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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427432/anti-human-platelet-antigen-hpa-1a-antibodies-may-affect-trophoblast-functions-crucial-for-placental-development-a-laboratory-study-using-an-in-vitro-model
#1
Mariana Eksteen, Gøril Heide, Heidi Tiller, Yan Zhou, Nora Hersoug Nedberg, Inigo Martinez-Zubiaurre, Anne Husebekk, Bjørn R Skogen, Tor B Stuge, Mette Kjær
BACKGROUND: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a bleeding disorder caused by maternal antibodies against paternal human platelet antigens (HPAs) on fetal platelets. Antibodies against HPA-1a are accountable for the majority of FNAIT cases. We have previously shown that high levels of maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies are associated with clinically significant reduced birth weight in newborn boys. Chronic inflammatory placental lesions are associated with increased risk of reduced birth weight and have previously been reported in connection with FNAIT pregnancies...
April 21, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396316/extravillous-trophoblast-and-endothelial-cell-crosstalk-mediates-leukocyte-infiltration-to-the-early-remodeling-decidual-spiral-arteriole-wall
#2
Ruhul H Choudhury, Caroline E Dunk, Stephen J Lye, John D Aplin, Lynda K Harris, Rebecca L Jones
Decidual spiral arteriole (SpA) remodeling is essential to ensure optimal uteroplacental blood flow during human pregnancy, yet very little is known about the regulatory mechanisms. Uterine decidual NK (dNK) cells and macrophages infiltrate the SpAs and are proposed to initiate remodeling before colonization by extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs); however, the trigger for their infiltration is unknown. Using human first trimester placenta, decidua, primary dNK cells, and macrophages, we tested the hypothesis that EVTs activate SpA endothelial cells to secrete chemokines that have the potential to recruit maternal immune cells into SpAs...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382860/dysregulation-of-lncrnas-in-placenta-and-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#3
Xuejing Song, Xiucui Luo, Quansheng Gao, Yuhuan Wang, Qing Gao, Wei Long
Preeclampsia, a gestational disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria twenty weeks into pregnancy, is one of the leading causes of fetal and maternal mortality. Although multiple genetic and environmental factors are found to be related to the preeclampsia risk, the pathogenic pathways remain largely undefined. The placenta plays a critical role in the fetal development by carrying out the barrier, fetal-maternal exchange, and endocrine functions during pregnancy. Accumulated data indicated that the expression of multiple long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) is dysregulated in preeclamptic placentas...
April 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#4
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) and Guillain- Barré Syndrome (GBS). Here we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363468/donor-mesenchymal-stem-cells-home-to-maternal-wounds-after-transamniotic-stem-cell-therapy-trascet-in-a-rodent-model
#5
Christopher D Graham, Hester F Shieh, Joseph A Brazzo, David Zurakowski, Dario O Fauza
PURPOSE: Transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) with amniotic fluid-derived MSCs (afMSCs) has emerged experimentally as a practical treatment strategy for congenital anomalies. In this study, we sought to determine whether afMSCs migrate to the mother following TRASCET. METHODS: Pregnant rat dams were divided into three groups. Two groups received volume-matched injections into all amniotic cavities of either a suspension of afMSCs labeled with a luciferase reporter gene or the luciferase protein alone...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358847/alpha-1-antitrypsin-suppresses-oxidative-stress-in-preeclampsia-by-inhibiting-the-p38mapk-signaling-pathway-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#6
Ya-Ling Feng, Yong-Xiang Yin, Jian Ding, Hua Yuan, Lan Yang, Jian-Juan Xu, Ling-Qin Hu
This present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) on oxidative stress in preeclampsia (PE) by regulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway. HTR8/SVneo cells were randomly assigned into normal, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), HR + AAT and HR + siRNA-AAT groups. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of p-p38MAPK, AAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and activating transcription factor2 (ATF2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332092/the-spectrum-of-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#7
Leila Chimelli, Adriana S O Melo, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Clayton A Wiley, Aline H S Camacho, Vania S Lopes, Heloisa N Machado, Cecilia V Andrade, Dione C A Dock, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Patricia S Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Angela C G Carvalho, Odile N Ugarte, Alba G M Batista, Melania M R Amorim, Fabiana O Melo, Thales A Ferreira, Jacqueline R L Marinho, Girlene S Azevedo, Jeime I B F Leal, Rodrigo F Madeiro da Costa, Stevens Rehen, Monica B Arruda, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Rodrigo Delvechio, Renato S Aguiar, Amilcar Tanuri
A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318555/regulation-of-the-prorenin-angiotensin-system-by-oxygen-and-mirnas-parallels-between-placentation-and-tumour-development
#8
Sarah J Delforce, Eugenie R Lumbers, Kirsty G Pringle
Tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) are involved in tissue growth and development as they are important regulators of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration. The placental RAS is most highly expressed in early gestation, at a time when the oxygen tension within the conceptus is reduced, and plays a key role in placental growth and development. Similar to the placenta, tumour development relies on proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion in order to grow and metastasize. The RAS is known to be upregulated in a variety of solid tumours, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical, breast and prostate...
March 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292467/hoxa9-transcriptionally-regulates-the-ephb4-receptor-to-modulate-trophoblast-migration-and-invasion
#9
Xiaoping Liu, Xiaoxia Liu, Weifang Liu, Minglian Luo, Hui Tao, Di Wu, Yin Zhao, Li Zou
INTRODUCTION: Functional placenta formation is crucially dependent on extravillous trophoblast migration and invasion. EPHB4 has been identified to play a negative but important role in regulating trophoblast biological function, whereas the upstream regulation mechanism remains unknown. As reported, there is a transcriptional stimulation of EPHB4 expression consequent to HOXA9 activation in endothelial cells (ECs). Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the role of HOXA9 and its relationship with EPHB4 in trophoblast cells...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274545/tumour-and-placenta-establishment-the-importance-of-antigen-processing-and-presentation
#10
Emma Reeves, Edward James
Classical and non-classical MHC class I (MHC I) molecules displayed at the cell surface are essential for the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. Classical MHC I present endogenously derived peptides to CD8(+) T cells for immunosurveillance of infected or malignant cells. By contrast, non-classical MHC I, in particular HLA-G, also display peptides, but primarily act as immunomodulatory ligands for the innate immune response and are an important component for extravillous trophoblast invasion to form the placenta in pregnancy...
February 28, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273207/kaempferol-inhibited-vegf-and-pgf-expression-and-in-vitro-angiogenesis-of-hrecs-under-diabetic-like-environment
#11
X H Xu, C Zhao, Q Peng, P Xie, Q H Liu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common and specific microvascular complications of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol and explore its underlying molecular mechanisms. The mRNA expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PGF) and the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF were measured by qTR-PCR and ELISA assay, respectively. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) proliferation, migration, and sprouting were measured by CCK-8 and transwell, scratching wound, and tube formation assays, respectively...
March 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259870/c-rel-promotes-invasion-of-choriocarcinoma-cells-via-pi3k-akt-signaling
#12
Yoko Sekiya, Eiko Yamamoto, Kaoru Niimi, Kimihiro Nishino, Kenichi Nakamura, Tomomi Kotani, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Kiyosumi Shibata, Fumitaka Kikkawa
OBJECTIVE: Choriocarcinoma is the most common epithelial cancer among gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs); the mechanism of trophoblastic carcinogenesis is unknown. This study aimed to examine the expression of NF-κB family proteins in GTDs and placental tissues as well as the roles of c-Rel in choriocarcinoma. METHODS: We examined the expression of NF-κB family proteins in normal placenta and hydatidiform mole tissues as well as extravillous trophoblast (EVT) and choriocarcinoma cell lines by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
March 4, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185362/definitive-class-i-human-leukocyte-antigen-expression-in-gestational-placentation-hla-f-hla-e-hla-c-and-hla-g-in-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-on-placentation-pregnancy-and-parturition
#13
Rinat Hackmon, Lakmini Pinnaduwage, Jianhong Zhang, Stephen J Lye, Daniel E Geraghty, Caroline E Dunk
PROBLEM: The extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) express HLA-C and HLA-G, but HLA-E and HLA-F are the subject of conflicting reports. In this study, we define the HLA expression profile during active EVT placental implantation, pregnancy development, and parturition. METHOD OF STUDY: Immunohistochemistry, q-PCR, and Western blot were used to investigate HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-F placental expression across gestation from the early first trimester, late first trimester, second trimester (n=10 in each), preterm gestation (n=6) to elective term cesarean section and term vaginal deliveries (n=12, 38-41 weeks)...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161053/htr-8-svneo-cell-line-contains-a-mixed-population-of-cells
#14
Wassim Abou-Kheir, Joanna Barrak, Ola Hadadeh, Georges Daoud
INTRODUCTION: The placenta, a transient organ in humans, is essential for pregnancy maintenance and fetal development. Trophoblast and stromal cells are the main cell types present in human placenta. Trophoblast cells are derivatives of the trophectoderm layer and fulfill the endocrine, exchange, invasion and implantation processes of the placenta, whereas stromal cells are of extraembryonic mesenchymal origin and are important for villous formation and maintenance. Different cell lines were developed to study trophoblast functions including BeWo, JEG-3 and JAR from chorioncarcinoma while HTR-8/SVneo was developed using first trimester extravillous trophoblast infected with simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40)...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148272/dose-dependent-induction-of-astrocyte-activation-and-reactive-astrogliosis-in-mouse-brain-following-maternal-exposure-to-carbon-black-nanoparticle
#15
Atsuto Onoda, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that maternal exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and nanoparticles has adverse effects of on the central nervous system. Quantitative dose-response data is required to better understand the developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present study investigated dose-dependent effects of maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticle (CB-NP) on astrocyte in the brains of mouse offspring. METHODS: A CB-NP suspension (2...
February 2, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144997/explant-culture-an-advantageous-method-for-isolation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-tissues
#16
REVIEW
Fatemeh Hendijani
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research progressively moves towards clinical phases. Accordingly, a wide range of different procedures were presented in the literature for MSC isolation from human tissues; however, there is not yet any close focus on the details to offer precise information for best method selection. Choosing a proper isolation method is a critical step in obtaining cells with optimal quality and yield in companion with clinical and economical considerations. In this concern, current review widely discusses advantages of omitting proteolysis step in isolation process and presence of tissue pieces in primary culture of MSCs, including removal of lytic stress on cells, reduction of in vivo to in vitro transition stress for migrated/isolated cells, reduction of price, processing time and labour, removal of viral contamination risk, and addition of supporting functions of extracellular matrix and released growth factors from tissue explant...
April 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115513/proton-pump-inhibitors-decrease-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-and-soluble-endoglin-secretion-decrease-hypertension-and-rescue-endothelial-dysfunction
#17
Kenji Onda, Stephen Tong, Sally Beard, Natalie Binder, Masanaga Muto, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Laura Parry, Mark Dilworth, Lewis Renshall, Fiona Brownfoot, Roxanne Hastie, Laura Tuohey, Kirsten Palmer, Toshihiko Hirano, Masahito Ikawa, Tu'uhevaha Kaitu'u-Lino, Natalie J Hannan
Preeclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy. Antiangiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin are secreted in excess from the placenta, causing hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and multiorgan injury. Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation exacerbate the endothelial injury. A drug that can block these pathophysiological steps would be an attractive treatment option. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are safe in pregnancy where they are prescribed for gastric reflux...
March 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076935/high-temperature-requirement-a1-and-fibronectin-two-possible-players-in-placental-tissue-remodelling
#18
G Tossetta, C Avellini, C Licini, S R Giannubilo, M Castellucci, D Marzioni
High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) is a secreted protease involved in placental development. Fibronectin (FN) is involved in important process such as wound healing, cell adhesion and spreading, growth, migration, and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression patterns of HtrA1 in relationship to FN and to the key growth zones of placenta such as mesenchymal villi as well as cell islands and cell columns. We demonstrated that FN and HtrA1 are localized in the placental key growth zones suggesting a pivotal role in maintaining the balance among the molecules involved in the placental development and differentiation...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072454/non-neuronal-acetylcholine-involved-in-reproduction-in-mammals-and-honeybees
#19
REVIEW
Ignaz Wessler, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Bacteria and archaea synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). Thus it can be postulated that ACh was created by nature roughly 3 billion years ago. Therefore, the wide expression of ACh in nature (i.e. in bacteria, archaea, unicellular organisms, plants, fungi, non-vertebrates and vertebrates and the abundance of non-neuronal cells of mammals) is not surprising. The term non-neuronal ACh and non-neuronal cholinergic system have been introduced to describe the auto- and paracrine, i.e. local regulatory actions of cells not innervated by neuronal cholinergic fibers to communicate among themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049695/dysregulated-dna-methyltransferase-3a-upregulates-igfbp5-to-suppress-trophoblast-cell-migration-and-invasion-in-preeclampsia
#20
Yuanhui Jia, Ting Li, Xiaojie Huang, Xianghong Xu, Xinyao Zhou, Linyan Jia, Jingping Zhu, Dandan Xie, Kai Wang, Qian Zhou, Liping Jin, Jiqin Zhang, Tao Duan
Preeclampsia is a unique multiple system disorder during human pregnancy, which affects ≈5% to 8% of pregnancies. Its risks and complications have become the major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although abnormal placentation to which DNA methylation dysregulation is always linked is speculated to be one of the reasons causing preeclampsia, the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive to date. Here we revealed that aberrant DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) plays a critical role in preeclampsia...
January 3, 2017: Hypertension
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