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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051739/impaired-feedback-processing-for-symbolic-reward-in-individuals-with-internet-game-overuse
#1
Jinhee Kim, Hackjin Kim, Eunjoo Kang
Reward processing, which plays a critical role in adaptive behavior, is impaired in addiction disorders, which are accompanied by functional abnormalities in brain reward circuits. Internet gaming disorder, like substance addiction, is thought to be associated with impaired reward processing, but little is known about how it affects learning, especially when feedback is conveyed by less-salient motivational events. Here, using both monetary (±500 KRW) and symbolic (Chinese characters "right" or "wrong") rewards and penalties, we investigated whether behavioral performance and feedback-related neural responses are altered in Internet game overuse (IGO) group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050912/a-systematic-review-of-the-measurement-of-function-in-late-life-depression
#2
REVIEW
Kathleen S Bingham, Sanjeev Kumar, Deirdre R Dawson, Benoit H Mulsant, Alastair J Flint
Recovery of everyday premorbid function is a primary goal in the treatment of depression. Measurement of function is an important part of achieving this goal. A multitude of scales have been used to measure function in depression, reflecting the complex, multifaceted nature of functioning. Currently, however, there are no evidence-based guidelines to assist the researcher or clinician in deciding which instruments are best suited to measure function in late-life depression (LLD). Thus, the aims of this study are to 1) systematically review and identify the instrumental activities of daily living and social functioning assessment instruments used in the LLD literature; 2) identify and appraise the measurement properties of these instruments; and 3) suggest factors for LLD researchers and clinicians to consider when selecting functional assessment instruments and make pertinent recommendations...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050508/-doing-with-%C3%A2-rather-than-doing-for-%C3%A2-older-adults-rationale-and-content-of-the-stay-active-at-home-programme
#3
Silke F Metzelthin, Gertrud Ar Zijlstra, Erik van Rossum, Janneke M de Man-van Ginkel, Barbara Resnick, Gill Lewin, Matthew Parsons, Gertrudis Ijm Kempen
BACKGROUND: Owing to increasing age, accidents or periods of illness, home care services are provided to community-dwelling older adults. Traditionally, these services focus on doing things for older adults rather than with them; though from a rehabilitative perspective, it is important to assist older adults to attain and maintain their highest level of functioning. Consequently, a re-orientation of home care services is required away from treating disease and creating dependency towards focusing on capabilities and opportunities and maximising independence...
November 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047197/locus-of-control-optimism-and-recollections-of-depression-and-self-reported-cognitive-functioning-following-treatment-for-colorectal-cancer
#4
Carlene Wilson, Kristy Giles, Ted Nettelbeck, Amanda Hutchinson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of disposition (locus of control, optimism, depression) on recollections of cognitive functioning following cancer treatment. METHODS: Participants were survivors of colorectal cancer (n = 88) and their spouses (n = 40). Survivors retrospectively rated their cognitive functioning and depression, as experienced following treatment; and currently rated their dispositions for optimism and locus of control. Survivors' spouses likewise provided their recollections of survivors' cognitive functioning and depression at time following treatment...
October 18, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046634/cognitive-training-enhances-auditory-attention-efficiency-in-older-adults
#5
Jennifer L O'Brien, Jennifer J Lister, Bernadette A Fausto, Gregory K Clifton, Jerri D Edwards
Auditory cognitive training (ACT) improves attention in older adults; however, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. The present study examined the effects of ACT on the P3b event-related potential reflecting attention allocation (amplitude) and speed of processing (latency) during stimulus categorization and the P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting perceptual processing (amplitude and latency). Participants completed an auditory oddball task before and after 10 weeks of ACT (n = 9) or a no contact control period (n = 15)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045599/a-modulatory-effect-of-brief-passive-exposure-to-non-linguistic-sounds-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-relevance-to-cognitive-performance
#6
Maki S Koyama, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Cynthia P Roesler, Michael P Milham, April A Benasich
A growing literature on resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) has explored the impact of preceding sensory experience on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). However, it remains largely unknown how passive exposure to irrelevant auditory stimuli, which is a constant in everyday life, reconfigures iFC. Here, we directly compared pre- and post-exposure R-fMRI scans to examine: 1) modulatory effects of brief passive exposure to repeating non-linguistic sounds on subsequent iFC, and 2) associations between iFC modulations and cognitive abilities...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042777/self-rated-cognitive-functions-following-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-6-month-prospective-study
#7
Ryosuke Kitahata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Hiroyuki Uchida, Tetsu Hayashida, Maiko Takahashi, Shintaro Nio, Jinichi Hirano, Maki Nagaoka, Takefumi Suzuki, Hiromitsu Jinno, Yuko Kitagawa, Masaru Mimura
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate subjective (self-rated), family-rated, and objective (researcher-rated) cognitive functions in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy. METHOD: We conducted a prospective study to trace self-rated cognitive functions in 30 patients with breast cancer at the completion of chemotherapy (T0) and 6 months later (T1). Subjective cognitive functions were assessed with Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-S), and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC-S) for attention, executive function, and episodic memory, respectively...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041822/when-i-do-i-become-someone-experiences-of-occupational-performance-in-young-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#8
Lena Bergqvist, Ann-Marie Öhrvall, Kate Himmelmann, Marie Peny-Dahlstrand
PURPOSE: Persons with cerebral palsy, even if they have relatively good motor functions, have a lower level of independence and participation in everyday activities than persons of the same age without disabilities. However, there are few descriptions of how persons with cerebral palsy themselves perceive their performance of activities in everyday life. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions that young adults with cerebral palsy have of occupational performance in everyday life...
October 17, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039993/physical-activity-pre-and-post-dementia-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#9
Mira Soni, Martin Orrell, Stephan Bandelow, Andrew Steptoe, Snorri Rafnsson, Eleonora d'Orsi, Andre Xavier, Eef Hogervorst
BACKGROUND: To inform public health interventions, further investigation is needed to identify: (1) frequency/intensity of everyday physical activity (PA) needed to reduce dementia risk; (2) whether post-diagnosis reduction in PA is associated with cognitive outcomes in people with dementia. METHODS: Data from 11,391 men and women (aged ≥50) were obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort. Assessments were carried out at baseline (2002-2003) and at biannual follow-ups (2004-2013)...
October 17, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035069/emotion-recognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-static-and-dynamic-factors
#10
Cory I Wasser, Felicity Evans, Clare Kempnich, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston, Sophie C Andrews, Dominic Thyagarajan, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the hypothesis that Parkinson's disease (PD) participants would perform better in an emotion recognition task with dynamic (video) stimuli compared to a task using only static (photograph) stimuli and compared performances on both tasks to healthy control participants. METHOD: In a within-subjects study, 21 PD participants and 20 age-matched healthy controls performed both static and dynamic emotion recognition tasks. The authors used a 2-way analysis of variance (controlling for individual participant variance) to determine the effect of group (PD, control) on emotion recognition performance in static and dynamic facial recognition tasks...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034477/hybrid-bodies-and-the-materiality-of-everyday-life-how-people-living-with-pacemakers-and-defibrillators-reinvent-everyday-routines-and-intimate-relations
#11
Nelly Oudshoorn
Technologies inside bodies pose new challenges in a technological culture. For people with pacemakers and defibrillators, activities such as passing security controls at airports, using electromagnetic machines, electrical domestic appliances and electronic devices, and even intimate contacts with their loved ones can turn into events where the proper functioning of their device may be at risk. Anticipation of potentially harmful events and situations thus becomes an important part of the choreography of everyday life...
October 15, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033826/everyday-functioning-benefits-from-an-assisted-living-platform-amongst-frail-older-adults-and-their-caregivers
#12
Lucile Dupuy, Charlotte Froger, Charles Consel, Hélène Sauzéon
Ambient assisted living technologies (AAL) are regarded as a promising solution to support aging in place. Yet, their efficacy has to be demonstrated in terms of benefits for independent living and for work conditions of caregivers. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of a multi-task AAL platform for both Frail older Individuals (FIs) and professional caregivers with respect to everyday functioning and caregiver burden. In this context, a 6-month field study involved 32 FIs living at home (half of them were equipped by the platform and the remaining half were not, as a control condition) and their caregivers...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033801/heavy-drinking-in-college-students-is-associated-with-accelerated-gray-matter-volumetric-decline-over-a-2-year-period
#13
Shashwath A Meda, Alecia D Dager, Keith A Hawkins, Howard Tennen, Sarah Raskin, Rebecca M Wood, Carol S Austad, Carolyn R Fallahi, Godfrey D Pearlson
Background: Heavy and/or harmful alcohol use while in college is a perennial and significant public health issue. Despite the plethora of cross-sectional research suggesting deleterious effects of alcohol on the brain, there is a lack of literature investigating the longitudinal effects of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain. We aim to probe the longitudinal effects of college drinking on gray matter change in students during this crucial neurodevelopmental period. Methods: Data were derived from the longitudinal Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS) study of whom a subset underwent brain MRI scans at two time points 24 months apart...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031531/a-functional-connectivity-based-neuromarker-of-sustained-attention-generalizes-to-predict-recall-in-a-reading-task
#14
David C Jangraw, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Daniel A Handwerker, Merage Ghane, Monica D Rosenberg, Puja Panwar, Peter A Bandettini
Sustaining attention to the task at hand is a crucial part of everyday life, from following a lecture at school to maintaining focus while driving. Lapses in sustained attention are frequent and often problematic, with conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Recent work has had some success in finding signatures of sustained attention in whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) measures during basic tasks, but since FC can be dynamic and task-dependent, it remains unclear how fully these signatures would generalize to a more complex and naturalistic scenario...
October 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027688/preoperative-ultrasonographic-assessment-of-the-anterior-pelvic-plane-for-personalized-total-hip-replacement
#15
Andrzej Kochman, Adrian Goral, Josef Kozak, Wojciech Marek, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Marek Synder
OBJECTIVES: Correct positioning of the acetabular component is a key factor in minimizing the risk of dislocation after total hip replacement (THR) surgery. A "safe" orientation of the cup is usually defined by 2 angles measured between its geometric axis and the anterior pelvic plane. However, in the current state-of-the-art approach to THR surgery, the intraoperative orientation of the anterior pelvic plane cannot be measured. Even less is known about the functional orientation of the pelvis, which determines the postoperative orientation of the cup during the patient's everyday activities...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027615/assessment-of-the-role-of-everolimus-therapy-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-based-on-daily-routine-and-recent-research-results
#16
Anikó Maráz, András Csejtei, Judit Kocsis, Miklós Szűcs, Zsuzsanna Kahán, György Bodoky, Magdolna Dank, László Mangel, János Révész, Zoltán Varga, Lajos Géczi
Everolimus is indicated for adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after failure of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Currently, the therapeutic applicability of EVE has been changing. Multicenter evaluation of efficacy and safety of everolimus in daily routine and definition of patient characteristics with favorable outcome. Data of 165 patients from 9 oncology institutes in Hungary were analyzed retrospectively. Everolimus therapy was used after one TKI in 10 mg starting dose...
October 13, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020848/concussion-alters-the-functional-brain-processes-of-visual-attention-and-working-memory
#17
Priyanka Shah-Basak, Charline Urbain, Simeon Wong, Leodante Da Costa, Elizabeth W Pang, Benjamin Dunkley, Margot Taylor
Millions of North Americans suffer a concussion or a mild traumatic brain injury annually and are at risk of cognitive, emotional and physical sequelae. While fMRI studies have provided an initial framework for examining functional deficits induced by concussion, particularly working memory and attention, the temporal dynamics underlying these deficits are not well understood. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), a modality with millisecond temporal resolution, in conjunction with a 1-back visual working memory (VWM) paradigm using scenes from everyday life to characterize spatiotemporal functional differences at specific VWM stages, in adults who did or did not suffer a recent concussion...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020472/effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-combined-with-cognitive-training-on-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adults-with-hiv-a-pilot-study
#18
Pariya L Fazeli, Adam J Woods, Caitlin N Pope, David E Vance, Karlene K Ball
The objective of this study was to examine combination speed of processing (SOP) cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) and transcranial direct stimulation (tDCS) as neurorehabilitation in older HIV+ adults. Thirty-three HIV+ adults aged 50+ completed neurocognitive testing and were randomized to either active (n = 17) or sham (n = 16) tDCS. Both conditions received 10 1-hour sessions of SOP CRT, with either active or sham tDCS for the first 20 minutes. Participants then completed a posttest assessment...
October 11, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016449/self-reported-decline-in-everyday-function-cognitive-symptoms-and-cognitive-function-in-people-with-hiv
#19
Rosanna Laverick, Lewis Haddow, Marina Daskalopoulou, Fiona Lampe, Richard Gilson, Andrew Speakman, Andrea Antinori, Tina Bruun, Anna Vassilenko, Simon Collins, Alison Rodger
BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993113/the-cognitive-impact-of-chronic-low-back-pain-positive-effect-of-multidisciplinary-pain-therapy
#20
Marcus Schiltenwolf, Michael Akbar, Eva Neubauer, Simone Gantz, Herta Flor, Andreas Hug, Haili Wang
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the affected cognitive problems in chronic low back pain patients. For this patient cohort research mostly focused on memory of pain, rather than cognitive difficulties related to pain. Chronic pain may be associated with specific (yet undefined) cognitive deficits that affect everyday behaviour. We set out to compare the cognitive function of patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in the course of multidisciplinary pain treatments before and after therapy...
October 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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