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Somatosensory cortex

Behdad Parhizi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Mehdi Behroozi
The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
David Rosenbaum, Mara Thomas, Paula Hilsendegen, Florian G Metzger, Florian B Haeussinger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Vanessa Nieratschker, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Repetitive thinking styles such as rumination are considered to be a key factor in the development and maintenance of mental disorders. Different situational triggers (e.g., social stressors) have been shown to elicit rumination in subjects exhibiting such habitual thinking styles. At the same time, the process of rumination influences the adaption to stressful situations. The study at hand aims to investigate the effect of trait rumination on neuronal activation patterns during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as the physiological and affective adaptation to this high-stress situation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Shijing Wu, Jun Li, Lantian Gao, Changshui Chen, Sailing He
Hemodynamic response to motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) was investigated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We used a 31 channel fNIRS system which allows non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation changes induced by cortical activation. Sixteen healthy subjects (mean-age 24.5 yeas) were recruited and the changes in concentration of hemoglobin were examined during right and left hand finger tapping tasks and kinesthetic MI. To suppress the systemic physiological interference, we developed a preprocessing procedure which prevents over-activated reporting in NIRS-SPM...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ethan G Hughes, Jennifer L Orthmann-Murphy, Abraham J Langseth, Dwight E Bergles
Oligodendrocyte generation in the adult CNS provides a means to adapt the properties of circuits to changes in life experience. However, little is known about the dynamics of oligodendrocytes and the extent of myelin remodeling in the mature brain. Using longitudinal in vivo two-photon imaging of oligodendrocytes and their progenitors in the mouse cerebral cortex, we show that myelination is an inefficient and extended process, with half of the final complement of oligodendrocytes generated after 4 months of age...
March 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Yoshiko Ariji, Hisataka Kondo, Ken Miyazawa, Masako Tabuchi, Syuji Koyama, Yoshitaka Kise, Akifumi Togari, Shigemi Gotoh, Eiichiro Ariji
OBJECTIVES: An animal experiment clarified that insertion of an orthodontic apparatus activated the trigeminal neurons of the medulla oblongata. Orthodontic tooth movement is known to be associated with the sympathetic nervous system and controlled by the nucleus of the hypothalamus. However, the transmission of both has not been demonstrated in humans. The purpose of this study were to examine the activated cerebral areas using brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when orthodontic tooth separators were inserted, and to confirm the possibility of the transmission route from the medulla oblongata to the hypothalamus...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Mei-Yin Lin, Shiou-Han Yang
Age-related deficiency in the top-down modulation of cognitive inhibition has been extensively documented, whereas the effects of age on a bottom-up or automatic operation of inhibitory function were less investigated. It is unknown that whether the older adults (OA)' reduced behavioral performance and neural responses are due to the insufficient bottom-up processes. Compared to behavioral assessments which have been widely used to examine the top-down control of response inhibition, electrophysiological recordings are more suitable to probe the early-stage processes of automatic inhibitory function...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Julia U Henschke, Frank W Ohl, Eike Budinger
During aging, human response times (RTs) to unisensory and crossmodal stimuli decrease. However, the elderly benefit more from crossmodal stimulus representations than younger people. The underlying short-latency multisensory integration process is mediated by direct crossmodal connections at the level of primary sensory cortices. We investigate the age-related changes of these connections using a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil), retrograde tracer injections into the primary auditory (A1), somatosensory (S1), and visual cortex (V1), and immunohistochemistry for markers of apoptosis (Caspase-3), axonal plasticity (Growth associated protein 43, GAP 43), and a calcium-binding protein (Parvalbumin, PV)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Philippe Vignaud, Clément Donde, Thouraya Sadki, Emmanuel Poulet, Jérôme Brunelin
Growing evidence has suggested that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could have beneficial effects on the acute phase of depression and on the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence. Despite growing clinical interest, the effects of MBIs on brain functioning in patients with MDD remain unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the changes in brain functioning associated with MBIs in patients with MDD. A systematic search was conducted, and of the 56 articles found, 8 were eligible...
March 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
A Galvez-Pol, B Calvo-Merino, A Capilla, B Forster
Working memory (WM) supports temporary maintenance of task-relevant information. This process is associated with persistent activity in the sensory cortex processing the information (e.g., visual stimuli activate visual cortex). However, we argue here that more multifaceted stimuli moderate this sensory-locked activity and recruit distinctive cortices. Specifically, perception of bodies recruits somatosensory cortex (SCx) beyond early visual areas (suggesting embodiment processes). Here we explore persistent activation in processing areas beyond the sensory cortex initially relevant to the modality of the stimuli...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Per F Nordmark, Christina Ljungberg, Roland S Johansson
Transection of the median nerve typically causes lifelong restriction of fine sensory and motor skills of the affected hand despite the best available surgical treatment. Inspired by recent findings on activity-dependent structural plasticity of the adult brain, we used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the brains of 16 right-handed adults who more than two years earlier had suffered injury to the left or right median nerve followed by microsurgical repair. Healthy individuals served as matched controls. Irrespective of side of injury, we observed gray matter reductions in left ventral and right dorsal premotor cortex, and white matter reductions in commissural pathways interconnecting those motor areas...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saloni Sharma, Prosper A Fiave, Koen Nelissen
Neurophysiological data obtained in primates suggests that merely observing others' actions can modulate activity in the observer's motor cortices. In humans, it has been suggested that these multimodal vicarious responses extend well beyond the motor cortices, including somatosensory and insular brain regions, that seem to yield vicarious responses when witnessing others' actions, sensations or emotions (Gazzola and Keysers, 2009). Despite the wealth of data with respect to shared action responses in the monkey motor system, whether the somatosensory and insular cortices also yield vicarious responses during observation of touch remains largely unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
C Genna, C M Oddo, A Mazzoni, A Wahlbom, S Micera, H Jörntell
The presence of contralateral tactile input can profoundly affect ipsilateral tactile perception and unilateral stroke in somatosensory areas can result in bilateral tactile deficits, suggesting that bilateral tactile integration is an important part of brain function. Whereas previous studies have shown that bilateral tactile inputs exist and that there are neural interactions between inputs from the two sides, no previous study explored to what extent the local neuronal circuitry processing contains detailed information about the nature of the tactile input from the two sides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ewa Siucinska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Tytus Bernas
We found previously that fear conditioning by combined stimulation of a row B facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) leads to expansion of the cortical representation of the "trained" row, labeled with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in the layer IIIb/IV of the adult mouse the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) 24 h later. We have observed that learning - dependent these plastic changes are manifested by increased expression of somatostatin, cholecystokinin (SST+, CCK+) but not parvalbumin (PV+) immunopositive interneurons...
March 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Anastasia Greenberg, Javad Karimi Abadchi, Clayton T Dickson, Majid H Mohajerani
The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Miranda Smit, Haike E Van Stralen, Bart Van den Munckhof, Tom J Snijders, Hendrik Christiaan Dijkerman
Reports on patients who lack ownership over their entire body are extremely rare. Here, we present patient SA who suffered from complete body disownership after a tumour resection in the right temporoparietal cortex. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed selective bilateral ownership problems, despite intact primary visual and somatosensory senses. SA's disownership seems to stem from a suboptimal multimodal integration, as shown by the rubber hand illusion and the beneficial effect during and after simple exercises aiming at multisensory recalibration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri De Dios, Nichole Gadd, Scott Wood, Roy Riascos, Igor Kofman, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) is frequently utilized as a spaceflight analog research environment to study the effects of axial body unloading and fluid shifts that are associated with spaceflight in the absence of gravitational modifications. HDBR has been shown to result in balance changes, presumably due to sensory reweighting and adaptation processes. Here, we examined whether HDBR results in changes in the neural correlates of vestibular processing. Thirteen men participated in a 70-day HDBR intervention; we measured balance, functional mobility, and functional brain activity in response to vestibular stimulation at 7 time points before, during, and after HDBR...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Katlyn E Brown, Jason L Neva, Samantha J Feldman, W Richard Staines, Lara A Boyd
BACKGROUND: The integration of somatosensory information from the environment into the motor cortex to inform movement is essential for motor function. As motor deficits commonly persist into the chronic phase of stroke recovery, it is important to understand potential contributing factors to these deficits, as well as their relationship with motor function. To date the impact of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to comprehensively examine the influence of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration, and determine whether sensorimotor integration can be modified with an intervention...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Paweł Krukow, Kamil Jonak, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Arkadiusz Podkowiński, Katarzyna Jonak, Magdalena Borys, Michał Harciarek
This study aimed at identifying abnormal cortico-cortical functional connectivity patterns that could predict cognitive slowing in patients with schizophrenia. A group of thirty-two patients with the first-episode schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls underwent resting-state qEEG and cognitive assessment. Phase Lag Index (PLI) was applied as a connectivity index and the synchronizations were analyzed in six frequencies. Pairs of electrodes were grouped to separately cover frontal, temporal, central, parietal and occipital regions...
March 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Carolyn Berryman, Brenton Hordacre, Flavia Di Pietro
It is well established that motor tasks are associated with gating of irrelevant sensory input from the contralateral side of the body. In a recent issue of the Journal of Physiology, Lei and Perez (2017) present novel findings that suggest the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (iS1) is also likely to contribute to sensorimotor integration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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