinical characteristics, management strategies and rates of 3-year mortality among diabetic and non-diabetic patients hospitalised in a highly specialized interventional cardiology centre. Material and methods: We used data from COMMIT-HF (COnteMporary Modalities In Treatment of Heart Failure), which is a single-centre, observational, prospective registry of patients with symptomatic chronic systolic HF (LVEF < 35%)...
September 2017: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180969/effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-functional-capacity-in-schizophrenia-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Zui Narita, Takuma Inagawa, Kazushi Maruo, Kazuki Sueyoshi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Schizophrenia patients elicit a wide range of psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms, mood symptoms, and cognitive impairment. Functional capacity is defined as the ability to perform everyday living skills, which is linked to cognition and real-world functional outcome. In a previous open trial, we demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), one of the neuromodulation methods, improved cognition and functional capacity in 28 patients with schizophrenia. However, since it was a pilot study, a controlled trial is needed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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