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Hypothalamus inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933062/hypothalamic-dysfunction-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#1
Sara Carmo-Silva, Cláudia Cavadas
The hypothalamus is the brain region responsible for the maintenance of energetic homeostasis. The regulation of this process arises from the ability of the hypothalamus to orchestrate complex physiological responses such as food intake and energy expenditure, circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility. Metabolic alterations such as obesity can compromise these hypothalamic regulatory functions. Alterations in circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility further contribute to aggravate the metabolic dysfunction of obesity and contribute to the development of chronic disorders such as depression and infertility...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893563/the-impact-of-murine-lrrk2-g2019s-transgene-overexpression-on-acute-responses-to-inflammatory-challenge
#2
Darcy Litteljohn, Chris Rudyk, Zach Dwyer, Kyle Farmer, Teresa Fortin, Shawn Hayley
The most common Parkinson's disease (PD) mutation is the gain-of-function LRRK2 G2019S variant, which has also been linked to inflammatory disease states. Yet, little is known of the role of G2019S in PD related complex behavioral or immune/hormonal processes in response to inflammatory/toxicant challenges. Hence, we characterized the behavioural, neuroendocrine-immune and central monoaminergic responses in G2019S overexpressing mutants following systemic interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration...
September 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865476/inhibition-of-hypothalamic-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-exacerbates-diet-induced-obesity-phenotype
#3
Milena Fioravante, Bruna Bombassaro, Albina F Ramalho, Nathalia R Dragano, Joseane Morari, Carina Solon, Natalia Tobar, Celso D Ramos, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats can trigger an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus and contribute to the dysfunctional control of caloric intake and energy expenditure commonly present in obesity. The objective of this study was to identify chemokine-related transcripts that could be involved in the early stages of diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation. METHODS: We used immunoblot, PCR array, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and determination of general metabolic parameters to evaluate markers of inflammation, body mass variation, and glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855891/hypothalamic-inflammation-and-energy-balance-disruptions-spotlight-on-chemokines
#4
REVIEW
Ophélia Le Thuc, Katharina Stobbe, Céline Cansell, Jean-Louis Nahon, Nicolas Blondeau, Carole Rovère
The hypothalamus is a key brain region in the regulation of energy balance as it controls food intake and both energy storage and expenditure through integration of humoral, neural, and nutrient-related signals and cues. Many years of research have focused on the regulation of energy balance by hypothalamic neurons, but the most recent findings suggest that neurons and glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, in the hypothalamus actually orchestrate together several metabolic functions. Because glial cells have been described as mediators of inflammatory processes in the brain, the existence of a causal link between hypothalamic inflammation and the deregulations of feeding behavior, leading to involuntary weight loss or obesity for example, has been suggested...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854149/chronic-exercise-reduces-hypothalamic-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-in-middle-aged-obese-mice
#5
Vagner R R Silva, Carlos K Katashima, Luciene Lenhare, Carla G B Silva, Joseane Morari, Rafael L Camargo, Licio A Velloso, Mario A Saad, Adelino S R da Silva, Jose Rodrigo Pauli, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle
Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment...
August 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852125/irf2bp2-deficient-microglia-block-the-anxiolytic-effect-of-enhanced-postnatal-care
#6
Aswin Hari, Shelly A Cruz, Zhaohong Qin, Pascal Couture, Ragnar O Vilmundarson, Hua Huang, Alexandre F R Stewart, Hsiao-Huei Chen
Enhanced postnatal care (EPC) increases resilience to adversity in adulthood. Since microglia participate in shaping neural circuits, we asked how ablation of an inflammation-suppressing factor IRF2BP2 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 2 Binding Protein 2) in microglia would affect the responses to EPC. Mice lacking IRF2BP2 in microglia (KO) and littermate controls (WT) were subjected to EPC during the first 3 weeks after birth. EPC reduced anxiety in WT but not KO mice. This was associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in the hypothalamus...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#7
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809157/brain-micro-inflammation-at-specific-vessels-dysregulates-organ-homeostasis-via-the-activation-of-a-new-neural-circuit
#8
Yasunobu Arima, Takuto Ohki, Naoki Nishikawa, Kotaro Higuchi, Mitsutoshi Ota, Yuki Tanaka, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Mohamed Elfeky, Ryota Sakai, Yuki Mori, Tadafumi Kawamoto, Andrea Stofkova, Yukihiro Sakashita, Yuji Morimoto, Masaki Kuwatani, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Naoya Sakamoto, Akihiko Yoshimura, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi, Saburo Sakoda, Marco Prinz, Daisuke Kamimura, Masaaki Murakami
Impact of stress on diseases including gastrointestinal failure is well-known, but molecular mechanism is not understood. Here we show underlying molecular mechanism using EAE mice. Under stress conditions, EAE caused severe gastrointestinal failure with high-mortality. Mechanistically, autoreactive-pathogenic CD4+ T cells accumulated at specific vessels of boundary area of third-ventricle, thalamus, and dentate-gyrus to establish brain micro-inflammation via stress-gateway reflex. Importantly, induction of brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels by cytokine injection was sufficient to establish fatal gastrointestinal failure...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808144/particulate-matter-exposure-and-stress-hormone-levels-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial-of-air-purification
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Huichu Li, Jing Cai, Renjie Chen, Zhuohui Zhao, Zhekang Ying, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Ke Hao, Patrick L Kinney, Honglei Chen, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but potential mechanisms are largely unknown. Metabolomics represents a powerful approach to study global metabolic changes in response to environmental exposures. We therefore conducted this study to investigate changes in serum metabolites in response to the reduction of PM exposure among healthy college students. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind crossover trial in 55 healthy college students in Shanghai, China...
August 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801581/bpifcl-modulates-kiss2-expression-under-the-influence-of-11-ketotestosterone-in-female-zebrafish
#10
Shogo Moriya, Nabila Tahsin, Ishwar S Parhar
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) fold-containing (BPIF) superfamily of genes expressed in the brain are purportedly involved in modulating brain function in response to stress, such as inflammation. Kisspeptin, encoded by kiss, is affected by inflammation in the brain; therefore, BPIF family genes might be involved in the modulation of kisspeptin in the brain. In this study, we investigated the expression of BPIF family C, like (bpifcl) in zebrafish brain and its involvement in kiss2 regulation...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790890/memory-training-program-decreases-the-circulating-level-of-cortisol-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-healthy-older-adults
#11
Mirko Pesce, Raffaella Tatangelo, Irene La Fratta, Alessia Rizzuto, Giovanna Campagna, Cinzia Turli, Alessio Ferrone, Sara Franceschelli, Lorenza Speranza, Maria C Verrocchio, Maria A De Lutiis, Mario Felaco, Alfredo Grilli
Aging cognitive decline has been associated to impairment of the Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenals (HPA) axis activity and a higher level of the systemic inflammation. However, little is known about the molecules driving this process at peripheral level. In addition, the cognitive function is to some extent modifiable with Memory Training (MT) programs, even among older adults and beyond. The study aims to evaluate whether MT could contribute to ameliorate cognitive performance and modulate the HPA axis activity as well the low level inflammation in the aging phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774687/the-environment-and-male-reproduction-the-effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-reproductive-functions-and-its-implication-in-fertility
#12
REVIEW
Cristina de Angelis, Mariano Galdiero, Claudia Pivonello, Ciro Salzano, Daniele Gianfrilli, Prisco Piscitelli, Andrea Lenzi, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello
Cadmium is an environmental pollutant known as endocrine disruptor. Testis is particularly susceptible to cadmium, and testis injury occurs at high but even low levels of exposure. Cadmium reproductive toxicity is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including structural damage to testis vasculature and blood-testis barrier, inflammation, cytotoxicity on Sertoli and Leydig cells, oxidative stress, apoptosis, epigenetic actions, and disturbance of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The current review outlines epidemiological observational findings from environmental and occupational exposure in humans, and reports experimental studies in humans and animals...
August 1, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760600/hypothalamic-mitochondrial-abnormalities-occur-downstream-of-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#13
Rodrigo S Carraro, Gabriela F Souza, Carina Solon, Daniela S Razolli, Bruno Chausse, Roberta Barbizan, Sheila C Victorio, Licio A Velloso
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a common feature of experimental obesity. Studies have identified at least three mechanisms involved in the development of hypothalamic neuronal defects in diet-induced obesity: i, inflammation; ii, endoplasmic reticulum stress; and iii, mitochondrial abnormalities. However, which of these mechanisms is activated earliest in response to the consumption of large portions of dietary fats is currently unknown. Here, we used immunoblot, real-time PCR, mitochondrial respiration assays and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate markers of inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial abnormalities in the hypothalamus of Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet for up to seven days...
July 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756738/inflammation-stem-cells-and-the-aging-hypothalamus
#14
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
The aging hypothalamus has been hypothesized to play a key role in vertebrate aging. Increased inflammation in microglial cells during aging reduces the number of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the mediobasal region of the hypothalamus. Ectopic brain-specific expression of SIRT1 and localized hypothalamic expression of a dominantly acting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor to microglia or to NSCs extend life span in mice. NSCs in the hypothalamus secrete miRNA-containing exosomes and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that oppose aging-associated neurological and skeletomuscular dysfunction...
August 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752053/dietary-sugars-not-lipids-drive-hypothalamic-inflammation
#15
Yuanqing Gao, Maximilian Bielohuby, Thomas Fleming, Gernot F Grabner, Ewout Foppen, Wagner Bernhard, Mara Guzmán-Ruiz, Clarita Layritz, Beata Legutko, Erwin Zinser, Cristina García-Cáceres, Ruud M Buijs, Stephen C Woods, Andries Kalsbeek, Randy J Seeley, Peter P Nawroth, Martin Bidlingmaier, Matthias H Tschöp, Chun-Xia Yi
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory response and the consequent impact on hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis is yet not clear. METHODS: We dissected the different effects of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diets and low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets on hypothalamic inflammatory responses in neurons and non-neuronal cells and tested the hypothesis that HCHF diets induce hypothalamic inflammation via advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) using mice lacking advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) receptor (RAGE) and/or the activated leukocyte cell-adhesion molecule (ALCAM)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#16
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#17
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699230/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-the-presence-of-astrocytes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-c57bl6-mice-without-altering-leptin-sensitivity
#18
Eglantine Balland, Michael A Cowley
Diet-induced obesity is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and this phenomenon has been proposed to explain leptin resistance. In this study we used a short-term high fat diet (HFD) paradigm for 10days and analysed the cellular and physiological responses to leptin administration in C57BL6 mice. In parallel we performed GFAP immuno-staining to measure the presence of astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) after 10 days and 20 weeks of HFD. Interestingly our results demonstrate that the presence of star-like astrocytes is significantly increased after 10 days of HFD but this is not associated with the absence of cellular and physiological response to leptin administration in mice...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685102/autism-like-behaviours-and-memory-deficits-result-from-a-western-diet-in-mice
#19
Ekaterina Veniaminova, Raymond Cespuglio, Chi Wai Cheung, Alexei Umriukhin, Nataliia Markova, Elena Shevtsova, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Daniel C Anthony, Tatyana Strekalova
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, induced by a Western diet (WD), evokes central and peripheral inflammation that is accompanied by altered emotionality. These changes can be associated with abnormalities in social behaviour, hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, and metabolism. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or with a WD containing 0.2% of cholesterol and 21% of saturated fat for three weeks. WD-treated mice exhibited increased social avoidance, crawl-over and digging behaviours, decreased body-body contacts, and hyperlocomotion...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683278/energy-sparing-orexigenic-inflammation-of-obesity
#20
Aileen Lee, Vishwa Deep Dixit
The neuro-immune interactions that integrate host metabolism in health and disease are unclear. A new study by Valdearcos et al. (2017) describes how sensing of high-fat diet by microglia, brain's resident innate immune cells, recruits additional bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells into the hypothalamus to produce inflammation and cause weight gain.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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