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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450447/interplay-among-psychopathologic-variables-personal-resources-context-related-factors-and-real-life-functioning-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-a-network-analysis
#1
Silvana Galderisi, Paola Rucci, Brian Kirkpatrick, Armida Mucci, Dino Gibertoni, Paola Rocca, Alessandro Rossi, Alessandro Bertolino, Gregory P Strauss, Eugenio Aguglia, Antonello Bellomo, Martino Belvederi Murri, Paola Bucci, Bernardo Carpiniello, Anna Comparelli, Alessandro Cuomo, Domenico De Berardis, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabio Di Fabio, Barbara Gelao, Carlo Marchesi, Palmiero Monteleone, Cristiana Montemagni, Giulia Orsenigo, Francesca Pacitti, Rita Roncone, Paolo Santonastaso, Alberto Siracusano, Annarita Vignapiano, Antonio Vita, Patrizia Zeppegno, Mario Maj
Importance: Enhanced understanding of factors associated with symptomatic and functional recovery is instrumental to designing personalized treatment plans for people with schizophrenia. To date, this is the first study using network analysis to investigate the associations among cognitive, psychopathologic, and psychosocial variables in a large sample of community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia. Objective: To assess the interplay among psychopathologic variables, cognitive dysfunctions, functional capacity, personal resources, perceived stigma, and real-life functioning in individuals with schizophrenia, using a data-driven approach...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449430/a-critical-role-for-the-nucleus-reuniens-in-long-term-but-not-short-term-associative-recognition-memory-formation
#2
G R I Barker, E C Warburton
Recognition memory for single items requires the perirhinal cortex (PRH), while recognition of an item and its associated location, requires a functional interaction between the PRH, hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). While the precise mechanisms through which these interactions are effected are unknown, the nucleus reuniens (NRe) has bidirectional connections with each regions and hence may play a role in recognition memory. Here we investigated, in male rats, whether specific manipulations of NRe function affected performance of recognition memory for single items, object location or object-in-place associations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445335/dual-tasking-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-a-cognitive-screening-instrument
#3
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Madlen Paucke, Tjalf Ziemssen
The monitoring of cognitive functions is central to the assessment and consecutive management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Though, especially cognitive processes that are central to everyday behavior like dual-tasking are often neglected. We examined dual-task performance using a psychological-refractory period (PRP) task in N = 21 patients and healthy controls and conducted standard neuropsychological tests. In dual-tasking, MS patients committed more erroneous responses when dual-tasking was difficult. In easier conditions, performance of MS patients did not differ to controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445329/the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-psychomotor-and-visual-perception-functions-related-to-driving-skills
#4
Alexander Brunnauer, Felix M Segmiller, Sabine Löschner, Valérie Grun, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm
Objective: It could be demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances accuracy in working memory tasks and reaction time in healthy adults and thus may also have an influence on complex everyday tasks like driving a car. However, no studies have applied tDCS to psychomotor skills related to a standard driving test so far. Methods: 10 female and 5 male healthy adults without any medication and history of psychiatric or neurological illness were randomly assigned to two groups receiving active and sham stimulation in a double blind, cross-over study design...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443936/ageing-with-hiv
#5
REVIEW
Padraig McGettrick, Elena Alvarez Barco, Patrick W G Mallon
The population of people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing older with an estimated 4 million over the age of 50 years, a figure which has doubled since the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and which is increasing globally. Despite effective ART, PLWH still experience excess morbidity and mortality compared to the general population with increased prevalence of age-related, non-AIDS illnesses (NAI) such as cardiovascular disease, malignancies, cognitive impairment and reduced bone mineral density, which impact disability and everyday functioning...
February 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443692/executive-function-and-childhood-stuttering-parent-ratings-and-evidence-from-a-behavioral-task
#6
Katerina Ntourou, Julie D Anderson, Stacy A Wagovich
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the executive function (EF) abilities of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) using a parent-report questionnaire and a behavioral task. METHOD: Participants were 75 CWS and 75 CWNS between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 (years; months). Parents rated their children's EF abilities using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003). Children's ability to integrate cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory was measured using a behavioral task, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS; Cameron Ponitz, McClelland, Matthews, & Morrison, 2009)...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441037/the-integration-of-realistic-episodic-memories-relies-on-different-working-memory-processes-evidence-from-virtual-navigation
#7
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440654/effects-of-diversity-in-olfactory-environment-on-children-s-sense-of-smell
#8
Lenka Martinec Nováková, Jitka Fialová, Jan Havlíček
Diversity in children's everyday olfactory environment may affect the development of their olfactory abilities and odor awareness. To test this, we collected data on olfactory abilities using the Sniffin' Sticks and odor awareness with Children's Olfactory Behaviors in Everyday Life Questionnaire in 153 preschool children and retested them one and a half year later. Parents completed an inventory on children's exposure to a variety of odors and on their own odor awareness using the Odor Awareness Scale. We controlled for the effects of age and verbal fluency on the children's performance...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438910/is-there-a-generalized-timing-impairment-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-across-time-scales-and-paradigms
#9
Sofia Isaksson, Susanna Salomäki, Jarno Tuominen, Valtteri Arstila, Christine M Falter-Wagner, Valdas Noreika
Individuals with ASD have abnormal motor and perceptual functions that do not currently form diagnostic criteria of ASD, but nevertheless may affect everyday behaviour. Temporal processing seems to be one of such non-diagnostic yet impaired domains, although the lack of systematic studies testing different aspects of timing in the same sample of participants prevents a conclusive assessment of whether there is a generalized temporal deficit in ASD associated with diagnostic symptoms. 17 children diagnosed with ASD and 18 typically developing age- and IQ-matched controls carried out a set of motor and perceptual timing tasks: free tapping, simultaneity judgment, auditory duration discrimination, and verbal duration estimation...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433362/the-icf-has-made-a-difference-to-functioning-and-disability-measurement-and-statistics
#10
Rosamond H Madden, Anita Bundy
AIMS: Fifteen years after the publication of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), we investigated: How ICF applications align with ICF aims, contents and principles, and how the ICF has been used to improve measurement of functioning and related statistics. METHODS: In a scoping review, we investigated research published 2001-2015 relating to measurement and statistics for evidence of: a change in thinking; alignment of applications with ICF specifications and philosophy; and the emergence of new knowledge...
February 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432117/closed-loop-continuous-hand-control-via-chronic-recording-of-regenerative-peripheral-nerve-interfaces
#11
Philip P Vu, Zachary T Irwin, Autumn J Bullard, Shoshana W Ambani, Ian C Sando, Melanie G Urbanchek, Paul S Cederna, Cynthia A Chestek
Loss of the upper limb imposes a devastating interruption to everyday life. Full restoration of natural arm control requires the ability to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom of the prosthetic arm and maintain that control over an extended period of time. Current clinically available myoelectric prostheses do not provide simultaneous control or consistency for transradial amputees. To address this issue, we have implemented a standard Kalman filter for continuous hand control using intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from both regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNI) and an intact muscle within non-human primates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423616/frequency-and-predictors-of-post-stroke-delirium-in-prospective-observational-polish-study-propolis
#12
P Pasinska, K Kowalska, E Klimiec, A Szyper-Maciejowska, A Wilk, A Klimkowicz-Mrowiec
Delirium is the most common and serious neurobehavioral complication in acute hospital admissions. Some patients develop signs of delirium but do not meet all diagnostic criteria. Stroke is a major risk factor for delirium. The aim of this prospective study was to build a predictive model for delirium and subsyndromal post-stroke delirium. Patients with stroke were screened for delirium during the first 7 days after admission. Delirium was diagnosed according to DSM-V criteria. Baseline demographic, biochemical, stroke-related data, medications used, neurological deficit, and premorbid cognitive and functional impairment were assessed...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421814/herbal-preparation-stw%C3%A2-5-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-clinical-experience-in-everyday-practice
#13
Tatiana L Lapina, Alexander S Trukhmanov
BACKGROUND: The most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with a prevalence in the general population of 15-20% (FD) and 10% (IBS), respectively. The complexity of pathophysiologic mechanisms and limitations in therapeutic options make the management of FD and IBS patients a challenge in routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: Syndromes classified as FGID frequently overlap, and coexist with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415244/the-more-we-are-in-control-the-merrier-partner-perceived-control-and-negative-affect-in-the-daily-lives-of-older-couples
#14
Johanna Drewelies, Hannah Schade, Gizem Hülür, Christiane A Hoppmann, Nilam Ram, Denis Gerstorf
Objectives: It is well established that daily perceived control is closely associated with lower negative affect among older adults. However, it is an open question whether control perceptions of one's partner are also uniquely associated with one's own negative affect. Method: To examine such associations in dyads of older long-term partners, we make use of data obtained six times a day over seven consecutive days as participants went about their everyday lives (N = 87 couples; mean age = 75 years; mean relationship length = 46 years)...
February 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414457/visualising-numerals-an-erps-study-with-the-attentional-snarc-task
#15
Mario Pinto, Enrico Fattorini, Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D'Onofrio, Gianfranco Fortunato, Fabrizio Doricchi
Inspecting or transforming the position of Arabic numbers in mental space helps everyday mathematical calculations. Nonetheless the neural and functional bases of this ability are poorly understood. Here we show that imagining the position of Arabic numbers on a horizontal mental number line speeds up the detection of targets appearing at corresponding positions in visual space. No similar advantage is found when numbers are merely perceived or classified according to their magnitude. Imagery enhanced electrophysiological activity in the extrastriate cortex contralateral to the imagined number position...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411691/prospective-memory-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-with-or-without-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-preliminary-study
#16
Sonia Marcone, Jean-François Gagnon, Catherine Desjardins, Annie-Claude David, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Sven Joubert, Isabelle Rouleau
OBJECTIVE: The ability to execute delayed intentions, known as prospective memory (PM), is crucial to everyday living. PM failures are reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Parkinson's disease, however, no study to date has investigated PM functioning in individuals at high risk of developing these conditions, precisely those diagnosed with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). We aimed to assess PM in iRBD according to patients' cognitive status and to determine the underlying nature of their difficulties...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410933/using-the-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-panss-to-define-different-domains-of-negative-symptoms-prediction-of-everyday-functioning-by-impairments-in-emotional-expression-and-emotional-experience
#17
Philip D Harvey, Anzalee Khan, Richard S E Keefe
Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used as the data source of this study...
December 1, 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410334/epidemiology-of-traumatic-upper-limb-amputations
#18
G Pomares, H Coudane, F Dap, G Dautel
INTRODUCTION: While published data on functional outcomes after upper limb amputations are plentiful, epidemiology data are relatively rare. This led us to performing an epidemiology study of traumatic upper limb amputations at our facility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study spanned a 10-year period of cases seen at the SOS Main (Hand emergency center) of the Nancy University Hospital in France. Patients who suffered traumatic amputation of the upper limb were identified and divided into two groups: replantation and surgical amputation...
February 1, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409793/brain-mechanisms-underlying-cue-based-memorizing-during-free-viewing-of-movie-memento
#19
Janne Kauttonen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Pia Tikka
How does the human brain recall and connect relevant memories with unfolding events? To study this, we presented 25 healthy subjects, during functional magnetic resonance imaging, the movie 'Memento' (director C. Nolan). In this movie, scenes are presented in chronologically reverse order with certain scenes briefly overlapping previously presented scenes. Such overlapping "key-frames" serve as effective memory cues for the viewers, prompting recall of relevant memories of the previously seen scene and connecting them with the concurrent scene...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409339/ten-myths-about-work-addiction
#20
Mark D Griffiths, Zsolt Demetrovics, Paweł A Atroszko
Background and aims Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psychosocial consequences of work addiction, (d) work addiction and workaholism are the same thing, (e) work addiction exclusively occurs as a consequence of individual personality factors, (f) work addiction only occurs in adulthood, (g) some types of work addiction are positive, (h) work addiction is a transient behavioral pattern related to situational factors, (i) work addiction is a function of the time spent engaging in work, and (j) work addiction is an example of overpathogizing everyday behavior and it will never be classed as a mental disorder in the DSM...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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