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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639877/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-changes-in-everyday-function-over-time-the-importance-of-evaluating-both-speed-and-accuracy
#1
Caroline L Lassen-Greene, Kayla Steward, Ozioma Okonkwo, Ellen Porter, Michael Crowe, David E Vance, H Randall Griffith, Karlene Ball, Daniel C Marson, Virginia G Wadley
OBJECTIVES: Research estimates that a significant percentage of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) experience functional difficulties. In addition to reduced accuracy on measures of everyday function, cross-sectional research has demonstrated that speed of performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is slowed in individuals with MCI. The present study investigated whether baseline and longitudinal changes in speed and accuracy of IADL performance differed between persons with MCI and cognitively normal peers...
July 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639821/perceived-discrimination-associations-with-physical-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#2
Aparna Shankar, Petra Hinds
OBJECTIVES: Perceived discrimination has been associated with poor physical and psychological health. There is limited research examining perceived discrimination in older adults, and its effects on health in later life. The aim of this study is to extend research in this area by examining longitudinal associations between reported everyday discrimination and physical and cognitive function in older adults. METHOD: The present study uses a national sample of 4,886 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
June 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639482/-always-looking-for-a-new-balance-toward-an-understanding-of-what-it-takes-to-continue-working-while-being-diagnosed-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Hanneke van der Meide, Dennis van Gorp, Karin van der Hiele, Leo Visser
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of work in the everyday lives of people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and the barriers and facilitators to staying in work. METHODS: Nineteen employed adults diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis participated in narrative interviews. All interviews were transcribed and coded for thematic analysis. RESULTS: For people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, continuing to work was a precarious balancing act...
June 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638966/measuring-everyday-functional-competence-using-the-rasch-assessment-of-everyday-activity-limitations-real-item-bank
#4
Martijn A H Oude Voshaar, Peter M Ten Klooster, Harald E Vonkeman, Mart A F J van de Laar
OBJECTIVE: Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Seventy-two items generated from patient interviews and mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domestic life chapter were administered to 1128 adults representative of the Dutch population...
June 21, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638353/the-effects-of-spatial-endogenous-pre-cueing-across-eccentricities
#5
Jing Feng, Ian Spence
Frequently, we use expectations about likely locations of a target to guide the allocation of our attention. Despite the importance of this attentional process in everyday tasks, examination of pre-cueing effects on attention, particularly endogenous pre-cueing effects, has been relatively little explored outside an eccentricity of 20°. Given the visual field has functional subdivisions that attentional processes can differ significantly among the foveal, perifoveal, and more peripheral areas, how endogenous pre-cues that carry spatial information of targets influence our allocation of attention across a large visual field (especially in the more peripheral areas) remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637980/satisfaction-with-dietary-life-affects-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-and-subjective-well-being-in-very-elderly-people
#6
Toshimitsu Iinuma, Yasumichi Arai, Midori Takayama, Michiyo Takayama, Yukiko Abe, Yusuke Osawa, Motoko Fukumoto, Yusuke Fukui, Yohei Shioda, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Kazuo Komiyama, Nobuhito Gionhaku
Age-related deterioration in physical and oral health reduces healthy life expectancy and is thus an important problem for very elderly people. We investigated the effects of satisfaction with dietary life (SDL) in everyday life on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and subjective well-being and examined associations between these factors. We evaluated 426 elders aged 85 years or older. All participants completed a questionnaire that inquired about age, gender, drinking status, body mass index, cognitive function, disability, and comorbidities, among other covariates...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633543/staffs-documentation-of-participation-for-adults-with-profound-intellectual-disability-or-profound-intellectual-and-multiple-disabilities
#7
Lena Talman, Christine Gustafsson, Jonas Stier, Jenny Wilder
PURPOSE: This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. METHODS: A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633502/promoting-seniors-health-with-home-care-aides-a-pilot
#8
Naoko Muramatsu, Lijuan Yin, Michael L Berbaum, David X Marquez, Donald A Jurivich, Joseph P Zanoni, Katya Y Cruz Madrid, Surrey M Walton
Purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) benefits older adults. However, frail older adults lack opportunities to be physically active. This pilot study aimed to test and enhance the feasibility of a PA program delivered by home care aides (HCAs) for community-dwelling older adults in a Medicaid-funded home care setting and to generate preliminary efficacy and cost data. Design and Methods: HCAs were trained to deliver a brief motivational enhancement and three chair-bound movements to motivate their older clients to do PA daily and to help maintain their independence in the community...
June 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627938/-i-ve-got-somebody-there-someone-cares-what-support-is-most-valued-following-a-stroke
#9
Sarah Northcott, Katerina Hilari
PURPOSE: There is often a need for increased support following a stroke. This study explored what types of support are provided by different network members and what support functions are most valued. METHODS: Adults with first stroke were recruited from a stroke unit and participated in in-depth interviews 8-15 months poststroke. Framework Analysis was used to build thematic and explanatory accounts of the data. RESULTS: Twenty-nine participants took part...
June 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625494/acute-stress-shifts-the-balance-between-controlled-and-automatic-processes-in-prospective-memory
#10
Marcus Möschl, Moritz Walser, Franziska Plessow, Thomas Goschke, Rico Fischer
In everyday life we frequently rely on our abilities to postpone intentions until later occasions (prospective memory; PM) and to deactivate completed intentions even in stressful situations. Yet, little is known about the effects of acute stress on these abilities. In the present work we investigated the impact of acute stress on PM functioning under high task demands. 1) Different from previous studies, in which intention deactivation required mostly low processing demands, we used salient focal PM cues to induce high processing demands during intention-deactivation phases...
June 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625210/household-everyday-functioning-in-the-internet-age-online-shopping-and-banking-skills-are-affected-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#11
Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Marizela Verduzco, Tyler V Smith, Clint Cushman
OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. METHODS: Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623152/singapore-healthy-older-people-everyday-hope-study-prevalence-of-frailty-and-associated-factors-in-older-adults
#12
Reshma A Merchant, Matthew Zhixuan Chen, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Moses YiDong Lim, Han Kwee Ho, Rob M van Dam
BACKGROUND: In the context of a rapidly ageing population, Singapore is anticipating a rise in multimorbidity, disability, and dependency, which are driven by physical frailty. Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) is an epidemiologic population-based study on community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older in Singapore. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of frail and prefrail states and their association with polypharmacy, multimorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621882/exercise-capacity-and-functional-performance-in-heart-failure-patients-supported-by-a-left-ventricular-assist-device-at-discharge-from-inpatient-rehabilitation
#13
Thomas Schmidt, Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens, Petra Bartsch, Ezin Deniz, Jan Schmitto, Sebastian Schulte-Eistrup, Detlev Willemsen, Nils Reiss
Adequate physical and functional performance is an important prerequisite for renewed participation and integration in self-determined private and (where appropriate) professional lives following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. During cardiac rehabilitation (CR), individually adapted exercise programs aim to increase exercise capacity and functional performance. A retrospective analysis of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and functional performance in LVAD patients at discharge from a cardiac rehabilitation program was conducted...
June 16, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620342/challenges-for-service-robots-requirements-of-elderly-adults-with-cognitive-impairments
#14
Agnieszka Korchut, Sebastian Szklener, Carla Abdelnour, Natalia Tantinya, Joan Hernández-Farigola, Joan Carles Ribes, Urszula Skrobas, Katarzyna Grabowska-Aleksandrowicz, Dorota Szczęśniak-Stańczyk, Konrad Rejdak
OBJECTIVE: We focused on identifying the requirements and needs of people suffering from Alzheimer disease and early dementia stages with relation to robotic assistants. METHODS: Based on focus groups performed in two centers (Poland and Spain), we created surveys for medical staff, patients, and caregivers, including: functional requirements; human-robot interaction, the design of the robotic assistant and user acceptance aspects. Using Likert scale and analysis made on the basis of the frequency of survey responses, we identified users' needs as high, medium, and low priority...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617099/characterising-omission-errors-in-everyday-task-completion-and-cognitive-correlates-in-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#15
Jenna Beaver, Kaci B Wilson, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
OBJECTIVE: Functional ability declines with age and cognitive impairment. This study investigated errors of omission made by community-dwelling older adults completing everyday tasks in a naturalistic setting. METHOD: Sixty-five cognitively healthy older adults (HOA), 19 individuals with single domain mild cognitive impairment (sdMCI), 33 individuals with multi-domain MCI (mdMCI), and 13 individuals with dementia completed measures of memory, processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning, as well as eight different activities of daily living in a naturalistic environment...
June 14, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613974/inhibition-of-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-produces-emotionally-biased-first-impressions-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-electroencephalography-study
#16
Regina C Lapate, Jason Samaha, Bas Rokers, Hamdi Hamzah, Bradley R Postle, Richard J Davidson
Optimal functioning in everyday life requires the ability to override reflexive emotional responses and prevent affective spillover to situations or people unrelated to the source of emotion. In the current study, we investigated whether the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) causally regulates the influence of emotional information on subsequent judgments. We disrupted left lPFC function using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recorded electroencephalography (EEG) before and after. Subjects evaluated the likeability of novel neutral faces after a brief exposure to a happy or fearful face...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609295/clubber-removing-the-bioinformatics-bottleneck-in-big-data-analyses
#17
Maximilian Miller, Chengsheng Zhu, Yana Bromberg
With the advent of modern day high-throughput technologies, the bottleneck in biological discovery has shifted from the cost of doing experiments to that of analyzing results. clubber is our automated cluster-load balancing system developed for optimizing these "big data" analyses. Its plug-and-play framework encourages re-use of existing solutions for bioinformatics problems. clubber's goals are to reduce computation times and to facilitate use of cluster computing. The first goal is achieved by automating the balance of parallel submissions across available high performance computing (HPC) resources...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608170/stress-reactivity-as-a-pathway-from-attentional-control-deficits-in-everyday-life-to-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescent-girls
#18
Karen D Rudolph, Jennifer D Monti, Megan Flynn
The goal of this research was to expand theoretical models of adolescent depression to determine whether individual differences in cognitive processing-specifically attentional control deficits-help to explain increased risk for depression during adolescence. We also examined whether this pathway was stronger in girls than in boys. A longitudinal design was used to examine whether poor attentional control in everyday life (i.e., difficulties shifting between ideas, tasks, and activities) contributes to depression over time by fostering higher levels of stress reactivity...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604052/lifespan-changes-in-attention-revisited-everyday-visual-search
#19
Allison A Brennan, Alison J Bruderer, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Todd C Handy, James T Enns
This study compared visual search under everyday conditions among participants across the life span (healthy participants in 4 groups, with average age of 6 years, 8 years, 22 years, and 75 years, and 1 group averaging 73 years with a history of falling). The task involved opening a door and stepping into a room find 1 of 4 everyday objects (apple, golf ball, coffee can, toy penguin) visible on shelves. The background for this study included 2 well-cited laboratory studies that pointed to different cognitive mechanisms underlying each end of the U-shaped pattern of visual search over the life span (Hommel et al...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604048/talking-is-harder-than-listening-the-time-course-of-dual-task-costs-during-naturalistic-conversation
#20
April M C Lee, Stefania Cerisano, Karin R Humphreys, Scott Watter
Many studies have shown that the cognitive demands of language use are a substantial cause of central dual-task costs, including costs on concurrent driving performance. More recently, several studies have considered whether language production or comprehension is inherently more difficult with respect to costs on concurrent performance, with mixed results. This assessment is particularly difficult given the open question of how one should best equate and compare production and comprehension demands and performance...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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