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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166321/adipose-lipolysis-unchanged-by-preexercise-carbohydrate-regardless-of-glycemic-index
#1
Daniel A Baur, Brandon D Willingham, Kyle A Smith, Jacob N Kisiolek, Margaret C Morrissey, Patrick G Saracino, Tristan J Ragland, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of pre-exercise carbohydrate of different glycemic indices on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) metabolism and running performance. METHODS: Ten trained male runners completed three experimental trials consisting of 30 min at 60% VO2max, 30 min at 75% VO2max, and a 5-km time trial (TT). Thirty min prior to exercise, participants consumed one of three beverages: 1) 75 g low glycemic index modified starch supplement (UCAN), 2) 75 g high glycemic index glucose-based supplement (G), or 3) a flavor-matched non-caloric placebo (PL)...
November 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164096/the-prevalence-of-overfat-adults-and-children-in-the-us
#2
Philip B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The overfat condition is defined as excess body fat sufficient to impair health. The problem exists in most overweight and obese individuals and can also occur in those who are normal-weight and non-obese, often due to excess abdominal fat. Despite previous indications that the prevalence overweight and obesity is leveling, these conditions are currently at their highest levels in US history. Our review estimated the number of overfat Americans at 91% for adults and 69% for children. The primary purpose of this review was to build upon previous estimations of overfat prevalence in developed countries by using new data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate the overfat prevalence in American adults (≥20 years) and children (2-19 years), and to expand the definition of overfat as excess body fat associated with at least one additional risk factor of impaired cardiometabolic or physical health...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162875/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-and-diet-on-liver-fat-in-pre-diabetic-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Sulin Cheng, Jun Ge, Can Zhao, Shenglong Le, Yifan Yang, Dandan Ke, Na Wu, Xiao Tan, Xiaobo Zhang, Xiaming Du, Jianqin Sun, Renwei Wang, Yongyong Shi, Ronald J H Borra, Riitta Parkkola, Petri Wiklund, Dajiang Lu
The study aimed to assess whether aerobic exercise (AEx) training and a fibre-enriched diet can reduce hepatic fat content (HFC) and increase glycaemic control in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Six-hundred-and-three patients from seven clinics in Yangpu district, Shanghai, China were recruited. Of them 115 individuals aged 50-65-year fulfilled the inclusion criteria (NAFLD with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and were randomly assigned into exercise (AEx n = 29), diet (Diet n = 28), exercise plus diet (AED n = 29), or no-intervention (NI n = 29) groups...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148629/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-improves-cycling-performance-carried-out-until-the-volitional-exhaustion
#4
Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi, Ylana Gomes de Santana Barros Leal, Edson R Pinheiro Dos Anjos, Bruna A Antonelli, Daniela C Gomes Gonçalves E Silva, Iracema H Pires de Mélo Montenegro, Rita di Cássia de Oliveira Angelo, Isis S Correia Moura, Paulo A Schwingel
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrates (CHO) are among the most investigated nutritional ergogenic aids, and may be consumed in different forms, e.g., mouth rinse with carbohydrate solution (MRCS). In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MRCS on the performance of physically active individuals undergoing a physical exercise session carried out until the volitional exhaustion. METHODS: This is a counter-balanced randomized study, with a double-blind design...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142088/muscle-glycogen-synthesis-and-breakdown-are-both-impaired-in-glycogenin-1-deficiency
#5
Mads Godtfeldt Stemmerik, Karen Lindhardt Madsen, Pascal Laforêt, Astrid Emilie Buch, John Vissing
OBJECTIVE: To study fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in patients with glycogenin-1 (GYG1) deficiency, and to study whether IV glucose supplementation can alleviate exercise intolerance in these patients. METHODS: This is a case-control study with 4 patients with GYG1 deficiency and 4 healthy controls. Patients performed 1 hour of cycling at 50% of their maximal workload capacity, while controls cycled at the same absolute workloads as patients. Heart rate was measured continuously, and production and utilization of fat and glucose was assessed by stable isotope technique...
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131507/the-disruptive-effect-of-lysozyme-on-the-bacterial-cell-wall-explored-by-an-in-silico-structural-outlook
#7
Emiliano D Primo, Lisandro H Otero, Francisco Ruiz, Sebastián Klinke, Walter Giordano
The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall are frequently incorporated in biochemistry classes designed for undergraduate students in diverse fields as biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119861/carbohydrate-and-fat-oxidation-in-persons-with-lower-limb-amputation-during-walking-with-different-speeds
#8
Terje Gjovaag, Peyman Mirtaheri, Inger Marie Starholm
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that the energy expenditure of healthy persons (control) during walking with the preferred walking speed in steady-state conditions is dominated by fat oxidation. Conversely, carbohydrate and fat oxidation during walking is little investigated in transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: To investigate carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy cost of walking, and percent utilization of maximal aerobic capacity [Formula: see text]during walking...
November 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117073/metabolic-and-performance-effects-of-yerba-mate-on-well-trained-cyclists
#9
Jose L Areta, Ingvild Austarheim, Helle Wangensteen, Carlo Capelli
INTRODUCTION: Yerba Mate (YM) is a South-American plant, rich in polyphenols, saponins and xanthines, of growing scientific interest due to its metabolic effects. YM has been shown to increase fat utilization during exercise in untrained humans, but its effects on well-trained individuals during exercise are unknown. METHODS: We characterized metabolic and physical performance effects of YM in eleven well-trained male cyclists. In a double-blind crossover design, participants ingested 5 g of YM or placebo (PL; maltodextrin) daily for 5 days, and 1 h prior to experimental trials...
November 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112626/effects-of-ad-libitum-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-dieting-in-middle-age-male-runners
#10
Alexander J Heatherly, Lauren G Killen, Ashton F Smith, Hunter S Waldman, Angela Hollingsworth, Christie L Seltmann, Eric K O'Neal
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a 3-week ad libitum high fat (~70% of calories), low carbohydrate (<50 g/day) diet (LCHF) on markers of endurance performance in middle-aged, recreationally competitive male runners. METHODS: All subjects (n = 8) following their normal HC diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed 5, 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological, metabolic variables and perceptual responses were recorded...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109686/ketone-diester-ingestion-impairs-time-trial-performance-in-professional-cyclists
#11
Jill J Leckey, Megan L Ross, Marc Quod, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
We investigated the effect of pre- "race" ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT) in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM) carbohydrate (CHO)] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO) with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108901/keto-adaptation-enhances-exercise-performance-and-body-composition-responses-to-training-in-endurance-athletes
#12
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106814/a-multi-ingredient-nutritional-supplement-enhances-exercise-training-related-reductions-in-markers-of-systemic-inflammation-in-healthy-older-men
#13
Kirsten E Bell, Tim Snijders, Michael A Zulyniak, Dinesh Kumbhare, Gianni Parise, Adrian Chabowski, Stuart M Phillips
We evaluated whether twice daily consumption of a multi-ingredient nutritional supplement (SUPP) would reduce systemic inflammatory markers following 6wk of supplementation alone (Phase 1), and the subsequent addition of 12wk exercise training (Phase 2) in healthy older men, in comparison to a carbohydrate-based control (CON). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were progressively reduced (P-time<0.05) in the SUPP group. No change in TNF-α or IL-6 concentrations was observed in the CON group...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106812/whey-protein-hydrolysate-supplementation-accelerates-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#14
Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098657/post-exercise-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-protein-and-water-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-effects-on-subsequent-athletic-performance
#15
REVIEW
Danielle McCartney, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: Athletes may complete consecutive exercise sessions with limited recovery time between bouts (e.g. ≤ 4 h). Nutritional strategies that optimise post-exercise recovery in these situations are therefore important. OBJECTIVE: This two-part review investigated the effect of consuming carbohydrate (CHO) and protein with water (W) following exercise on subsequent athletic (endurance/anaerobic exercise) performance. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by searching the online databases SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus...
November 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093663/selection-and-characterization-of-palmitic-acid-responsive-patients-with-an-oxphos-complex-i-defect
#16
Tom E J Theunissen, Mike Gerards, Debby M E I Hellebrekers, Florence H van Tienen, Rick Kamps, Suzanne C E H Sallevelt, Elvira N M M-D Hartog, Hans R Scholte, Robert M Verdijk, Kees Schoonderwoerd, Irenaeus F M de Coo, Radek Szklarczyk, Hubert J M Smeets
Mitochondrial disorders are genetically and clinically heterogeneous, mainly affecting high energy-demanding organs due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Currently, effective treatments for OXPHOS defects, with complex I deficiency being the most prevalent, are not available. Yet, clinical practice has shown that some complex I deficient patients benefit from a high-fat or ketogenic diet, but it is unclear how these therapeutic diets influence mitochondrial function and more importantly, which complex I patients could benefit from such treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091468/the-effect-of-mode-of-transport-on-intra-individual-variability-in-glycaemic-and-insulinaemic-response-testing
#17
Alaaddine El-Chab, Miriam Clegg
The effect of light to moderate intensity exercise, such as that used as a mode of transport, on glycaemic response (GR) testing is unclear. The aim was to investigate the effect of acute exercise (walking and cycling) simulated to act as a mode of transport, prior to GR testing on the intra-individual variability of blood glucose and insulin. Eleven male participants visited the laboratory four times. Initially they undertook a VO2max and two submaximal exercise tests. For the other three visits they either rested (25 min), cycled or walked 5km followed by a two hour GR test after consuming a glucose drink (50g available carbohydrate)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082444/taurine-supplementation-can-increase-lipolysis-and-affect-the-contribution-of-energy-systems-during-front-crawl-maximal-effort
#18
Flávia G De Carvalho, Ricardo A Barbieri, Milena B Carvalho, Carla C Dato, Eduardo Z Campos, Ronaldo B Gobbi, Marcelo Papoti, Adelino S R Silva, Ellen Cristini de Freitas
Taurine can affect the energy system metabolism, specifically the lipid metabolism, since an increase in lipid oxidation may promote carbohydrate savings. We hypothesized that taurine supplementation associated with high-intensity exercise could increase levels of lipolysis, benefiting swimmer performance. Nine male competitive swimmers performed two 400-m front crawl maximal efforts with a 1-week washout, and the athletes received 6 g of taurine (TAU) or placebo (PLA) supplementation 120 min before performing the effort...
October 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076962/effects-of-a-15-day-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-in-resistance-trained-men
#19
Hunter S Waldman, Ben M Krings, Steven A Basham, JohnEric W Smith, Brent J Fountain, Matthew J McAllister
Waldman, HS, Krings, BM, Basham, SA, Smith, JW, Fountain, BJ, and McAllister, MJ. Effects of a 15-day low carbohydrate, high-fat diet in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study examined the effects of a 15-day isocaloric low carbohydrate (<25% E), high-fat (>50% E) (LCHF) diet on physiological and metabolic alterations in resistance-trained (RT) men. College-aged RT men (n = 11) completed 4 V[Combining Dot Above]O2max tests using treadmill every 5 days during the 15-day trial...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075629/carbohydrate-restriction-with-high-intensity-interval-training-an-optimal-combination-for-treating-metabolic-diseases
#20
Monique E Francois, Jenna B Gillen, Jonathan P Little
Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
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