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Hypothalamus inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903745/inhibiting-microglia-expansion-prevents-diet-induced-hypothalamic-and-peripheral-inflammation
#1
Caroline André, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Charlotte Rey, Julie Rémus-Borel, Samantha Clark, Ashley Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Agnes Nadjar, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Laye, Daniela Cota
Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897393/cancer-anorexia-hypothalamic-activity-and-its-association-with-inflammation-and-appetite-regulating-peptides-in-lung-cancer
#2
Alessio Molfino, Alessandro Iannace, Maria Chiara Colaiacomo, Alessio Farcomeni, Alessandra Emiliani, Gianfranco Gualdi, Alessandro Laviano, Filippo Rossi Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Energy homeostasis is mediated by the hypothalamus, whose inflammation-induced functional derangements contribute to the onset of anorexia in cancer. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined the patterns of hypothalamic activation after oral intake in anorexic (A), non-anorexic (NA) cancer patients, and in controls (C). METHODS: Lung cancer patients were considered. Hypothalamic activation was recorded in A and NA patients and in C by fMRI, before (T0), immediately after (T1) the administration of an oral nutritional supplement, and after 15 min (T2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876617/canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-attenuates-obesity-induced-inflammation-in-the-nodose-ganglion-hypothalamus-and-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#3
Farhana Naznin, Hideyuki Sakoda, Tadashi Okada, Hironobu Tsubouchi, T M Zaved Waise, Kenji Arakawa, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic inflammation in systemic organs, such as adipose tissue, nodose ganglion, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscles, is closely associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Because sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on obesity-induced inflammation in neural tissues and skeletal muscles of mice. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice were treated with canagliflozin for 8 weeks...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815837/fish-oil-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behavior-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation
#4
Zhe Shi, Huixia Ren, Zhijian Huang, Yu Peng, Baixuan He, Xiaoli Yao, Ti-Fei Yuan, Huanxing Su
Depression is associated with somatic immune changes, and neuroinflammation is now recognized as hallmark for depressive disorders. N-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well known to suppress neuroinflammation, reduce oxidative stress, and protect neuron from injury. We pretreated animals with fish oil and induced acute depression-like behaviors with systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The levels of cytokines and stress hormones were determined from plasma and different brain areas...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799253/hypertension-linked-pathophysiological-alterations-in-the-gut
#5
Monica M Santisteban, Yanfei Qi, Jasenka Zubcevic, Seungbum Kim, Tao Yang, Vinayak Shenoy, Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Gilberto O Lobaton, Daniel C Stewart, Andres Rubiano, Chelsey S Simmons, Fernando Garcia-Pereira, Richard D Johnson, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
RATIONALE: Sympathetic nervous system control of inflammation plays a central role in hypertension. The gut receives significant sympathetic innervation, is densely populated with a diverse microbial ecosystem, and contains immune cells that greatly impact overall inflammatory homeostasis. Despite this uniqueness, little is known about the involvement of the gut in hypertension. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that increased sympathetic drive to the gut is associated with increased gut wall permeability, increased inflammatory status, and microbial dysbiosis and that these gut pathological changes are linked to hypertension...
October 31, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787576/-gut-microbiome-and-major-depressive-disorder-the-other-side-of-ourselves
#6
A Manook, A Hiergeist, R Rupprecht, T C Baghai
Microbiological ecology and its ambition to describe the complete genome of complex living communities as a whole, have given us powerful tools to characterize the human gut microbiome on a genetic and, hence, taxonomic and abundance level; for a decade now, they have become sufficiently inexpensive, fast and feasible. Thus, opportunities arose to have a fresh and closer look at the microbiota-gut-brain-axis and its impact on human health; this axis comprises a complex multisystemic network of multidirectional interactions between brain and gut including influences beyond one generation...
October 27, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773938/high-fat-induces-acute-and-chronic-inflammation-in-the-hypothalamus-effect-of-hfd-palmitate-and-tnf-%C3%AE-on-appetite-regulating-npy-neurons
#7
P S Dalvi, J A Chalmers, V Luo, D-Yd Han, L Wellhauser, Y Liu, D Q Tran, J Castel, S Luquet, M B Wheeler, D D Belsham
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dietary fat is one of the key factors leading to obesity. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is characterized by induction of inflammation in the hypothalamus; however, the temporal regulation of proinflammatory markers and their impact on hypothalamic appetite-regulating neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons remains undefined. METHODS: Mice were injected with an acute lipid infusion for 24 h or fed a HFD over 8-20 weeks...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758689/mechanisms-of-anorexia-cancer-cachexia-syndrome-and-potential-benefits-of-traditional-medicine-and-natural-herbs
#8
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756691/endocannabinoids-and-sleep
#9
REVIEW
Oscar Prospéro-García, Octavio Amancio-Belmont, Alline L Becerril Meléndez, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Mónica Méndez-Díaz
Sleep is regulated by several brain structures, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are a group of lipids with modulatory activity in the brain and bind mainly to cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, thereby modulating several brain functions, (memory, mood, food intake, pain perception). Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide belong to the N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) family, another type of active endogenous lipids. They bind to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α but not to CB1R, thereby modulating food satiety, inflammation and pain...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753158/interaction-between-the-hypothalamus-and-the-immune-system
#10
Eva Soto-Tinoco, Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Ruud M Buijs
What is the topic of this review? Both branches of the autonomic nervous system are involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response. We explore how the hypothalamus may influence this process. What advances does it highlight? We analyse how a lipopolysaccharide signal is transmitted to the brain and which areas participate in the response of the brain to lipopolysaccharide. Recent studies show that the hypothalamus can influence the inflammatory response by modifying the autonomic output. The biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, is integrated into this circuit, putting a time stamp on the intensity of the inflammatory response...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744091/sex-differences-in-the-effect-of-acute-peripheral-il-1%C3%AE-administration-on-the-brain-and-serum-bdnf-and-vegf-expression-in-rats
#11
Ewa Obuchowicz, Marta Nowacka, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Andrzej Małecki
The present study was designed to evaluate, for the first time, the potential sex differences in BDNF and VEGF systems under normal conditions and in response to IL-1β given ip. Peripheral overproduction of this cytokine mediates the pathophysiology of various acute neuroinflammatory states. Until now, the effect of IL-1β on VEGF expression in rat brain structures and its serum level has not been examined. In male and female rats, the BDNF and VEGF mRNA expression, and BDNF level were evaluated in the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland...
October 12, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733273/gomisin-n-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-by-attenuating-inflammation-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-and-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-in-mice
#12
Ryota Araki, Yosuke Hiraki, Shoji Nishida, Yuka Inatomi, Takeshi Yabe
Emotional impairments such as depressive symptoms often develop in patients with sustained and systemic immune activation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of gomisin N, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., which exhibited inhibitory effects of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in a screening assay, on inflammation-induced depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of gomisin N on inflammation induced by LPS in murine microglial BV-2 cells and on LPS-induced behavioral changes in mice...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732903/fatty-acid-mediated-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-epigenetic-programming
#13
Helena C Cesar, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
A high-fat diet is the main environmental cue that has been studied in the hypothalamus since the discovery of its connection with hypothalamic inflammation. Current evidence shows hypothalamic inflammation as a likely mechanism for the dysregulation on the homeostatic control of energy balance, which leads to metabolic alterations and obesity. Although this mechanism seems to be reversible when set during adulthood, we argue whether dietary fatty acids, during critical periods of development, could affect hypothalamic function permanently and set an increased susceptibility to obesity...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713551/pomegranate-extract-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-alleviates-mitochondrial-impairment-by-activating-ampk-nrf2-in-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#14
Wenyan Sun, Chunhong Yan, Bess Frost, Xin Wang, Chen Hou, Mengqi Zeng, Hongli Gao, Yuming Kang, Jiankang Liu
High blood pressure, or "hypertension," is associated with high levels of oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. While pomegranate extract is a known antioxidant that is thought to have antihypertensive effects, the mechanism whereby pomegranate extract lowers blood pressure and the tissue that mediates its antihypertensive effects are currently unknown. We have used a spontaneously hypertensive rat model to investigate the antihypertensive properties of pomegranate extract. We found that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with pomegranate extract significantly reduced blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691980/why-is-the-topic-of-the-biological-embedding-of-experiences-important-for-translation
#15
Michael Rutter
Translational research focuses on innovation in healthcare settings, but this is a two-way process that may have implications for either treatment or prevention. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Experimental medicine that budges basic and clinical science often constitutes a key way forward. Areas of scientific progress and challenge are discussed in relation to drug action, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetics...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682182/beneficial-effects-of-exogenous-melatonin-in-acute-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli-infection-induced-inflammation-and-associated-behavioral-response-in-mice-after-exposure-to-short-photoperiod
#16
Biswadev Bishayi, Rana Adhikary, Ajeya Nandi, Sahin Sultana
The administration of melatonin during acute bacterial infection was evaluated in this study. Mice pre-exposed to normal photoperiodic (NP), short photoperiodic (SP), and long photoperiodic (LP) day lengths were infected separately with live Staphylococcus aureus (5 × 10(6) cells/ml) or Escherichia coli (2.5 × 10(7) colony-forming units/ml) and treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight). Behavioral studies were performed before bacterial infection and after melatonin administration. In mice pre-exposed to SP, exogenous melatonin administration resulted in better clearance of bacteria from blood and behavioral improvement...
December 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677620/proanthocyanidins-potentiate-hypothalamic-leptin-stat3-signalling-and-pomc-gene-expression-in-rats-with-diet-induced-obesity
#17
M Ibars, A Ardid-Ruiz, M Suárez, B Muguerza, C Bladé, G Aragonès
OBJECTIVE: Dietary obesity is usually linked with hypothalamic leptin resistance, in which the primary impact is an interference in the homeostatic control of body weight and appetite. Notably, proanthocyanidins (PACs), which are the most abundant phenolic compounds present in human diet, modulate adiposity and food intake. The aim of this study was to assess whether PACs could re-establish appropriate leptin signalling in both the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. DESIGN: Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow diet (STD group, n=7) or a cafeteria diet (CD) for 13 weeks...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663886/high-fat-diet-induced-downregulation-of-anorexic-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-in-the-brain-stem
#18
Maria Licursi, Christian O Alberto, Alex Dias, Kensuke Hirasawa, Michiru Hirasawa
OBJECTIVE: High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce low-grade hypothalamic inflammation. Whether inflammation occurs in other brain areas remains unknown. This study tested the effect of short-term HFD on cytokine gene expression and identified leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as a responsive cytokine in the brain stem. Thus, functional and cellular effects of LIF in the brain stem were investigated. METHODS: Male rats were fed chow or HFD for 3 days, and then gene expression was analyzed in different brain regions for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and LIF...
September 24, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663044/-metabolic-syndrome-and-bipolar-disorder-is-sleep-the-missing-link
#19
H Brochard, C Boudebesse, C Henry, O Godin, M Leboyer, B Étain
OBJECTIVE: To examine the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link circadian disorder and metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder (BP). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted from January 2013 to January 2015, using the Medline and Cochrane databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "obesity", "leptin" and "circadian disorders", "sleeping disorders" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials; (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder; (iii) studies involving patients with sleeping disorder; or (iv) data about metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642579/current-understanding-on-pain-mechanism-in-migraine-and-cluster-headache
#20
REVIEW
Alina Buture, Rubesh Gooriah, Randa Nimeri, Fayyaz Ahmed
CONTEXT: Migraine and cluster headache are undoubtedly painful conditions. The respective pathogenesis of these two conditions is incompletely understood. In both cases, the treatments used have largely been empirical and have relied to a much lesser extent on our understanding of the mechanisms causing pain. We hereby review the pain mechanisms in migraine and cluster headache, two of the commonest primary headache disorders. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed for studies on pain mechanism in migraine and cluster headache...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
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