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Cognitive neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#1
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#2
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645546/post-sepsis-cognitive-impairment-and-associated-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Allan J C Calsavara, Vandack Nobre, Tatiana Barichello, Antonio L Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Post-sepsis cognitive impairment is one of the major sequelae observed in survivors of sepsis. This cognitive impairment can be global or may affect specific domains. A better understanding of these deficits and associated risk factors could influence the care of patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment and its associated risk factors among patients who survived sepsis. METHODS: The search was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to March 2017) and EMBASE (1988 to March 2017)...
June 20, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645229/cognitive-function-in-early-psychosis-patients-from-a-lower-middle-income-country
#4
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Rachel Thomasson, Tayyeba Kiran, Paul Bassett, Muhammad I Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
OBJECTIVES: To establish evidence of cognitive changes in early psychosis (EP) patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in Pakistan. METHODS: Fifty-one participants with EP were recruited from psychiatric units in Karachi and Rawalpindi, Pakistan and matched with 51 HC. Neurocognitive domains were assessed using standardised neuropsychological tests [the Stroop test, block design, Matrix Reasoning, picture completion, object assembly, oral fluency, memory for design, Coughlan learning task (verbal and visual)]...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645156/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Natalia Jozwiak, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Véronique Latreille, Michel Panisset, Sylvain Chouinard, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Jean-François Gagnon
Study Objectives: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33 to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment, and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language...
June 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644997/first-episode-psychosis-moderates-the-effect-of-gray-matter-volume-on-cognition
#6
Luis F S Castro-de-Araujo, Richard A A Kanaan
Patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) present with cognitive deficits and volume differences in certain brain areas. Brain volumetric information further correlates with cognitive testing, and multiple brain areas shows different strengths of correlation with the cognitive functions being tested. Traditionally, these cognitive functions are independently related to volumetric differences, but these functions share variance. Failing to account for this aspect of cognition hinders the proper representation of cognition in neuroimaging studies...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643997/brain-monitoring-in-adult-and-pediatric-ecmo-patients-the-importance-of-early-and-late-assessments
#7
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio S Taccone, Mirko Belliato, Thijs Delnoij, Paolo Zanatta, Mirjana Cvetkovic, Mark Davidson, Jan Belohlavek, Nashwa Matta, Carl Davis, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Thomas Mueller, Ralf Muellenbach, Dirk Donker, Piero David, Matteo DI Nardo, Dirk Vlasselaers, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Aparna Hoskote
Monitoring brain integrity and neuro-cognitive function is a new and important target for the management of a patient treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in particular because of the increasing awareness of cerebral abnormalities that may potentially occur in this setting. Continuous regular monitoring, as well as repeated assessment for cerebral complications has become an essential element of the ECMO patient management. Besides well-known complications, like bleeding, ischemic stroke, seizures, and brain hypoperfusion, other less defined yet relevant injury and clinical manifestations are increasingly reported and impacting on ECMO patient prognosis at short term...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643843/perisylvian-including-insular-childhood-epilepsy-presurgical-workup-and-surgical-outcome
#8
Elena Freri, Sara Matricardi, Francesca Gozzo, Massimo Cossu, Tiziana Granata, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: To report the presurgical workup, surgical procedures, and outcomes in a series of pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy involving the perisylvian/insular regions. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 16 pediatric patients affected by drug-resistant focal epilepsy involving perisylvian/insular regions, who consecutively underwent tailored resective surgery. All patients underwent a detailed presurgical workup, which included the analysis of the anatomoelectroclinical correlations with scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and/or with stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comprehensive cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643388/a-longitudinal-item-response-theory-model-to-characterize-cognition-over-time-in-elderly-subjects
#9
Marc Vandemeulebroecke, Björn Bornkamp, Tillmann Krahnke, Johanna Mielke, Andreas Monsch, Peter Quarg
For drug development in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, it is important to understand which cognitive domains carry most information on earliest signs of cognitive decline, and which subject characteristics are associated with a faster decline. A longitudinal Item Response Theory (IRT) model was developed for the Basel Study of the Elderly, in which the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease - Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (with additions) and the California Verbal Learning Test were measured on 1750 elderly subjects for up to 13...
June 23, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641679/normobaric-hypoxia-and-submaximal-exercise-effects-on-running-memory-and-mood-state-in-women
#10
Yongsuk Seo, Hayden D Gerhart, Jon Stavres, Curtis Fennell, Shane Draper, Ellen L Glickman
BACKGROUND: An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. METHODS: There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641589/modality-dependent-or-modality-independent-processing-in-mental-arithmetic-evidence-from-unimpaired-auditory-multiplication-for-a-patient-with-left-frontotemporal-stroke
#11
Dazhi Cheng, Haiyan Wu, Li Yuan, Rui Xu, Qian Chen, Xinlin Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. METHODS: We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641491/nicotine-and-cigarette-smoke-modulate-nrf2-bdnf-dopaminergic-signal-and-neurobehavioral-disorders-in-adult-rat-cerebral-cortex
#12
Nibedita Naha, D N Gandhi, A K Gautam, J Ravi Prakash
BACKGROUND: Nicotine and cigarette smoking (CS) are associated with addiction behavior, drug-seeking, and abuse. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association especially, the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine (DA), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the cerebral cortex, are not fully known. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of BDNF and DA, and suppression of Nrf2 contribute to several pathological and behavioral alterations in adult cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641332/executive-dysfunctions-predict-self-restricted-driving-habits-in-elderly-people-with-or-without-alzheimer-s-dementia
#13
Ilsemarie Kurzthaler, Georg Kemmler, Michaela Defrancesco, Bernadette Moser, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker, Elisabeth M Weiss
Introduction The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of specific cognitive functions on self-restricted driving habits in healthy elderly drivers and patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Method Our study population included 35 cognitively healthy controls, 10 MCI patients, and 16 patients with AD. All participants completed a neuropsychological examination and a self-reported questionnaire assessing driving habits and patterns. Results In challenging driving conditions, patients with MCI or AD showed significantly more driving self-restriction than healthy subjects (effect size d=1...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640143/relationship-between-postural-instability-and-subcortical-volume-loss-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Young-Wook Lee, Hyung Lee, In-Sung Chung, Hyon-Ah Yi
The relationship between postural instability and subcortical structure in AD has received less attention. The aims of this study were to assess whether there are differences in the ability to control balance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, and to investigate the association between subcortical gray matter volumes and postural instability in AD.We enrolled 107 consecutive AD patients and 37 controls. All participants underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluations, T1-weighted MRI at 3 T, and posture assessment using computerized dynamic posturography...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639993/peripheral-monocytes-macrophages-phenotypes-associated-to-the-evolution-of-cognitive-performance-in-hiv-infected-patients
#15
Massimiliano Fabbiani, Antonio Muscatello, Paolo Perseghin, Marco Bani, Arianna Incontri, Nicola Squillace, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
BACKGROUND: The contribution of monocyte activation in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders is not completely understood. This study aimed to explore the predictive value of peripheral monocyte/macrophage (M/M) phenotypes on the evolution of cognitive performance in a population of virologically-suppressed HIV-infected patients. SETTING: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. METHODS: HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL for >12 months underwent neuropsychological examination at baseline and after one year...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638722/associations-between-cognitive-impairment-and-motor-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Yi-Xuan Wang, Jue Zhao, Da-Ke Li, Fang Peng, Ying Wang, Ke Yang, Zhen-Yang Liu, Feng-Tao Liu, Jian-Jun Wu, Jian Wang
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have been carried out to explore the potential association between neurologic deficits and variable clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our study was to investigate the association between cognitive performance and motor dysfunction in Chinese patients with PD. METHODS: Data from 96 patients with PD were obtained from the Parkinson's disease patient cohort database of Huashan Hospital. All participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to assess cognitive status, that included scoring on the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), followed by more detailed cognitive assessment on five main cognitive domains (verbal memory, nonverbal memory, visuospatial function, language and attention/executive function)...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638024/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cognitive-impairment-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
L S Chutko, S Yu Surushkina, E A Yakovenko, Yu D Kropotov, A V Sergeev
AIM: To qualify cognitive impairment in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and evaluate the efficacy of memoplant in the treatment of this pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors present the results of the clinical, psychological and electroencephalographic examination of 40 patients with ADHD, aged from 18 to 45 years. All patients received memoplant in dose of 240 mg a day for 8 weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adult patients with ADHD were characterized by both subjective and objective disorders of memory and attention...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637379/neuropsychological-outcomes-of-pediatric-demyelinating-diseases-a-review
#18
Alexander Tan, Cole Hague, Benjamin M Greenberg, Lana Harder
Immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases impact various areas of the brain, optic nerves, and/or spinal cord and can result in a wide range of neurologic symptoms including adverse cognitive outcomes. Neuropsychological outcomes in adult multiple sclerosis (MS) are well documented, while literature on such outcomes in pediatric cohorts is more limited. Furthermore, literature on neuropsychological outcomes in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and transverse myelitis (TM) is even more limited...
June 21, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633060/childhood-adversity-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-major-depression
#19
Katharina Dannehl, Winfried Rief, Frank Euteneuer
OBJECTIVE: Major depression is often accompanied by deficits in cognitive functioning and lowered executive functions. However, not all depressed patients show impairments in these domains. The aim of this study was to examine whether different kinds of childhood adversity might account for cognitive deficits in patients with major depression. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with major depression (DSM-IV) and 40 healthy controls completed a neuropsychological test battery assessing memory, processing speed and executive functions...
June 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632770/men-women%C3%A2-who-cares-a-population-based-study-on-sex-differences-and-gender-roles-in-empathy-and-moral-cognition
#20
Sandra Baez, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Adolfo M García, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm...
2017: PloS One
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