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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108650/aerobic-efficiency-is-associated-with-the-improvement-in-maximal-power-output-during-acute-hyperoxia
#1
Tom A Manselin, Olof Södergård, Filip J Larsen, Peter Lindholm
This study investigated the relationship between aerobic efficiency during cycling exercise and the increase in physical performance with acute hyperoxic exposure (FiO2 ~31%) (HOX) and also tested the hypothesis that fat oxidation could be increased by acute hyperoxia. Fourteen males and four females were recruited for two sessions, where they exercised for 2 × 10 min at 100 W to determine efficiency. HOX and normoxia (NOX) were administered randomly on both occasions to account for differences in nitrogen exchange...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104353/fluid-energy-and-nutrient-recovery-via-ad-libitum-intake-of-different-fluids-and-food
#2
Nadia Campagnolo, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Christopher Irwin, Matthew Schubert, Gregory R Cox, Michael Leveritt, Ben Desbrow
INTRODUCTION: This study compared the effects of ad libitum consumption of different beverages and foods on fluid retention and nutrient intake following exercise. METHODS: Ten endurance trained males (mean±SD; Age=25.3±4.9years, VO2max=63.0±7.2ml·kg·min(-1)) performed four trials employing a counterbalanced, crossover design. Following 60min of exercise (matched for energy expenditure and fluid loss) participants consumed either water (W1 and W2), a sports drink (Powerade® (P)) or a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport® (SS)) over a four hour recovery period...
January 16, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#3
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095077/running-performance-with-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweetened-mouth-rinses
#4
Keely H Hawkins, Sridevi Krishnan, Lara Ringos, Vanessa Garcia, Jamie A Cooper
: Mouth rinsing (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. PURPOSE: To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affect exercise performance, and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time-trial (TT). METHODS: This randomized, single blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. 16 subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8km TT four different times. During each TT, subjects MR and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092722/synthetic-and-natural-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-agonists-as-candidates-for-the-therapy-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Chek Kun Tan, Yan Zhuang, Walter Wahli
Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the molecular targets of hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs and implicated in a multitude of processes that fine-tune the functions of all organs in vertebrates. As transcription factors they sense endogenous and exogenous lipid signaling molecules and convert these signals into intricate gene responses that impact health and disease. The PPARs act as modulators of cellular, organ, and systemic processes, such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, making them valuable for understanding body homeostasis influenced by nutrition and exercise...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078668/mitochondrial-adaptations-to-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-possible-role-for-cristae-density-as-a-determinant-of-muscle-fitness
#6
Christopher G R Perry
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity in response to repeated exercise challenges (i.e. exercise 'training'). A hallmark phenotypic change is an increase in the ability to sustain contraction and resist fatigue. Such increased muscle endurance is linked, in part, to an improved ability to sustain ATP synthesis aerobically through coordinated enhancements in the delivery of oxygen (e.g. cardiorespiratory, vascular adaptations) and its utilization within skeletal muscle mitochondria for the oxidation of fat and carbohydrates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#7
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070459/pre-versus-post-exercise-protein-intake-has-similar-effects-on-muscular-adaptations
#8
Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Alan Aragon, Colin Wilborn, Stacie L Urbina, Sara E Hayward, James Krieger
The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) (n = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) (n = 12)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067762/ecologically-valid-carbohydrate-intake-during-soccer-specific-exercise-does-not-affect-running-performance-in-a-fed-state
#9
Mark P Funnell, Nick R Dykes, Elliot J Owen, Stephen A Mears, Ian Rollo, Lewis J James
This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg(-1)∙min(-1); soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time...
January 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044326/a-high-carbohydrate-diet-remains-the-evidence-based-choice-for-elite-athletes-to-optimise-performance
#10
J W Helge
Fat loading or simply consuming a diet rich in fat has been used for more than 100 years to manipulate substrate oxidation both at rest and during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025868/metabolic-responses-to-exercise-on-land-and-in-water-following-glucose-ingestion
#11
Kazumichi Kurobe, Ayaka Kousaka, Futoshi Ogita, Naoyuki Matsumoto
Although aerobic exercise after a meal decreases postprandial blood glucose, the differences in glucose response between land and aquatic exercise are unclear. Thus, we examined the effect of different modes of exercise with same energy expenditure following glucose ingestion on carbohydrate metabolism. Ten healthy sedentary men (age, 22 ± 1 years) participated in this study. All subjects performed each of three exercise modes (cycling, walking and aquatic exercise) for 30 min after ingestion of a 75-g glucose solution with 1-2 weeks between trials...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012184/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-exercise-economy-and-negates-the-performance-benefit-from-intensified-training-in-elite-race-walkers
#12
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO), high-fat diet (LCHF) during 3 wk of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: High CHO availability (8.6 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) CHO, 2.1 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) protein; 1.2 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) fat) consumed before/during/after training (HCHO, n = 9): identical macronutrient intake, periodised within/between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (<50 g...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003053/sglt2-inhibitor-associated-diabetic-ketoacidosis-clinical-review-and-recommendations-for-prevention-and-diagnosis
#13
REVIEW
Ronald M Goldenberg, Lori D Berard, Alice Y Y Cheng, Jeremy D Gilbert, Subodh Verma, Vincent C Woo, Jean-François Yale
PURPOSE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the newest class of antihyperglycemic agents available on the market. Regulator warnings and concerns regarding the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), however, have dampened enthusiasm for the class despite the combined glycemic, blood pressure, and occasional weight benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors. With the goal of improving patient safety, a cross-Canada expert panel and writing group were convened to review the evidence to-date on reported SGLT2 inhibitor-related DKA incidents and to offer recommendations for preventing and recognizing patients with SGLT2 inhibitor-associated DKA...
December 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996320/mitigating-reductions-in-glucose-during-exercise-on-closed-loop-insulin-delivery-the-ex-snacks-study
#14
Neha S Patel, Michelle A Van Name, Eda Cengiz, Lori R Carria, Eileen M Tichy, Kate Weyman, Stuart A Weinzimer, William V Tamborlane, Jennifer L Sherr
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether snacking could be used with closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery to avoid exercise-induced reductions in plasma glucose (PG), as well as elevations in PG at the end of exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects (age 13-36 years, duration 10.7 ± 8.4 years, A1c 7.4% ± 0.8% [57 ± 8.7 mmol/mol]) underwent two 105-min exercise studies while under CL control: CL alone and CL+snack. Exercise, commenced at 3 PM, consisted of four 15-min periods of brisk treadmill walking to 65%-70% HRmax (separated by three 5-min rest periods), followed by a 30-min recovery period...
December 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994477/acarbose-promotes-remission-of-both-early-and-late-dumping-syndromes-in-post-bariatric-patients
#15
Flavio A Cadegiani, Osvalmir Sá Silva
OBJECTIVE: Acarbose is a glucosidase inhibitor that slows carbohydrate digestion. It could thus be effective to promote remission of dumping syndrome (DS). Previous studies associating acarbose and late dumping, although not early dumping, have been reported. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of acarbose in dumping syndrome prevention and treatment and in resistive exercises resistance in bariatric subjects. METHODS: Bariatric patients with DS and complete adherence to diet plan and resistive exercises were included (n=25)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993175/carbohydrate-intake-and-resistance-based-exercise-are-current-recommendations-reflective-of-actual-need
#16
Kurt A Escobar, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Chad M Kerksick
Substantial research has been completed examining the impact of carbohydrate (CHO) intake on endurance exercise, whereas its role in resistance-based exercise performance, adaptation and cell signalling has yet to be fully characterised. This empirical shortcoming has precluded the ability to establish specific CHO recommendations for resistance exercise. This results in recommendations largely stemming from findings based on endurance exercise and/or anecdotal evidence despite the distinct energetic demands and molecular responses mediating adaptation from endurance- and resistance-based exercise...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941030/molecular-mechanisms-of-ros-production-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Kevin Noel Keane, Rodrigo Carlessi, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are known to be associated with the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative systems of cells and tissues, is a result of over production of oxidative-free radicals and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS). One outcome of excessive levels of ROS is the modification of the structure and function of cellular proteins and lipids, leading to cellular dysfunction including impaired energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, impaired cell transport mechanisms and overall dysfunctional biological activity, immune activation and inflammation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939876/strategies-used-by-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-to-avoid-hypoglycemia-in-a-24%C3%A3-1-hour-marathon-comparison-with-the-amounts-of-carbohydrates-estimated-by-a-customizable-algorithm
#18
Alex Buoite Stella, Roberta Assaloni, Laura Tonutti, Elena Manca, Carla Tortul, Riccardo Candido, Maria Pia Francescato
OBJECTIVES: The preferred countermeasure to avoid exercise-related hypoglycemia was investigated in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes participating in a stressful event, a 24×1-hour relay marathon. The carbohydrates actually consumed were compared to those estimated for each patient by applying a customizable algorithm, Exercise Carbohydrates Requirement Estimating Software (ECRES), based on patient's usual therapy and diet and on the exercise characteristics. METHODS: Glycemia was tested at the start, middle and end of the races...
December 8, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935992/intense-exercise-and-aerobic-conditioning-associated-with-chromium-or-l-carnitine-supplementation-modified-the-fecal-microbiota-of-fillies
#19
Maria Luiza Mendes de Almeida, Walter Heinz Feringer, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia Carvalho, Isadora Mestriner Rodrigues, Lilian Rezende Jordão, Mayara Gonçalves Fonseca, Adalgiza Souza Carneiro de Rezende, Antonio de Queiroz Neto, J Scott Weese, Márcio Carvalho da Costa, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos, Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz
Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930452/shorter-duration-time-trial-performance-and-recovery-is-not-improved-by-inclusion-of-protein-in-a-multiple-carbohydrate-supplement
#20
Anthony S Wolfe, Sallee A Brandt, Isaac Krause, Rachel Mavison, Josh Aponte, Lisa M Ferguson-Stegall
Ingesting multiple carbohydrate (CHO) types during exercise can improve endurance performance compared to single CHO only. Adding protein to a multiple CHO beverage has been shown to increase cycling time to exhaustion (TTE) compared to a single CHO beverage. However, it is unclear if improvements were due to multiple CHOs or protein, and TTE protocols are not representative of typical race events. This study investigated whether adding protein to a multiple CHO beverage improved performance and recovery in 2 same-day cycling time trials compared to isocaloric multiple CHO-only...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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