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Somatosensory cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543449/the-ascending-projections-of-the-nuclei-of-the-descending-trigeminal-tract-nttd-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#1
Macarena Faunes, J Martin Wild
In our traditional view of the avian somatosensory system, input from the beak and head reaches the telencephalon via a disynaptic pathway, involving projections from the principal sensory nucleus (PrV) directly to nucleus basorostralis (previously called nucleus basalis), whereas input from the rest of the body follows a trisynatic pathway similar to that in mammals, involving projections from the dorsal column nuclei to the thalamus, and thence to somatosensory cortex. However, the role of the nuclei of the descending trigeminal tract (nTTD) in this scenario is unclear, partly because their ascending projections have been examined in only one species, the mallard duck (Arends & Dubbeldam, 1984, Neuroscience 13(3):797-817)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541428/dissociable-roles-of-cerebral-%C3%AE-opioid-and-type-2-dopamine-receptors-in-vicarious-pain-a-combined-pet-fmri-study
#2
Tomi Karjalainen, Henry K Karlsson, Juha M Lahnakoski, Enrico Glerean, Pirjo Nuutila, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Riitta Hari, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
Neuroimaging studies have shown that seeing others in pain activates brain regions that are involved in first-hand pain, suggesting that shared neuromolecular pathways support processing of first-hand and vicarious pain. We tested whether the dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems involved in nociceptive processing also contribute to vicarious pain experience. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to quantify type 2 dopamine and μ-opioid receptor (D2R and MOR, respectively) availabilities in brains of 35 subjects...
May 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539876/plantar-sole-unweighting-alters-the-sensory-transmission-to-the-cortical-areas
#3
Laurence Mouchnino, Olivia Lhomond, Clément Morant, Pascale Chavet
It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#4
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#5
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529174/inhibitory-rtms-of-secondary-somatosensory-cortex-reduces-intensity-but-not-pleasantness-of-gentle-touch
#6
Laura K Case, Claire M Laubacher, Emily A Richards, Primavera Spagnolo, Håkan Olausson, MCatherine Bushnell
Research suggests that the discriminative and affective aspects of touch are processed differently in the brain. Primary somatosensory cortex is strongly implicated in touch discrimination, whereas insular and prefronal regions have been associated with pleasantness aspects of touch. However, the role of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) is less clear. In the current study we used inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to temporarily deactivate S2 and probe its role in touch perception...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528965/probing-the-timing-network-a-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-study-of-temporal-categorization
#7
Juan Carlos Méndez, Lorenzo Rocchi, Marjan Jahanshahi, John Rothwell, Hugo Merchant
Time perception in the milliseconds and seconds ranges is thought to be processed by different neural mechanisms. However, whether there is a sharp boundary between these ranges and whether they are implemented in the same, overlapped or separate brain areas is still not certain. To probe the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the right supplementary motor area (SMA), and the cerebellum on time perception, we temporarily altered their activity on healthy volunteers on separate sessions using transcranial magnetic stimulation with the continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) protocol...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#8
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522222/neurochemical-correlates-of-functional-plasticity-in-the-mature-cortex-of-the-brain-of-rodents
#9
REVIEW
Ewa Siucinska
It is commonly accepted that increase of input to sensory structures in mammals is known to produce marked changes in cortical recipient areas. This paper reviews the data concerning manifestations of changes in primary somatosensory cortex of adult animals caused by classical conditioning with reinforcement: aversive (whisker-shock) and appetitive (whisker-water) trainings. These include: anatomical, electrophysiological responses, receptor autoradiography, expression of GABA, GAD at mRNA and protein levels, expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta and inhibitory synaptogenesis in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse...
May 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#10
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional connectivity in 38 CTN patients and 38 matched healthy controls. For VBM analyses, CTN patients displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior and mid cingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area (PMA), and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516336/changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#11
Peng Liu, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Ru Li, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Yang Yu, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), a common gynecological disorder, is associated with structural and functional alterations in several subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, systematic functional connectivity of the ACC subregions in PDM has not been clarified. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from forty-eight PDM patients and thirty-eight matched female healthy controls to investigate the functional connectivity of ACC subregions in PDM. Compared to healthy controls, PDM patients exhibited increased connectivity between the caudal ACC (cACC) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI), between the perigenual ACC (pACC) and caudate, and between the subgenual ACC (sACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
May 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513860/cortical-contributions-to-sensory-gating-in-the-ipsilateral-somatosensory-cortex-during-voluntary-activity
#12
Yuming Lei, Monica A Perez
An important principle in the organization of the somatosensory cortex is that it processes afferent information from the contralateral side of the body. The role of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (iS1) in sensory gating in humans remains largely unknown. Using electroencephalographic recordings over the iS1 and electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist we examined somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs; P14/N20, N20/P25, and P25/N33 components) and paired-pulse SSEPs between (interhemispheric inhibition) and within (intracortical inhibition) the iS1 at rest and during tonic index finger voluntary activity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#13
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506346/-role-of-short-latency-somatosensory-evoked-potential-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#14
Rui-Di Sun, Bing Fu, Jun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of short-latency somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: A total of 48 children with a confirmed or suspected CIDP and 40 healthy children were enrolled. Nerve electrophysiological examination and/or SSEP examination was performed (the children in the healthy control group only underwent SSEP examination). Four-lead electromyography was used for nerve electrophysiological examination, including at least 4 motor nerves and 2 sensory nerves...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503804/neural-correlates-of-visuomotor-adjustments-during-scaling-of-human-finger-movements-fmri-during-visuomotor-scaling-of-finger-movements
#15
Johannes Brand, Lars Michels, Romy Bakker, Marie-Claude Hepp-Reymond, Daniel Kiper, Manfred Morari, Kynan Eng
Visually guided finger movements include online feedback of current effector position to guide target approach. This visual feedback may be scaled or otherwise distorted by unpredictable perturbations. Although adjustments to visual feedback scaling have been studied before, the underlying brain activation differences between upscaling (visual feedback larger than real movement) and downscaling (feedback smaller than real movement) are currently unknown. Brain activation differences between upscaling and downscaling might be expected because within-trial adjustments during upscaling require corrective backwards accelerations, whereas correcting for downscaling requires forward accelerations...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498725/evaluation-of-abbott-s-burstdr-stimulation-device-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#16
Timothy R Deer, Lucas W Campos, Jason E Pope
Burst stimulation, as described by DeRidder, is a novel waveform made up of closely spaced, high-frequency electrical impulses delivered in packets, which are followed by a quiescent period or interburst interval. Electrically generated burst waveforms were initially designed to treat neural pathology in the auditory cortex and were later applied to the spinal cord through spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices to treat chronic pain states. When Burst stimulation is applied to the spinal cord, the impulses travel to the thalamus and then diverge, targeting both the somatosensory cortex and the limbic system where they treat both the sensory, affective and attentional components of neuropathic pain...
May 12, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497576/the-space-where-aging-acts-focus-on-the-gabaergic-synapse
#17
REVIEW
Aleksandra Rozycka, Monika Liguz-Lecznar
As it was established that aging is not associated with massive neuronal loss, as was believed in the mid-20th Century, scientific interest has addressed the influence of aging on particular neuronal subpopulations and their synaptic contacts, which constitute the substrate for neural plasticity. Inhibitory neurons represent the most complex and diverse group of neurons, showing distinct molecular and physiological characteristics and possessing a compelling ability to control the physiology of neural circuits...
May 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497235/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-cortical-responses-induced-by-a-prolonged-tactile-stimulation-of-the-human-fingertips
#18
Clara Genna, Calogero M Oddo, Chiara Fanciullacci, Carmelo Chisari, Henrik Jörntell, Fiorenzo Artoni, Silvestro Micera
The sense of touch is fundamental for daily behavior. The aim of this work is to understand the neural network responsible for touch processing during a prolonged tactile stimulation, delivered by means of a mechatronic platform by passively sliding a ridged surface under the subject's fingertip while recording the electroencephalogram (EEG). We then analyzed: (i) the temporal features of the Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and their topographical distribution bilaterally across the cortex; (ii) the associated temporal modulation of the EEG frequency bands...
May 11, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496399/the-effect-of-wealth-shocks-on-loss-aversion-behavior-and-neural-correlates
#19
V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Sergio Ruiz, Sangkyun Lee, Charles N Noussair, Ranganatha Sitaram
Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496398/growth-of-thalamocortical-fibers-to-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-human-fetal-brain
#20
Željka Krsnik, Visnja Majić, Lana Vasung, Hao Huang, Ivica Kostović
Thalamocortical (TH-C) fiber growth begins during the embryonic period and is completed by the third trimester of gestation in humans. Here we determined the timing and trajectories of somatosensory TH-C fibers in the developing human brain. We analyzed the periods of TH-C fiber outgrowth, path-finding, "waiting" in the subplate (SP), target selection, and ingrowth in the cortical plate (CP) using histological sections from post-mortem fetal brain [from 7 to 34 postconceptional weeks (PCW)] that were processed with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry and immunohistochemical methods...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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