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Hypothalamus inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446241/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-receptors-gpr40-and-gpr120-are-expressed-in-the-hypothalamus-and-control-energy-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#1
Nathalia R V Dragano, Carina Solon, Albina F Ramalho, Rodrigo F de Moura, Daniela S Razolli, Elisabeth Christiansen, Carlos Azevedo, Trond Ulven, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential role of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 as targets for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: Male Swiss (6-weeks old), were fed with a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of kcal from fat) for 4 weeks...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438967/immune-induced-fever-is-dependent-on-local-but-not-generalized-prostaglandin-e2-synthesis-in-the-brain
#2
Anna Eskilsson, Takashi Matsuwaki, Kiseko Shionoya, Elahe Mirrasekhian, Joanna Zajdel, Markus Schwaninger, David Engblom, Anders Blomqvist
Fever occurs upon binding of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to EP3 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, but the origin of the pyrogenic PGE2 has not been clearly determined. Here, using mice of both sexes, we examined the role of local vs generalized PGE2 production in the brain for the febrile response. In wild-type mice and in mice with genetic deletion of the prostaglandin synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 in the brain endothelium, generated with an inducible CreER(T2) under the Slco1c1 promoter, PGE2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid were only weakly related to the magnitude of the febrile response, whereas the PGE2 synthesizing capacity in the hypothalamus, as reflected in the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA, showed strong correlation with the immune-induced fever...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438640/neutralizing-il-6-reduces-heart-injury-by-decreasing-nerve-growth-factor-precursor-in-the-heart-and-hypothalamus-during-rat-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#3
Chi Cheng, Jun-Mei Xu, Tian Yu
AIMS: To investigate whether the expression of nerve growth factor precursor (proNGF) changes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and whether neutralizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) during CPB has cardiac benefits. MAIN METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing CPB were recruited and their serum proNGF and troponin-I (TNI) were detected. In addition, rats were divided into three groups: CPB group, CPB with cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group, and a control group. The pre-CPB standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN) and post-CPB SDNN were compared...
April 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407740/mu-opioid-receptor-and-delta-opioid-receptor-differentially-regulate-microglial-inflammatory-response-to-control-proopiomelanocortin-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-hypothalamus-effects-of-neonatal-alcohol
#4
Pallavi Shrivastava, Miguel A Cabrera, Lucy G Chastain, Nadka I Boyadjieva, Shaima Jabbar, Tina Franklin, Dipak K Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Opioid receptors are known to control neurotransmission of various peptidergic neurons, but their potential role in regulation of microglia and neuronal cell communications is unknown. We investigated the role of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and delta-opioid receptors (DOR) on microglia in the regulation of apoptosis in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons induced by neonatal ethanol in the hypothalamus. METHODS: Neonatal rat pups were fed a milk formula containing ethanol or control diets between postnatal days 2-6...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377875/astrocyte-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-is-required-for-diet-induced-obesity-and-hypothalamic-inflammation
#5
J D Douglass, M D Dorfman, R Fasnacht, L D Shaffer, J P Thaler
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD) consumption in rodents is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and reactive gliosis. While neuronal inflammation promotes HFD-induced metabolic dysfunction, the role of astrocyte activation in susceptibility to hypothalamic inflammation and diet-induced obesity (DIO) remains uncertain. METHODS: Metabolic phenotyping, immunohistochemical analyses, and biochemical analyses were performed on HFD-fed mice with a tamoxifen-inducible astrocyte-specific knockout of IKKβ (Gfap(CreER)Ikbkb(fl/fl), IKKβ-AKO), an essential cofactor of NF-κB-mediated inflammation...
April 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373090/interleukin-18-and-its-receptor-are-expressed-in-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-of-mouse-and-rat-forebrain
#6
Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Seishi Maeda, Kimiko Kobayashi, Yusuke Minato, Koichi Tanaka, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Masaki Hata, Wen Li, Tetsu Hayakawa, Koichi Noguchi, Haruki Okamura, Hideshi Yagi
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important mediator of peripheral inflammation and host immune response. IL-18 functions through its binding with the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R), which consists of two chains, an IL-18-binding α chain (IL-18Rα) and a signaling β chain. IL-18 and IL-18R are expressed in the brain; however, limited information is available on IL-18R expression and the role of IL-18 in neurosecretory cells. In the present study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the distribution of IL-18Rα and IL-18 in the hypothalamus of male mice and rats...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358856/dexmedetomidine-ameliorates-muscle-wasting-and-attenuates-the-alteration-of-hypothalamic-neuropeptides-and-inflammation-in-endotoxemic-rats
#7
Minhua Cheng, Tao Gao, Fengchan Xi, Chun Cao, Yan Chen, Chenyan Zhao, Qiurong Li, Wenkui Yu
Dexmedetomidine is generally used for sedaton in critically ill, it could shorten duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and lower basic metabolism. However, the exact mechanism of these positive effects remains unkown. Here we investigated the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine could ameliorate muscle wasting in endotoxemic rats and whether it was related to hypothalamic neuropeptides alteration and inflammation. Fourty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) or saline, followed by 50 μg/kg dexmedetomidine or saline administration via the femoral vein catheter (infusion at 5 μg·kg-1·hr-1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332601/trpm8-in-the-negative-regulation-of-tnf%C3%AE-expression-during-cold-stress
#8
Xin-Pei Wang, Xuan Yu, Xiao-Jin Yan, Fan Lei, Yu-Shuang Chai, Jing-Fei Jiang, Zhi-Yi Yuan, Dong-Ming Xing, Li-Jun Du
Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 (TRPM8) reportedly plays a fundamental role in a variety of processes including cold sensation, thermoregulation, pain transduction and tumorigenesis. However, the role of TRPM8 in inflammation under cold conditions is not well known. Since cooling allows the convergence of primary injury and injury-induced inflammation, we hypothesized that the mechanism of the protective effects of cooling might be related to TRPM8. We therefore investigated the involvement of TRPM8 activation in the regulation of inflammatory cytokines...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321033/role-of-spleen-derived-il-10-in-prevention-of-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-by-obesity-review
#9
Koro Gotoh, Kansuke Fujiwara, Manabu Anai, Mitsuhiro Okamoto, Takayuki Masaki, Tetsuya Kakuma, Hirotaka Shibata
Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen...
March 17, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318543/obesity-induced-neuroinflammation-beyond-the-hypothalamus
#10
REVIEW
Owein Guillemot-Legris, Giulio G Muccioli
Obesity is now a worldwide health issue. Far from being limited to weight gain, obesity is generally associated with low-grade inflammation and with a cluster of disorders collectively known as the 'metabolic syndrome'. When considering obesity and the subsequent neuroinflammation, the focus was long set on the hypothalamus. More recently, obesity-derived neuroinflammation has been shown to affect other brain structures such as the hippocampus, cortex, brainstem, or amygdala. Furthermore, obesity has been associated with increased occurrence of central disorders such as depression and impaired cognitive function...
March 16, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315336/streptozotocin-produces-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-decreases-bdnf-concentrations-to-induce-apoptosis-of-rin5f-cells-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-wistar-rats
#11
Siresha Bathina, Nanduri Srinivas, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disorders, such as deficits in learning, memory and cognition and Alzheimer's disease are associated with diabetes mellitus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor and is known to possess anti-obesity, anti-diabetic actions and is believed to have a role in memory and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether STZ can reduce BDNF production by rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells in vitro and decrease BDNF levels in the pancreas, liver and brain in vivo...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245460/endocrine-immunology-of-chagas-disease
#12
Wilson Savino
The concept of immunoendocrine interactions, existing in normal and pathological conditions, is relatively recent. Accordingly, cells from the immune system and from endocrine glands share common receptors for cytokines and hormones, allowing systemic and local regulatory mechanisms. In this context, lymphoid organs are under physiological hormonal control. Disturbances in these systems, as those caused by pathogens changes the physiological profile of these interactions, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines and hormones, and one example is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245454/leptin-neuroinflammation-and-obesity
#13
Nathalia R V Dragano, Roberta Haddad-Tovolli, Licio A Velloso
Hypothalamic resistance to adipostatic actions of leptin is a hallmark of obesity. Studies have revealed that hypothalamic inflammation, triggered in response to the consumption of large amounts of dietary fat, is an important mechanism in the development of leptin resistance. In this chapter, we will review the work that paved the way linking neuroinflammation of the hypothalamus and defective leptin action in obesity.
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192820/estrogen-maintains-skeletal-muscle-in-septic-rats-associated-with-altering-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-neuropeptides
#14
Chenyan Zhao, Jun Li, Minhua Cheng, Jialing Shi, Juanhong Shen, Tao Gao, Fengchan Xi, Wenkui Yu
Muscle wasting is one of the main contributors to the worse outcomes in sepsis. Whether estrogen could alleviate muscle wasting induced by sepsis remains unclear. This study was designed to test the effect of estrogen on muscle wasting and its relationship with central alteration in sepsis. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, sepsis group, and estrogen treated sepsis group. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) or saline, followed by subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg) or saline...
March 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181829/marked-augmentation-of-plga-nanoparticle-induced-metabolically-beneficial-impact-of-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-fuel-dyshomeostasis-in-genetically-obese-diabetic-ob-ob-mice
#15
Chisayo Kozuka, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Kaku Nakano, Hidetaka Morinaga, Ayano Kinjo, Kotaro Fukuda, Asuka Kamei, Akihito Yasuoka, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe, Kensuke Egashira, Hiroaki Masuzaki
Our previous works demonstrated that brown rice-specific bioactive substance, γ-oryzanol acts as a chaperone, attenuates exaggerated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in brain hypothalamus and pancreatic islets, thereby ameliorating metabolic derangement in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese diabetic mice. However, extremely low absorption efficiency from intestine of γ-oryzanol is a tough obstacle for the clinical application. Therefore, in this study, to overcome extremely low bioavailability of γ-oryzanol with super-high lipophilicity, we encapsulated γ-oryzanol in polymer poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Nano-Orz), and evaluated its metabolically beneficial impact in genetically obese-diabetic ob/ob mice, the best-known severest diabetic model in mice...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161195/activation-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-by-iptakalim-normalizes-stress-induced-hpa-axis-disorder-and-depressive-behaviour-by-alleviating-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-hypothalamus
#16
Xiao-Jie Zhao, Zhan Zhao, Dan-Dan Yang, Lu-Lu Cao, Ling Zhang, Juan Ji, Jun Gu, Ji-Ye Huang, Xiu-Lan Sun
Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161095/environmental-obesogen-tributyltin-chloride-leads-to-abnormal-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-function-by-disruption-in-kisspeptin-leptin-signaling-in-female-rats
#17
Gabriela C Sena, Leandro C Freitas-Lima, Eduardo Merlo, Priscila L Podratz, Julia F P de Araújo, Poliane A A Brandão, Maria T W D Carneiro, Marina C Zicker, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Christina M Takiya, Carolina M de Lemos Barbosa, Marcelo M Morales, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Leandro Miranda-Alves, Ian V Silva, Jones B Graceli
Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118407/effect-of-physical-exercise-on-the-febrigenic-signaling-is-modulated-by-preoptic-hydrogen-sulfide-production
#18
Jonatas E Nogueira, Renato N Soriano, Rodrigo A R Fernandez, Heloísa D C Francescato, Rafael S Saia, Terezila M Coimbra, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Luiz G S Branco
We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106051/hepatic-alterations-are-accompanied-by-changes-to-bile-acid-transporter-expressing-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Damir Nizamutdinov, Sharon DeMorrow, Matthew McMillin, Jessica Kain, Sanjib Mukherjee, Suzanne Zeitouni, Gabriel Frampton, Paul Clint S Bricker, Jacob Hurst, Lee A Shapiro
Annually, there are over 2 million incidents of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and treatment options are non-existent. While many TBI studies have focused on the brain, peripheral contributions involving the digestive and immune systems are emerging as factors involved in the various symptomology associated with TBI. We hypothesized that TBI would alter hepatic function, including bile acid system machinery in the liver and brain. The results show activation of the hepatic acute phase response by 2 hours after TBI, hepatic inflammation by 6 hours after TBI and a decrease in hepatic transcription factors, Gli 1, Gli 2, Gli 3 at 2 and 24 hrs after TBI...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#20
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemotopoietically derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due to their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-oestradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
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