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Everyday functioning

Ross Parry, Olivier Buttelli, Jacques Riff, Narjis Sellam, Marie Vidailhet, Marie-Laure Welter, Elodie Lalo
PURPOSE: This study sought to characterize the way patients with Parkinson's disease consciously perceive and respond to their surroundings while walking in everyday situations. METHOD: A qualitative research program designed around an ecological data collection protocol was employed. A convenience sample of 14 patients with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and a history of gait difficulties were recruited. Details regarding patients' subjective experience of walking in everyday environments were obtained using first person interviewing techniques with the support of video footage from their daily-life activity...
June 19, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Berit Björkman, Staffan Arnér, Iréne Lund, Lars-Christer Hydén
Background Phantom phenomena - pain or other sensations appearing to come from amputated body parts - are frequent consequences of amputation and can cause considerable suffering. Also, stump pain, located in the residual limb, is in the literature often related to the phantom phenomena. The condition is not specific to amputated limbs and has, to a lesser extent, been reported to be present after radical surgery in other body parts such as breast, rectum and teeth. Multi-causal theories are used when trying to understand these phenomena, which are recognized as the result of complex interaction among various parts of the central nervous system confirmed in studies using functional brain imaging techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Johanna Thomtén
Background and aims Female genital pain is a debilitating problem that negatively affects several aspects of the life of women. Several studies present figures of prevalence indicating that the problem affects nearly 20% of young women. However, many women fail to consult health care and the estimated prevalence therefore remains insecure. Historically, genital pain was commonly viewed as either physiological or psychosexual. Although the current field of research and clinical expertise in general agree upon a biopsychosocial conceptualization, less is known about the manifestation of the problem in everyday life and the experience of seeking health care among afflicted women...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Justyna Gerłowska, Urszula Skrobas, Katarzyna Grabowska-Aleksandrowicz, Agnieszka Korchut, Sebastian Szklener, Dorota Szczęśniak-Stańczyk, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Konrad Rejdak
The aim of the present study is to present the results of the assessment of clinical application of the robotic assistant for patients suffering from mild cognitive impairments (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD). The human-robot interaction (HRI) evaluation approach taken within the study is a novelty in the field of social robotics. The proposed assessment of the robotic functionalities are based on end-user perception of attractiveness, usability and potential societal impact of the device. The methods of evaluation applied consist of User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ), AttrakDiff and the societal impact inventory tailored for the project purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Linling Li, Erni Ji, Fei Tang, Yunhai Qiu, Xue Han, Shengli Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Haichen Yang
Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have been conducted to elucidate emotion processing of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but due to different inclusion criteria used, especially for the history of medication use, the results for euthymic BD patients are inconsistent. For this reason, brain functional effects of psychopharmacological treatments on BD patients have been investigated by numerous fMRI studies, but there is no existing report for brain functional effects of different mood stabilizers...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Maite Barrios, Juana Gómez-Benito, Oscar Pino, Emilio Rojo, Georgina Guilera
Using the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of reference, this study identifies the most common problems of functioning and the environmental factors that are experienced by patients with schizophrenia. An empirical cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted. Data were collected using a case record form, rated by health professionals, that contained 133 ICF categories and which also gathered clinical and sociodemographic information. A total of 127 patients with schizophrenia participated...
June 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Chloe Jade Robbins, Peter Chapman
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the behavior and visual attention of two groups of drivers with differing pedal cycling experience (pedal cyclists and nonpedal cyclists) towards vulnerable road users at junctions in a driving simulator. BACKGROUND: Pedal cyclists and motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Many studies have found that car drivers who also hold a motorcycle license have increased awareness towards motorcycles...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
Christina Amidei
Survival alone is no longer an adequate outcome for persons with brain tumors; the quality of the survivorship experience should be viewed with equal importance. Symptom management is a significant component of quality survivorship care. Regardless of their histology, brain tumors and therapies used to treat them produce symptoms that affect an individual's ability to function in everyday life. Common symptoms include fatigue, cognitive impairment, distress, and sleep disturbance. Symptom-based interventions for persons with brain tumors focus on prevention, self-management and prescriptive interventions targeted to these problems...
June 13, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Silvia P Gennari, Rebecca E Millman, Mark Hymers, Sven L Mattys
Perceiving speech while performing another task is a common challenge in everyday life. How the brain controls resource allocation during speech perception remains poorly understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of cognitive load on speech perception by examining brain responses of participants performing a phoneme discrimination task and a visual working memory task simultaneously. The visual task involved holding either a single meaningless image in working memory (low cognitive load) or four different images (high cognitive load)...
June 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Gabrielle Thibault, Hossein Gholizadeh, Emily Sinitski, Natalie Baddour, Edward D Lemaire
Walking on various surfaces encountered in everyday life requires lower limb prosthesis users to continually adapt their movement patterns. Elevated vacuum suspension systems could improve transtibial amputee gait on non-level surfaces; however, research is lacking to guide clinical practice. Twelve transtibial amputees were fitted with the Össur sleeveless vacuum suspension system (Unity). After a one month accommodation period, the CAREN-Extended system was used to evaluate gait on a self-paced treadmill when walking with continuous perturbations (medial-lateral translations, rolling hills, simulated uneven ground) with an active or inactive vacuum suspension system...
2018: PloS One
Marcel W M Post, Jacinthe J E Adriaansen, Claudio Peter
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional psychometric study. OBJECTIVES: The University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale (UW-SES) is a measure of self-efficacy regarding managing challenges related to multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury (SCI) that can be used across disabling conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of its short form, the UW-SES-6, using the Rasch model. SETTING: Community, The Netherlands...
June 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
Paweł W Petryszyn, Leszek Paradowski
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) typically clinically manifest with symptoms like chronic diarrhea, cramps, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. However, symptoms of abnormal anorectal function seem to be of equal importance, regardless of the presence or absence of perianal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess stool patterns and the prevalence of symptoms of disordered anorectal function, particularly urgency and fecal incontinence, and their severity in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)...
June 12, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Helen Blank, Marlene Spangenberg, Matthew H Davis
Humans use prior expectations to improve perception, especially of sensory signals that are degraded or ambiguous. However, if sensory input deviates from prior expectations, correct perception depends on adjusting or rejecting prior expectations. Failure to adjust or reject the prior leads to perceptual illusions especially if there is partial overlap (hence partial mismatch) between expectations and input. With speech, "Slips of the ear" occur when expectations lead to misperception. For instance, a entomologist, might be more susceptible to hear "The ants are my friends" for "The answer, my friend" (in the Bob Dylan song "Blowing in the Wind")...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
P Giacardy, M Viellard, C Chatel, E Jourdan, E Avenel, S Elissalde, P Grandgeorge, V Murdymootoo, J Guivarch, L Boyer, F Poinso
INTRODUCTION: People suffering from autism spectrum disorders (ASD) provide atypical responses to sensorial stimulations, indicating specific sensory processing. These responses vary from one another and within the same individual with ASD, resulting in maladaptive functional capacities in everyday life. Factors explaining those specificities are poorly defined and need to be better identified. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between sensory modulation symptoms (SMSs) and maladaptive behaviors in a group of children with ASD...
June 7, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Toni D Withiel, Vanessa L Sharp, Dana Wong, Jennie L Ponsford, Narelle Warren, Renerus J Stolwyk
Memory impairment is common following stroke. Memory skills groups (MSGs) utilising compensatory strategies and computerised cognitive training (CCT) are two rehabilitation approaches available to improve memory function; however, there is no consensus as to which is more effective following stroke. This study aimed to explore and contrast the qualitative experiences of 20 stroke survivors (Mage  = 61.90, SD = 10.48, range: 34-77 years) who received six weeks' training in MSG (manualised memory skills group, n = 10) or individual-CCT (LumosityTM , n = 10)...
June 11, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Noa Zitron-Emanuel, Tzvi Ganel
Hunger, caused by mild amount of food deprivation, is an everyday physiological state familiar to us all. Ongoing research has pinpointed the way hunger affects peoples' physiological functions as well as their attitudes and allocation of attention toward domain-specific, food-related objects. Yet, little is known about the way food deprivation affects basic perceptual abilities. Here, we utilized size-contrast visual illusions commonly associated with food to explore the way deprivation affects relative processing of food size...
June 6, 2018: Appetite
Lourdes Vicent, Alberto Esteban-Fernández, Manuel Gómez-Bueno, Javier De-Juan, Pablo Díez-Villanueva, Ángel Manuel Iniesta, Ana Ayesta, Hugo González-Saldívar, Antonio Rojas-González, Ramón Bover-Freire, Diego Iglesias, Marcos García-Aguado, Jesús A Perea-Egido, Manuel Martínez-Sellés
Our aim is to describe the characteristics of the patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan (SV) in daily clinical practice. This is a prospective registry in 10 hospitals including all patients who started SV in everyday clinical practice.From October 2016 to March 2017, 427 patients started treatment with SV. The mean age was 68.1±12.4 years and 30.5% were women (22.0% in PARADIGM-HF, p<0.001). Comparing our cohort with patients included in PARADIGM-HF, baseline treatment was different, with a lower ratio of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Marlon O Pflueger, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz, Patrick Lemoine, Thomas Leyhe
OBJECTIVES: Since the advent of imaging techniques, the role of the neuropsychological assessment has changed. Questions concerning everyday functionality became primarily important and, thus, ecologically valid neuropsychological assessments are mandatory. Virtual reality (VR) environments might provide a way of implementing immersive cognitive assessments with a higher degree of everyday-life-related cognitive demands. METHOD: We report on a VR-based episodic memory examination in N = 30 young and N = 18 healthy older adults (HOA) using a kitchen scene...
June 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Yael Goverover, John DeLuca
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can have dramatic effects on performance of everyday life activity. However, the ability to assess everyday functional activity remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to establish validity and reliability to a performance-based assessment of everyday life activities called actual reality (AR). AR involves utilization of the Internet to perform three actual everyday life activities: purchasing (a) an airline ticket, (b) cookies, and (c) pizza...
May 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Guusje van der Leeuw, Suzanne G Leveille, Zhiyong Dong, Ling Shi, Daniel Habtemariam, William Milberg, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Laura Grande, Peggy Gagnon, Robert R McLean, Jonathan F Bean
OBJECTIVES: To examine the cross-sectional relationship between chronic pain and complex attention in a population of community-living older adults. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: Population-based Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly of Boston Study II. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 71 to 101 (N=354). MEASUREMENTS: Chronic pain was measured using the pain severity and interference subscales of the Brief Pain Inventory...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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