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Somatosensory cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330480/anti-correlated-cortical-networks-arise-from-spontaneous-neuronal-dynamics-at-slow-timescales
#1
Nathan X Kodama, Tianyi Feng, James J Ullett, Hillel J Chiel, Siddharth S Sivakumar, Roberto F Galán
In the highly interconnected architectures of the cerebral cortex, recurrent intracortical loops disproportionately outnumber thalamo-cortical inputs. These networks are also capable of generating neuronal activity without feedforward sensory drive. It is unknown, however, what spatiotemporal patterns may be solely attributed to intrinsic connections of the local cortical network. Using high-density microelectrode arrays, here we show that in the isolated, primary somatosensory cortex of mice, neuronal firing fluctuates on timescales from milliseconds to tens of seconds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326172/diversity-and-connectivity-of-layer-5-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#2
Nigro Maximiliano José, Yoshiko Hashikawa, Bernardo Rudy
Inhibitory interneurons represent 10-15% of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex, and their activity powerfully shapes sensory processing. Three major groups of GABAergic interneurons have been defined according to developmental, molecular, morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic features. Dendritic-targeting somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) have been shown to display diverse morphological, electrophysiological and molecular properties and activity patterns in vivo. However, the correlation between these properties and SST-IN subtype is unclear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324403/performance-of-brain-computer-interfacing-based-on-tactile-selective-sensation-and-motor-imagery
#3
Lin Yao, Xinjun Sheng, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Xiangyang Zhu, Dario Farina, Ning Jiang
A large proportion of users do not achieve adequate control using current non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). This issue has being coined "BCI-Illiteracy" and is observed among different BCI modalities. Here, we compare the performance and the BCI-illiteracy rate of a tactile selective sensation (SS) and motor imagery (MI) BCI, for a large subject samples. We analyzed 80 experimental sessions from 57 subjects with two-class SS protocols. For SS, the group average performance was 79.8 ± 10.6%, with 43 out of the 57 subjects (75...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320739/variation-in-activity-state-axonal-projection-and-position-define-the-transcriptional-identity-of-individual-neocortical-projection-neurons
#5
Maxime Chevée, Johanna De Jong Robertson, Gabrielle Heather Cannon, Solange Pezon Brown, Loyal Andrew Goff
Single-cell RNA sequencing has generated catalogs of transcriptionally defined neuronal subtypes of the brain. However, the cellular processes that contribute to neuronal subtype specification and transcriptional heterogeneity remain unclear. By comparing the gene expression profiles of single layer 6 corticothalamic neurons in somatosensory cortex, we show that transcriptional subtypes primarily reflect axonal projection pattern, laminar position within the cortex, and neuronal activity state. Pseudotemporal ordering of 1,023 cellular responses to sensory manipulation demonstrates that changes in expression of activity-induced genes both reinforced cell-type identity and contributed to increased transcriptional heterogeneity within each cell type...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319611/comparison-of-somatosensory-cortex-excitability-between-migraine-and-strict-criteria-tension-type-headache-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#6
Wei-Ta Chen, Fu-Jung Hsiao, Yu-Chieh Ko, Hung-Yu Liu, Pei-Ning Wang, Jong-Ling Fuh, Yung-Yang Lin, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Tension-type headache (TTH) and migraine are both common types of headaches. Despite distinct symptoms, TTH and migraine are highly comorbid and exhibit many clinical similarities. This study enrolled consecutive patients with TTH and age- and sex-matched patients with migraine and healthy controls to investigate whether TTH and migraine are similar in brain excitability change assessed by magnetoencephalography. Patients with TTH were excluded if they reported any headache features or associated symptoms of migraine...
January 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318747/the-caudal-part-of-the-posterior-insula-of-rats-participates-in-the-maintenance-but-not-the-acquisition-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference
#7
Yong-Mei Sun, Rong-Xiang Chen, Zhi-Fei Li, Sabine Spijker, Rong-Wei Zhai, Shang-Chuan Yang
The heterogeneous insular cortex plays an interoceptive role in drug addiction by signaling the availability of drugs of abuse. Here, we tested whether the caudal part of the multisensory posterior insula (PI) stores somatosensory-associated rewarding memories. Using Sprague Dawley rats as subjects, we first established a morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, mainly based on somatic cues. Secondly, an electrolytic lesion of the caudal portion of the PI was carried out before and after the establishment of CPP, respectively...
January 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307709/slip-based-coding-of-local-shape-and-texture-in-mouse-s1
#8
Brian R Isett, Sierra H Feasel, Monet A Lane, Daniel E Feldman
Tactile objects have both local geometry (shape) and broader macroscopic texture, but how these different spatial scales are simultaneously encoded during active touch is unknown. In the whisker system, we tested for a shared code based on localized whisker micromotions (stick-slips) and slip-evoked spikes. We trained mice to discriminate smooth from rough surfaces, including ridged gratings and sandpaper. Whisker slips locked to ridges and evoked temporally precise spikes (<10 ms jitter) in somatosensory cortex (S1) that could resolve ridges with ∼1 mm accuracy...
December 28, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304099/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-differences-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-thermal-stimuli-in-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#9
Juan Li, Wanying Zhang, Xia Wang, Tangmi Yuan, Peiyao Liu, Tao Wang, Le Shen, Yuguang Huang, Naishi Li, Hui You, Tixian Xiao, Feng Feng, Chao Ma
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in brain activity in response to thermal stimuli in diabetic patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: A total of 36 right-handed volunteers were enrolled: eight patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus and DPN, 13 patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus lacking DPN (NDPN patients), and 15 healthy volunteers (HV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303841/mirror-imaging-of-finger-mechanical-stimulation-affects-secondary-somatosensory-response
#10
Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Tomoshi Watanabe, Toru Sunagawa, Hiroshi Kurumadani, Hanan Abd El-Rahman, Mitsuo Ochi, Nobuo Adachi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of finger-tip touch on the somatosensory cortex under mirror imaging conditions. Magnetoencephalographic recordings of somatosensory-evoked field responses to mechanical tactile stimulation of the index finger in both hands were obtained for the right-handed healthy participants as part of the following mirror or nonmirror tasks. Both hands were screened and mechanical stimuli were delivered to the right index finger pulp. A mirror was placed in front of the patient with the right hand facing the reflective surface, as if it were the left side (mirror task)...
January 4, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302217/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-protects-against-photothrombotic-cortical-ischemic-injury-in-mice
#11
Sun Ae Hwang, Chi Dae Kim, Won Suk Lee
In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis purified from honeybee hives, on photothrombotic cortical ischemic injury in mice. Permanent focal ischemia was achieved in the medial frontal and somatosensory cortices of anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice by irradiation of the skull with cold light laser in combination with systemic administration of rose bengal. The animals were treated with CAPE (0.5-5 mg/kg, i.p.) twice 1 and 6 h after ischemic insult...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301873/visually-driven-maps-in-area-3b
#12
Esther Kuehn, Patrick Haggard, Arno Villringer, Burkhard Pleger, Martin I Sereno
Sensory perception relies on the precise neuronal encoding of modality-specific environmental features in primary sensory cortices. Some studies have reported the penetration of signals from other modalities even into early sensory areas. So far, no comprehensive account of maps induced by "foreign sources" exists. We addressed this question using surface-based topographic mapping techniques applied to ultra-high resolution fMRI neuroimaging data, measured in female participants. We show that fine-grained finger maps in human primary somatosensory cortex, area 3b, are somatotopically activated not only during tactile mechanical stimulation, but also when viewing the same fingers being touched...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299382/an-interspecies-comparative-study-of-invasive-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity
#13
Kaitlyn Casimo, Lila H Levinson, Stavros Zanos, C Alexis Gkogkidis, Tonio Ball, Eberhard Fetz, Kurt E Weaver, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Introduction: Resting-state connectivity patterns have been observed in humans and other mammal species, and can be recorded using a variety of different technologies. Functional connectivity has been previously compared between species using resting-state fMRI, but not in electrophysiological studies. Methods: We compared connectivity with implanted electrodes in humans (electrocorticography) to macaques and sheep (microelectrocorticography), which are capable of recording neural data at high frequencies with spatial precision...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298184/cortical-pain-response-of-newborn-infants-to-venepuncture-a-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-analgesic-effects-of-sucrose-versus-breastfeeding
#14
Stéphane Rioualen, Virginie Durier, David Hervé, Laurent Misery, Jacques Sizun, Jean Michel Roué
OBJECTIVE: Sucrose administration and breastfeeding decrease behavioural expressions of pain in neonates. However, recent studies indicated there is a persistent cortical response with sucrose. This study compared the efficacy of sucrose administration versus breastfeeding to decrease cortical responses to pain during venepuncture. METHODS: A randomised, prospective, controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary level maternity ward. Healthy 3-day-old term neonates, undergoing venepuncture for neonatal screening, were randomly assigned to receive sucrose solution or be breastfed before venepuncture...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288874/modeling-spike-wave-discharges-by-a-complex-network-of-neuronal-oscillators
#15
Tatiana M Medvedeva, Marina V Sysoeva, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Ilya V Sysoev
PURPOSE: The organization of neural networks and the mechanisms, which generate the highly stereotypical for absence epilepsy spike-wave discharges (SWDs) is heavily debated. Here we describe such a model which can both reproduce the characteristics of SWDs and dynamics of coupling between brain regions, relying mainly on properties of hierarchically organized networks of a large number of neuronal oscillators. MODEL: We used a two level mesoscale model. The first level consists of three structures: the nervus trigeminus serving as an input, the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex; the second level of a group of nearby situated neurons belonging to one of three modeled structures...
December 13, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285809/investigation-of-the-bold-and-cbv-fmri-responses-to-somatosensory-stimulation-in-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#16
Yoshiyuki Hirano, Cecil C Yen, Junjie V Liu, Julie B Mackel, Hellmut Merkle, George C Nascimento, Bojana Stefanovic, Afonso C Silva
Understanding the spatiotemporal features of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) to brain stimulation is essential for the correct application of neuroimaging methods to study brain function. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal evolution of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) HRF in conscious, awake marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a New World non-human primate with a lissencephalic brain and with growing use in biomedical research. The marmosets were acclimatized to head fixation and placed in a 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner...
December 29, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285773/functional-architecture-of-the-somatosensory-homunculus-detected-by-electrostimulation
#17
Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Imène Djidjeli, Jean-Baptiste Durand
In this prospective electrostimulation study, based on 50 operated patients with no sensory deficit and no brain lesion in the postcentral gyrus, we acquired coordinates in the standard MNI space of the functional areas of the somatosensory homunculus. The 3D brain volume of each patient was normalized to that space to obtain the MNI coordinates of the stimulation site locations. For 647 sites stimulated on Brodmann Area 1 (and 1025 in gyri nearby), 258 positive points for somatosensory response (40%) were found in the postcentral gyrus...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281722/cortical-representation-of-different-taste-modalities-on-the-gustatory-cortex-a-pilot-study
#18
Anna Prinster, Elena Cantone, Viviana Verlezza, Mario Magliulo, Giovanni Sarnelli, Maurizio Iengo, Rosario Cuomo, Francesco Di Salle, Fabrizio Esposito
BACKGROUND: Right insular cortex is involved in taste discrimination, but its functional organization is still poorly known. In general, sensory cortices represent the spatial prevalence of relevant features for each sensory modality (visual, auditory, somatosensory) in an ordered way across the cortical space. Following this analogy, we hypothesized that primary taste cortex is organized in similar ordered way in response to six tastes with known receptorial mechanisms (sweet, bitter, sour, salt, umami, CO2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279860/cortical-neuroprosthesis-merges-visible-and-invisible-light-without-impairing-native-sensory-function
#19
Eric E Thomson, Ivan Zea, William Windham, Yohann Thenaisie, Cameron Walker, Jason Pedowitz, Wendy França, Ana L Graneiro, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Adult rats equipped with a sensory prosthesis, which transduced infrared (IR) signals into electrical signals delivered to somatosensory cortex (S1), took approximately 4 d to learn a four-choice IR discrimination task. Here, we show that when such IR signals are projected to the primary visual cortex (V1), rats that are pretrained in a visual-discrimination task typically learn the same IR discrimination task on their first day of training. However, without prior training on a visual discrimination task, the learning rates for S1- and V1-implanted animals converged, suggesting there is no intrinsic difference in learning rate between the two areas...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260381/the-neural-basis-of-kinesthetic-and-visual-imagery-in-sports-an-ale-meta%C3%A2-%C3%A2-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Filgueiras, Erick Francisco Quintas Conde, Craig R Hall
Imagery is a widely spread technique in the sport sciences that entails the mental rehearsal of a given situation to improve an athlete's learning, performance and motivation. Two modalities of imagery are reported to tap into distinct brain structures, but sharing common components: kinesthetic and visual imagery. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of those types of imagery with Activation Likelihood Estimation algorithm to perform a meta - analysis. A systematic search was used to retrieve only experimental studies with athletes or sportspersons...
December 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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