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lipids guidelines

Michael B Boffa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are an independent and causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and calcific aortic valve stenosis. This review summarizes the rationale for Lp(a) lowering and surveys relevant clinical trial data using a variety of agents capable of lowering Lp(a). RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary guidelines and recommendations outline populations of patients who should be screened for elevated Lp(a) and who might benefit from Lp(a) lowering...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Irma Elizabeth Huayanay-Espinoza, Felix Guerra-Castañon, María Lazo-Porras, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Nimmy Josephine Thomas, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Augusto A Valdivia-Bustamante, Germán Málaga
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess patients' achievement of ADA (American Diabetes Association) guideline recommendations for glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and blood pressure in a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatient clinic in a low-middle income country (LMIC) setting. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with 123 ambulatory T2DM patients who are being treated at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Data was gathered via standardized interviews, clinical surveys, and anthropomorphic measurements for each patient...
2016: PeerJ
Sedighe Moradi, Mohammad Javad Haji Ghanbari, Hedyeh Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, CVD accounts for primary cause of death among diabetic patients. Physicians, especially in the primary care setting, have effective role in the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetic patients attending to an urban health center as a primary care center with Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism Diabetes Clinic (IEMDC) as a tertiary center...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ganiyu Amusa, Babatunde Awokola, Godsent Isiguzo, James Onuh, Samuel Uguru, David Oke, Solomon Danbauchi, Basil Okeahialam
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of Hypertension and associated risk factors in HIV+ adults and assessment of these risks using the Framingham risk score 'FRS'. DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional analytical study. One hundred and fifty consecutive HIV+ adults presenting at the HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital (90 on HAART) with 50 HIV- as controls were recruited. Relevant history, physical examination (including blood pressure measured according to standard guidelines), laboratory specimen (fasting plasma sugar and lipids, CD4 count and viral load) and electrocardiogram were obtained from the participants...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nizamuddin Ubaidillah, Djanggan Sargowo, Adriawan Widya, Vitryaturrida Jakfar, Kartika Siwi Proboretno, Mirza Failasufi, Yoga Warahugraha, Fadli Ramadhan, Hesti Wulandari, Dinarsari Hayuning Putri
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of polysaccharide peptides (PsP) of Ganoderma lucidum as anti inflammation, anti oxidant, anti diabetic and anti lipid in stable angina pectoris patients. DESIGN AND METHOD: This is a quasi clinical trial experimental study on 34 Stable Angina patients in Saiful Anwar General Hospital was determined based on ESC Stable CAD guidelines, with pre-test and post-test design without control. Parameter measured were TNF alfa, IL-6, MDA, SOD, HbA1c, Fasting glucose and Total cholesterol...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Giovanni Veronesi
In Italy, the European SCORE Project risk score is the recommended tool for cardiovascular disease risk stratification in the primary prevention setting. Among non-diabetic subjects aged 40 to 64, the model estimates the 10-year probability of death due to cardiovascular disease based on individual's age, total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking status. A growing body of evidence suggests that in middle-aged adults this stratification may suffer from two major drawbacks. First, mortality risk severely underestimates the global burden of disease incidence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jone Corrales, Lauren A Kristofco, W Baylor Steele, Gavin N Saari, Jakub Kostal, Edward Spencer Williams, Margaret Mills, Evan P Gallagher, Terrance J Kavanagh, Nancy Simcox, Longzhu Q Shen, Fjodor Melnikov, Julie B Zimmerman, Adelina M Voutchkova-Kostal, Paul T Anastas, Bryan W Brooks
Sustainable molecular design of less hazardous chemicals presents a potentially transformative approach to protect public health and the environment. Relationships between molecular descriptors and toxicity thresholds previously identified the octanol-water distribution coefficient, log D, and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap, ∆E, as two useful properties in the identification of reduced aquatic toxicity. To determine whether these two property-based guidelines are applicable to sublethal oxidative stress (OS) responses, two common aquatic in vivo models, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), were employed to examine traditional biochemical biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, total glutathione) and antioxidant gene activation following exposure to eight structurally diverse industrial chemicals (bisphenol A, cumene hydroperoxide, dinoseb, hydroquinone, indene, perfluorooctanoic acid, R-(-)-carvone, tert-butyl hydroperoxide)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Sunjoo Boo, Erika S Froelicher, Ju-Hui Yun, Ye-Won Kim, Ju-Yang Jung, Chang-Hee Suh
The purposes of this study were to compare the perceived and actual 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to evaluate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on perceived CVD risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Korea. Additionally, the attainment of CVD prevention guideline goals by 3 levels of CVD risk (low, moderate, and high) was presented.For this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 208 patients with RA. Actual CVD risk was estimated with the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and goal attainment was assessed based on the European League Against Rheumatism guidelines...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maude St-Onge, Kurt Anseeuw, Frank Lee Cantrell, Ian C Gilchrist, Philippe Hantson, Benoit Bailey, Valéry Lavergne, Sophie Gosselin, William Kerns, Martin Laliberté, Eric J Lavonas, David N Juurlink, John Muscedere, Chen-Chang Yang, Tasnim Sinuff, Michael Rieder, Bruno Mégarbane
OBJECTIVE: To provide a management approach for adults with calcium channel blocker poisoning. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Following the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II instrument, initial voting statements were constructed based on summaries outlining the evidence, risks, and benefits. DATA SYNTHESIS: We recommend 1) for asymptomatic patients, observation and consideration of decontamination following a potentially toxic calcium channel blocker ingestion (1D); 2) as first-line therapies (prioritized based on desired effect), IV calcium (1D), high-dose insulin therapy (1D-2D), and norepinephrine and/or epinephrine (1D)...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Om P Ganda, Joanna Mitri
Despite major advances, many patients with diabetes are currently achieving suboptimal control of lipids and blood pressure. The new cholesterol guidelines by the ACC/AHA have reignited the emphasis on more intensive treatment with statins in the population at high risk of CVD, including those with diabetes. While these guidelines do not include specific lipid goals, several other guidelines have retained previously defined risk-based LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals. More recent data indicate potential benefits in CVD outcomes with non-statin therapy added to statin therapy...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Nasreen Al Sayed, Khalid Al Waili, Fatheya Alawadi, Saeed Al-Ghamdi, Wael Al Mahmeed, Fahad Al-Nouri, Mona Al Rukhaimi, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Zuhier Awan, Mohamed Farghaly, Mohamed Hassanein, Hani Sabbour, Mohammad Zubaid, Philip Barter
BACKGROUND: Plasma lipid disorders are key risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and are prevalent in the Middle East, with rates increasing in recent decades. Despite this, no region-specific guidelines for managing plasma lipids exist and there is a lack of use of guidelines developed in other regions. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of regional experts was convened to develop consensus clinical recommendations for the management of plasma lipids in the Middle East...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Rosângela Dos Santos Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Valter Aragão do Nascimento, Priscila Aiko Hiane
Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART...
October 8, 2016: Nutrients
Naresh Malhotra, M K Keshan, Avinash Agarwal, R Anil Kumar, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD's) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, reduces the incidence of coronary and cerebrovascular events across a broad spectrum of patients at risk. Guidelines for the management of patients at risk have been established in Europe and North America. The guidelines have advocated progressively lower LDL-C targets and more aggressive use of statin therapy...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
María Beatriz Araujo, María Sol Pacce
BACKGROUND: Current pediatric guidelines for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) propose pharmacotherapy (PT) with statins from age 8 to 10 years; however, schemes with absorption inhibitors combined with statins, could be started earlier. The aim of the study was to show the 10-year results of a combined treatment protocol. METHODS: Prospective, descriptive and analytical study. Pediatric patients (n=70; mean age at PT initiation 9.3 years [range, 2-17...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Jarosław Szefel, Wiesław J Kruszewski, Mariusz Szajewski, Maciej Ciesielski, Ewa Sobczak, Maksymilian Czerepko, Wiesława Łysiak-Szydłowska
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no established guidelines regarding the use of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) vs. medium-chain triglycerides medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Severe malnutrition of patients with refractory cachexia (RC) often causes their disqualification from invasive methods of treatment thus decreasing their quality of life and survival time. AIM: To compare the changes in nutritional state of patients with RC receiving PN with LCT and LCT/MCT lipid emulsions and to assess the influence of enteral nutrition on their survival time...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Valentin P Yakubenko, Tatiana V Byzova
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be present and/or enriched in vegetable and fish oils. Among fatty acids, n-3 PUFA are generally considered to be protective in inflammation-related diseases. The guidelines for substituting saturated fatty acids for PUFAs have been highly publicized for decades by numerous health organizations. Recently, however, the beneficial properties of n-3 PUFA are questioned by detailed analyses of multiple randomized controlled clinical trials...
October 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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