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Carbohydrate exercise

Laurie Isacco, Ophélie Ritter, Nicolas Tordi, Davy Laroche, Bruno Degano, Malika Bouhaddi, Mark Rakobowchuk, Laurent Mourot
This study investigated substrate oxidation in concentric and eccentric cycling matched for aerobic power output in the postprandial state. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio, and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were measured at rest and after 15, 30, and 45 min of eccentric and concentric cycling in 12 men. Absolute and relative aerobic power output and energy expenditure were similar during concentric and eccentric exercise. No effect of exercise modality was observed for substrate metabolism...
August 11, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Joel Rocha, Jenny Paxman, Caroline Dalton, Edward Winter, David R Broom
This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention...
July 15, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Brian J Martin, Chris McGlory, Martin J MacInnis, Mary K Allison, Stuart M Phillips, Martin J Gibala
We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise but via an unknown mechanism. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics upon ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21±2 y; BMI=23±4 kg•m(-2), VO2peak=38±7 ml•kg(-1)•min(-1); mean±SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7-d in a double-blind, crossover design...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Philip B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
While the words "fit" and "healthy" are often used synonymously in everyday language, the terms have entirely separate meanings. Fitness describes the ability to perform a given exercise task, and health explains a person's state of well-being, where physiological systems work in harmony. Although we typically view athletes as fit and healthy, they often are not. The global term we place on unhealthy athletes is the overtraining syndrome. In this current opinion, we propose that two primary drivers may contribute to the development of the overtraining syndrome, namely high training intensity and the modern-day highly processed, high glycemic diet...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
A F O'Doherty, T Sathyapalan, A S Rigby, L Ingle, S Carroll
PURPOSE: The Oral Fat Tolerance Test (OFTT) is regarded as a repeatable measure used to assess postprandial triglyceride (TAG) levels, with higher levels observed in cardio-metabolic disorders. Acute aerobic exercise intervention before OFTT reduces the TAG response, but the repeatability of this effect is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of the abbreviated 4-h OFTT with and without immediate prior aerobic exercise. METHODS: On four separate days, healthy adult male participants underwent two 4-h OFTT (n = 10) and another two 4-h OFTT with 1-h of standardised moderate intensity aerobic exercise performed immediately before meal ingestion (n = 11)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Lykke Sylow, Maximilian Kleinert, Erik A Richter, Thomas E Jensen
Skeletal muscle extracts glucose from the blood to maintain demand for carbohydrates as an energy source during exercise. Such uptake involves complex molecular signalling processes that are distinct from those activated by insulin. Exercise-stimulated glucose uptake is preserved in insulin-resistant muscle, emphasizing exercise as a therapeutic cornerstone among patients with metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Exercise increases uptake of glucose by up to 50-fold through the simultaneous stimulation of three key steps: delivery, transport across the muscle membrane and intracellular flux through metabolic processes (glycolysis and glucose oxidation)...
October 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ashraf S Gorgey, Zachary A Graham, William A Bauman, Christopher Cardozo, David R Gater
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal design. OBJECTIVES: The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Yumiko Takahashi, Yuki Tamura, Yutaka Matsunaga, Yu Kitaoka, Shin Terada, Hideo Hatta
We previously reported that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid; dose: 0.5 mg/g body weight) administration after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min increased the glycogen concentration in the skeletal muscle of ICR mice at 120 min after the exercise (Takahashi et al. 2014). In the current study, we further investigated the effects of taurine administration on glycogen repletion and carbohydrate metabolism in the tibialis anterior muscle after endurance exercise. The metabolomic profiles of the tibialis anterior muscle at 120 min after the exercise were analyzed by a capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (n=6)...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
M J McAllister, H E Webb, D K Tidwell, J W Smith, B J Fountain, M W Schilling, R D Williams
Combined mental and physical stress is associated with exacerbated cortisol production which may increase risk for the progression of cardiovascular disease in individuals working in high-stress occupations (e.g., firefighters, military personnel, etc.). Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion prior to physical stress may attenuate cortisol concentrations. This project was the first to investigate the effect of CHO ingestion on cortisol response from combined mental and physical stress. 16 men 21-30 years old were randomly assigned a 6...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
T K Khong, V S Selvanayagam, S K Sidhu, A Yusof
Carbohydrate (CHO) depletion is linked to neuromuscular fatigue during exercise. While its role at peripheral level is relatively well understood, less is known about its impact centrally. The aim of this systematic review was to critically analyze the effects of CHO on central fatigue (CF) assessed by various neurophysiological techniques. Four databases were searched using PRISMA guidelines through February 2016. The inclusion criteria were: CHO as intervention against a placebo control, fatigue induced by prolonged exercise and assessed using neurophysiological measures [voluntary activation (VA), superimposed twitch (SIT), M-wave, electromyography], alongside maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts, Vincent J Dalbo, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Kristina L Kendall, Jordan R Moon, Jeffrey R Stout
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the chronic effects of different whey protein forms on body composition and performance when supplemented with resistance training. METHODS: Resistance-trained men (N = 56, 21.4 ± 0.4 years, 79.5 ± 1.0 kg) participated in an 8-week resistance training regimen (2 upper-body sessions and 2 lower-body sessions per week) and received one of 4 double-blinded treatments: 30 g/serving carbohydrate placebo (PLA) or 30 g/serving protein from either (a) 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC), (b) high-lactoferrin-containing WPC (WPC-L), or (c) extensively hydrolyzed WPC (WPH)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Mohamed Taha Khoufi, Ali Mrabet, Abderraouf Ben Mansour, Khaled Lamine, Mustapha Ferjani, Mondher Yedeas
Exertional heat stroke is defined as hyperthermia associated with neurological signs related to intense physical activity performed in a hot environment. This is a medical emergency and life-threatening. In this study, we investigated four cases of exertional heat stroke hospitalized at the military hospital in Tunis (Tunisia) to describe the clinical, therapeutic and preventive characteristics and factors favoring this disease. Four young soldiers, 23 to 44 years older, have developed Exertional heat stroke after Intense and prolonged exercise...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Boyoung Park, Sun-Young Kong, Eun Kyung Lee, Moo Hyun Lee, Eun Sook Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of and lifestyle factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors and to compare those factors with controls without cancer in a community setting. METHODS: This study included 584 female breast cancer survivors ≥3 years after the initial diagnosis and 2336 age-matched cancer-free female controls from 39 community health examination centers located in 14 urban areas in Korea...
September 17, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Joseph Kizzi, Alvin Sum, Fraser E Houston, Lawrence D Hayes
Attenuated performance during intense exercise with limited endogenous carbohydrate (CHO) is well documented. Therefore, this study examined whether caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing would augment performance during repeated sprint cycling in participants with reduced endogenous CHO. Eight recreationally active males (aged 23 ± 2 yr, body mass 84 ± 4 kg, stature 178 ± 7 cm) participated in this randomized, single-blind, repeated-measures crossover investigation. Following familiarization, participants attended two separate evening glycogen depletion sessions...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Elisa Giorgetti, Zhigang Yu, Jason P Chua, Ryosuke Shimamura, Lili Zhao, Fan Zhu, Sriram Venneti, Maria Pennuto, Yuanfang Guan, Gene Hung, Andrew P Lieberman
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a progressive degenerative disorder, is caused by a CAG/glutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (polyQ AR). Recent studies demonstrate that skeletal muscle is an important site of toxicity that contributes to the SBMA phenotype. Here, we sought to identify critical pathways altered in muscle that underlie disease manifestations in AR113Q mice. This led to the unanticipated identification of gene expression changes affecting regulators of carbohydrate metabolism, similar to those triggered by denervation...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
William J Smiles, Evelyn B Parr, Vernon G Coffey, Orly Lacham-Kaplan, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Alcohol ingestion decreases post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, but the mechanism(s) (e.g., increased protein breakdown) underlying this observation are unknown. Autophagy is an intracellular "recycling" system required for homeostatic substrate and organelle turnover; its dysregulation may provoke apoptosis and lead to muscle atrophy. We investigated the acute effects of alcohol ingestion on autophagic cell signaling responses to a bout of concurrent (combined resistance- and endurance-based) exercise...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Janice L Daniels, Richard J Bloomer, Marie van der Merwe, Samantha L Davis, Karyl K Buddington, Randal K Buddington
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes search for diet regimens that will improve performance and decrease gastrointestinal disturbances during training and events. Although the intestine can adapt to changes in the amount and composition of dietary inputs, the responses to the combination of endurance exercise and diet are poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated small intestinal dimensions and mucosal architecture and calculated the capacities of the entire small intestine to digest maltose and maltodextrin and absorb glucose in response to two different diet types; a western human diet and the Daniel Fast, a vegan style diet, and with moderate intensity endurance training or a no-exercise sedentary lifestyle for a 13 week period (n = 7 per group)...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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