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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352727/re-evaluation-of-target-lipid-model-derived-hc5-predictions-for-hydrocarbons
#1
Joy A McGrath, Christopher J Fanelli, Dominic M Di Toro, Thomas F Parkerton, Aaron D Redman, Miriam Leon Paumen, Mike Comber, Charles V Eadsforth, Klaas den Haan
The Target Lipid Model (TLM) has been previously applied to predict the aquatic toxicity of hydrocarbons and other non-ionic organic chemicals and for deriving HC5 values, concentrations above which 95% of species should be protected. Several concerns were identified with the TLM-derived HC5 when applied in a substance risk assessment context. These shortcomings were addressed by expanding the acute and chronic toxicity databases to include more diverse taxonomic groups and increase the number of species. The TLM was recalibrated with these expanded databases resulting in critical target lipid body burdens and acute-to-chronic ratios that met the required guidelines for using species sensitivity distributions in substance risk assessment...
January 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349905/would-you-like-to-add-a-weight-after-this-blood-pressure-doctor-discovery-of-potentially-actionable-associations-between-the-provision-of-multiple-screens-in-primary-care
#2
Sumeet Kalia, Michelle Greiver, Xu Zhao, Christopher Meaney, Rahim Moineddin, Babak Aliarzadeh, Eva Grunfeld, Frank Sullivan
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVE: Guidelines recommend screening for risk factors associated with chronic diseases but current electronic prompts have limited effects. Our objective was to discover and rank associations between the presence of screens to plan more efficient prompts in primary care. METHODS: Risk factors with the greatest impact on chronic diseases are associated with blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, glycaemic and lipid levels, smoking, alcohol use, diet, and exercise...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343081/atorvastatin-reduces-plasma-inflammatory-and-oxidant-biomarkers-in-patients-with-risk-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Fadia Mayyas, Duha Baydoun, Rasheed Ibdah, Khalid Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with endothelial injury and coronary artery disease. Inflammatory factors that promote oxidative damage include endothelin-1 (ET-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Current guidelines recommend the use of statins in patients with risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). AIM: To assess the impact of atorvastatin on plasma inflammatory and oxidant biomarkers in patients with moderate to very high risk of ASCVD...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338456/an-update-on-the-safety-of-nutraceuticals-and-effects-on-lipid-parameters
#4
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality and disability in developed countries, whereas a large portion of patients in primary prevention have uncontrolled level of CVD risk factors. Dietary supplementation with bioactive natural compounds with demonstrated lipid-lowering effects is currently supported by the international guidelines for CVD prevention and some international expert panels. Areas covered: This review provides insights on issues concerning the tolerability and safety of the most commonly used nutraceuticals with demonstrated lipid-lowering effect in humans...
January 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334810/monitoring-of-metabolic-adverse-effects-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotics-use-in-an-outpatient-psychiatric-clinic
#5
Luis Pereira, Aliaksandr Budovich, Maria Claudio-Saez
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics are associated with metabolic complications that contribute to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Current evidence reveal suboptimal adherence to the complex and variable official recommendations on metabolic monitoring in the corresponding patient population. A study evaluating metabolic monitoring at guideline-recommended intervals may help identify areas for intervention. OBJECTIVE: Describe the frequency of monitoring metabolic adverse effects in patients receiving atypical antipsychotics in an outpatient psychiatric clinic with respect to the specific guideline-recommended intervals...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333503/the-effect-of-a-vegan-versus-aha-diet-in-coronary-artery-disease-evade-cad-trial-study-design-and-rationale
#6
Binita Shah, Lisa Ganguzza, James Slater, Jonathan D Newman, Nicole Allen, Edward Fisher, John Larigakis, Francisco Ujueta, Eugenia Gianos, Yu Guo, Kathleen Woolf
Background: Multiple studies demonstrate the benefit of a vegan diet on cardiovascular risk factors when compared to no intervention or usual dietary patterns. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a vegan diet versus the American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended diet on inflammatory and glucometabolic profiles in patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD). Study Design: This study is a randomized, open label, blinded end-point trial of 100 patients with CAD as defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in a coronary artery ≥2 mm in diameter on invasive angiography...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326185/enhancing-prescribing-of-guideline-recommended-medications-for-ischaemic-heart-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-interventions-targeted-at-healthcare-professionals
#7
Thang Nguyen, Hoa Q Nguyen, Niken N Widyakusuma, Thao H Nguyen, Tam T Pham, Katja Taxis
OBJECTIVES: Ischaemic heart diseases (IHDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Although prescribing according to guidelines improves health outcomes, it remains suboptimal. We determined whether interventions targeted at healthcare professionals are effective to enhance prescribing and health outcomes in patients with IHDs. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2017. We included original studies of interventions targeted at healthcare professionals to enhance prescribing guideline-recommended medications for IHDs...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325774/achievement-of-guideline-targets-for-blood-pressure-lipid-and-glycaemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Kamlesh Khunti, Antonio Ceriello, Xavier Cos, Christophe De Block
We assessed global achievement of targets recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for type 2 diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library for observational studies reporting target attainment (2006 to 2017 inclusive) for HbA1c, blood pressure, or lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], or triglycerides)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324459/discordance-between-lipoprotein-particle-number-and-cholesterol-content-an-update
#9
Eric P Cantey, John T Wilkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cholesterol content within atherogenic apolipoprotein-B (apoB) containing lipid particles is the center of consensus guidelines and clinicians' focus whenever evaluating a patient's risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis requires the retention of lipoprotein particles within the vascular intima over time followed by maladaptive inflammation resulting in plaque formation and rupture in some. The cholesterol content is widely variable within each particle creating either cholesterol-deplete or cholesterol-enriched particles...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310996/appropriateness-of-statin-prescription-in-the-elderly
#10
M Ruscica, C Macchi, C Pavanello, A Corsini, A Sahebkar, C R Sirtori
Statins, the most widely used drugs in the Western world, have become a pivotal component in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular diseases. Although benefits have been well documented in younger-than-75-year-old individuals, the value of statins in people aged >75years and over is controversial. The CTT meta-analysis calculated an absolute risk reduction of 0.6%/year per 38.7mg/dl reduction in LDL-C levels in patients aged >75years, that would translate into a number needed to treat of 167...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303009/dyslipidaemia-in-the-elderly-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#11
Niki Katsiki, Genovefa Kolovou, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
The elderly population (i.e. aged ≥ 65 years) is increasing worldwide. Ageing is associated with a higher incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Areas covered: The prevalence of CVD risk factors including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia also increases with advancing age, contributing to the higher absolute CVD risk observed in the elderly. The present narrative review comments on the associations of dyslipidaemia with CVD as well as the effects of lifestyle measures and lipid-lowering drugs on lipids and CVD risk with a special focus on the elderly population...
January 5, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302468/the-euroaspire-surveys-lessons-learned-in-cardiovascular-disease-prevention
#12
Kornelia Kotseva
The Joint European Societies (JES) guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention published in 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2012 and 2016 defined lifestyle and risk factors targets for patients with coronary or other atherosclerotic disease and people at high risk of developing CVD. Guideline implementation in Europe has been evaluated with four cross-sectional EUROASPIRE surveys starting in mid-1990s. The results showed poor lifestyle and risk factor management in patients with CHD and in high CVD risk people with high prevalences of smoking, obesity, central obesity and diabetes...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300389/high-throughput-in-situ-x-ray-screening-of-and-data-collection-from-protein-crystals-at-room-temperature-and-under-cryogenic-conditions
#13
Jana Broecker, Takefumi Morizumi, Wei-Lin Ou, Viviane Klingel, Anling Kuo, David J Kissick, Andrii Ishchenko, Ming-Yue Lee, Shenglan Xu, Oleg Makarov, Vadim Cherezov, Craig M Ogata, Oliver P Ernst
Protein crystallography has significantly advanced in recent years, with in situ data collection, in which crystals are placed in the X-ray beam within their growth medium, being a major point of focus. In situ methods eliminate the need to harvest crystals, a previously unavoidable drawback, particularly for often small membrane-protein crystals. Here, we present a protocol for the high-throughput in situ X-ray screening of and data collection from soluble and membrane-protein crystals at room temperature (20-25°C) and under cryogenic conditions...
February 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297906/-treatment-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-2017
#14
Giovanni Cimmino, Davide D'Andrea, Ciro Mauro, Carmine Morisco, Plinio Cirillo
Acute myocardial infarction is a clinical cardiac emergency associated with potential and substantial morbidity and mortality. This disorder is triggered by an acute coronary syndrome caused by episodes of plaque ulceration, fissuration, or rupture with subsequent production of thrombogenic material and intravascular thrombus formation. The presence or absence of ST-segment elevation on the ECG defines the two main clinical spectrum of ST-segment elevation or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In the last three decades, pharmacological and interventional management as well as in-hospital care have dramatically improved...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288404/paradoxical-impact-of-decreased-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-level-at-baseline-on-the-long-term-prognosis-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#15
Takuya Nakahashi, Hayato Tada, Kenji Sakata, Yohei Yakuta, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Akihiro Nomura, Tadatsugu Gamou, Hidenobu Terai, Yuki Horita, Masatoshi Ikeda, Masanobu Namura, Masayuki Takamura, Kenshi Hayashi, Masakazu Yamagishi, Masa-Aki Kawashiri
Although statin therapy is beneficial in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a substantial proportion of patients with ACS still do not receive the guideline-recommended lipid management in contemporary practice. We hypothesize that the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level at the time of admission might affect patient management and the subsequent outcome. Nine-hundred and forty-two consecutive patients with ACS who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were analyzed retrospectively...
December 29, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286232/development-of-cationic-quaternary-ammonium-sulfonamide-amino-lipids-csals-for-nucleic-acid-delivery
#16
Jason B Miller, Petra Kos, Victor Tieu, Kejin Zhou, Daniel John Siegwart
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) currently comprise the most effective carrier class for delivery of small RNAs. Among lipid carriers, charge unbalanced lipids are relatively unexplored synthetically. Herein, we developed and evaluated a novel collection of compounds for siRNA delivery, termed Cationic quaternary ammonium Sulfonamide Amino Lipids (CSALs). Formulated CSAL LNPs containing cholesterol, DSPC, and lipid PEG exhibited biophysical property trends directly related to the CSAL chemical structure. Lead CSAL LNPs were identified using an siRNA delivery screen...
December 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283450/the-effect-of-fasting-status-on-lipids-lipoproteins-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-assessed-after-hospitalization-for-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-insights-from-prove-it-timi-22
#17
Dylan L Steen, Amarachi A Umez-Eronini, Jianping Guo, Naseer Khan, Christopher P Cannon
BACKGROUND: For decades, fasting for 8 to 12 hours has been recommended for measurement of lipid profiles. The effect of fasting on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) has been described in healthy cohorts and those with stable disease states. Recently, guidelines suggested that fasting may not be necessary due to its small effect on lipid measures. Little is known, however, regarding whether the impact of fasting is altered in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277495/clinical-pharmacist-understanding-of-the-2013-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association-cholesterol-guideline
#18
John D Bucheit, Haleigh Helsing, Pramit Nadpara, Salim S Virani, Dave L Dixon
BACKGROUND: Clinical pharmacists are frequently involved in the management of dyslipidemia, yet clinical pharmacists' knowledge, awareness, and the level of agreement with the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol guideline are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine clinical pharmacists' knowledge, awareness, and the level of agreement with the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline. METHODS: We administered a validated questionnaire via an online survey that was electronically mailed to clinical pharmacists...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275344/effects-of-a-12-week-cardiovascular-rehabilitation-programme-on-systemic-inflammation-and-traditional-coronary-artery-disease-risk-factors-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-cardia-trial-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Stefan Heinze-Milne, Volodko Bakowsky, Nicholas Giacomantonio, Scott A Grandy
INTRODUCTION: Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) above the baseline risk attributable to traditional CVD risk factors seen in the general population. Exercise in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is designed specifically for high-risk primary prevention and those with established CVD. Even though the European League Against Rheumatism guidelines state that exercise is safe for individuals with RA and exercise can reduce CVD risk, patients with RA rarely participate in CR...
December 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273329/validation-of-the-friedewald-formula-for-the-estimation-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-a-sub-saharan-african-population
#20
Simeon-Pierre Choukem, Tasha Manases, Jean-Pierre Nda-Mefo, Christian Akem Dimala, Yannick Mboue-Djieka, Eugene Sobngwi, Andre-Pascal Kengne
BACKGROUND: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are used to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to guide prescriptions. To circumvent the challenges of direct LDL-C measurement, guidelines recommend the use of Friedewald formula derived LDL-C levels. Despite reported limitations of this formula, its validity in sub-Saharan Africans has not been adequately investigated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the Friedewald formula derived against directly (homogeneous) measured LDL-C in adult Cameroonians...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
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