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Carbohydrate exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715881/comparison-of-bone-metabolism-based-on-the-different-ages-and-competition-levels-of-junior-and-high-school-female-rhythmic-gymnasts
#1
Taewoong Oh, Tatsuki Naka
PURPOSE: This study was to clarify the effect of age and competition level by measuring bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density measurements of junior high school and high school female rhythmic gymnasts, who restrict their diets to maintain a low body weight, while routinely undertaking long hours of high-intensity exercise, comparing the gymnasts based on their elite/non-elite. METHODS: The study investigated 7 junior high school and 12 high school female rhythmic gymnasts...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711517/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Safa Anwar, Nigar Shikalgar
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age, associated with metabolic sequelae which includes increased risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The adverse effects of DM2 affects a woman throughout her lifespan. Health care expenditure of DM2 highlights the need for prevention through appropriate screening, diagnosis and intervention. Lifestyle modification (LSM) programs that include diet and/or physical activity are suggested for patients characterized as prediabetic to delay the onset of adult DM2...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708478/diabetes-with-obesity-is-there-an-ideal-diet
#3
REVIEW
Zahrae Sandouk, M Cecilia Lansang
For individuals who are overweight or obese, weight loss is effective in preventing and improving the management of type 2 diabetes. Together with other lifestyle factors like exercise and behavior modification, diet plays a central role in achieving weight loss. Diets vary based on the type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, and protein consumed to meet daily caloric intake goals. A number of popular diets are reviewed as well as studies evaluating the effect of various diets on weight loss, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors...
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706467/ketogenic-diet-benefits-body-composition-and-well-being-but-not-performance-in-a-pilot-case-study-of-new-zealand-endurance-athletes
#4
Caryn Zinn, Matthew Wood, Mikki Williden, Simon Chatterton, Ed Maunder
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702809/beta2-adrenergic-stimulation-increases-energy-expenditure-at-rest-but-not-during-submaximal-exercise-in-active-overweight-men
#5
Johan Onslev, Glenn Jacobson, Christian Narkowicz, Vibeke Backer, Anders Kalsen, Michael Kreiberg, Søren Jessen, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
PURPOSE: β2-Agonists have been proposed as weight-loss treatment, because they elevate energy expenditure. However, it is unknown what effect β2-agonists have on energy expenditure in overweight individuals. Furthermore, the influence of β2-agonist R- and S-enantiomer ratio for the increased energy expenditure is insufficiently explored. METHODS: Nineteen males were included in the study of which 14 completed. Subjects were 31.6 (±3.5) years [mean (±95% CI)] and had a fat percentage of 22...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696986/fueling-the-triathlete-evidence-based-practical-advice-for-athletes-of-all-levels
#6
Andrew R Getzin, Cynthia Milner, Marie Harkins
Triathletes need to effectively fuel during training and racing to maximize their potential for success. While most research on fueling has focused on elite male triathletes, triathlon participation encompasses a broader demographic of racers ranging from those with aspirations of winning to those whose goals are completion. Carbohydrate is the primary macronutrient for fueling endurance activities. Athletes can usually tolerate 60 to 90 mg·h in the form of multiple different carbohydrate sources. Athletes should drink as thirst dictates and consider sodium replacement of sweat loss especially in individuals with a history of exercise-associated muscle cramps...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694500/resistance-exercise-initiates-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-translocation-and-protein-complex-co-localisation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#7
Zhe Song, Daniel R Moore, Nathan Hodson, Carl Ward, Jessica R Dent, Mary F O'Leary, Andrew M Shaw, D Lee Hamilton, Sovan Sarkar, Yann-Gaël Gangloff, Troy A Hornberger, Lawrence L Spriet, George J Heigenhauser, Andrew Philp
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central mediator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. We utilized immunofluorescence approaches to study mTOR cellular distribution and protein-protein co-localisation in human skeletal muscle in the basal state as well as immediately, 1 and 3 h after an acute bout of resistance exercise in a fed (FED; 20 g Protein/40 g carbohydrate/1 g fat) or energy-free control (CON) state. mTOR and the lysosomal protein LAMP2 were highly co-localised in basal samples...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692687/exercise-before-breakfast-increases-24-h-fat-oxidation-in-female-subjects
#8
Kaito Iwayama, Ryosuke Kawabuchi, Yoshiharu Nabekura, Reiko Kurihara, Insung Park, Masashi Kobayashi, Hitomi Ogata, Momoko Kayaba, Naomi Omi, Makoto Satoh, Kumpei Tokuyama
BACKGROUND: Exercise performed in a postprandial state does not increase 24-h fat oxidation of male and female subjects. Conversely, it has been shown in male subjects that exercise performed in a postabsorptive state increases 24-h fat oxidation compared with that in sedentary control and that with exercise trials performed after breakfast, lunch, or dinner. There is a paucity of study evaluating the effect of exercise performed in a postabsorptive state in female subjects. METHOD: Nine young female subjects participated in indirect calorimetry measurement over 24-h using a room-size metabolic chamber in which subjects remained sedentary or performed 60 min exercise before breakfast at 50% of [Formula: see text]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692631/increased-protein-requirements-in-female-athletes-after-variable-intensity-exercise
#9
Denise J Wooding, Jeff E Packer, Hiroyuki Kato, Daniel W D West, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Paul B Pencharz, Daniel R Moore
PURPOSE: Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in non-active adult males...
July 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689024/a-high-fat-breakfast-attenuates-the-suppression-of-appetite-and-acylated-ghrelin-during-exercise-at-simulated-altitude
#10
Jamie Matu, Kevin Deighton, Theocharis Ispoglou, Oliver M Shannon, Lauren Duckworth
High-altitude exposure induces a negative energy balance by increasing resting energy expenditure and decreasing energy intake. This diminished energy intake is likely caused by altitude-induced anorexia and can have detrimental effects for those travelling to high-altitude. We aimed to investigate whether altering the macronutrient composition of breakfast could attenuate altitude-induced anorexia and augment energy intake at high-altitude. Twelve healthy men (aged 26 (8) years, body mass index 23.9 (2.7) kg·m(-2)) completed two, 305min experimental trials at 4300m simulated altitude (~11...
July 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683243/timing-and-pattern-of-post-exercise-protein-ingestion-affects-whole-body-protein-balance-in-healthy-children-a-randomized-trial
#11
Kimberly A Volterman, Daniel R Moore, Peter Breithaupt, Dominik Grathwohl, Elizabeth A Offord, Leonidas G Karagounis, Brian W Timmons
The dose and timing of post-exercise protein ingestion can influence WBPB in adults, although comparable data from children are scarce. This study investigated how protein intake (both, amount and distribution) post-exercise can affect WBPB in physically active children. Thirty-five children (26 males; 9-13 years old) underwent a 5-d adaptation diet consuming 0.95 g protein·kg-1·d-1. To assess whole body protein kinetics over 6h and 24h of recovery, participants consumed 2 mg·kg-1 [15N]glycine before performing 3 × 20-min of variable intensity cycling...
July 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680454/piperine-enhances-carbohydrate-fat-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle-during-acute-exercise-in-mice
#12
Jisu Kim, Kang-Pa Lee, Dae-Won Lee, Kiwon Lim
BACKGROUND: Exercise promotes energy metabolism (e.g., metabolism of glucose and lipids) in skeletal muscles; however, reactive oxygen species are also generated during exercise. Various spices have been reported to have beneficial effects in sports medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of piperine, an active compound in black pepper, to determine its effects on metabolism during acute endurance exercise. METHODS: ICR mice (n = 18) were divided into three groups: nonexercise (CON), exercise (EX), and exercise with piperine (5 mg/kg) treatment (EP)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680370/effects-of-a-combined-protein-and-antioxidant-supplement-on-recovery-of-muscle-function-and-soreness-following-eccentric-exercise
#13
Stephen J Ives, Samuel Bloom, Alexs Matias, Noelle Morrow, Natalya Martins, Yookee Roh, Daniel Ebenstein, Gabriel O'Brien, Daniela Escudero, Kevin Brito, Leah Glickman, Scott Connelly, Paul J Arciero
BACKGROUND: An acute bout of eccentric contractions (ECC) cause muscle fiber damage, inflammation, impaired muscle function (MF) and muscle soreness (MS). Individually, protein (PRO) and antioxidant (AO) supplementation may improve some aspects of recovery from ECC, though have yet to be combined. We sought to determine if combined PRO and AO supplementation (PRO + AO) improves MS and MF following damaging ECC over PRO alone. METHODS: Sixty sedentary college-aged males participated in a randomized, single-blind, parallel design study of peak isometric torque (PIMT), peak isokinetic torque (PIKT), thigh circumference (TC), and muscle soreness (MS) of knee extensor muscles measured at baseline, immediately after and 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after completion of 100 maximal ECC...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678622/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-does-not-affect-performance-during-a-60-min-running-race-in-women
#14
Costas Chryssanthopoulos, Christos Ziaras, Tanja Oosthuyse, Ioannis Lambropoulos, Paradisis Giorgios P, Elias Zacharogiannis, Anastassios Philippou, Maria Maridaki
This study examined the effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on endurance running performance in women. Fifteen female recreational endurance runners, who used no oral contraceptives, ran two races of 1-h duration on an indoor track (216-m length) at 18:00 h after an 8-h fast with a 7-days interval between races, corresponding to the 3(rd)-10th day of each premenopausal runner's menstrual cycle, or any day for the postmenopausal runners. In a double-blind random order, participants rinsed their mouth with 25 ml of either a 6...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677414/self-reported-compensation-techniques-for-carbohydrate-exercise-and-alcohol-behaviors-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-on-insulin-pump-therapy
#15
Danielle Groat, Hiral Soni, Maria Adela Grando, Bithika Thompson, Curtiss B Cook
Studies have found variability in self-care behaviors in patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly when incorporating exercise and alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to provide results from a survey to understand (1) insulin pump behaviors, (2) reported self-management behaviors for exercise and alcohol, and (3) perceptions of the effects of exercise and alcohol on blood glucose (BG) control. Fourteen participants from an outpatient endocrinology practice were recruited and administered an electronic survey...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676863/muscle-lipid-metabolism-role-of-lipid-droplets-and-perilipins
#16
REVIEW
Pablo Esteban Morales, Jose Luis Bucarey, Alejandra Espinosa
Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA) availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674599/the-effect-of-betaine-on-nitrate-and-cardiovascular-response-to-exercise
#17
J Luke Pryor, S Tony Wolf, Gary Sforzo, Tom Swensen
Betaine (BT) supplementation improves selected markers of physical performance, however, the mechanism(s) by which this change occurs remains largely unknown. Some speculate that BT may increase circulating nitrate concentrations, improving physical performance by augmentation of endothelial nitric oxide production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute BT supplementation and exercise on plasma nitrate levels and related cardiovascular response (CVR). Placebo and BT trials were administered in a cross-over, randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced fashion...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671626/effects-of-carbohydrate-and-glutamine-supplementation-on-oral-mucosa-immunity-after-strenuous-exercise-at-high-altitude-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#18
Aline Venticinque Caris, Edgar Tavares Da Silva, Samile Amorim Dos Santos, Sergio Tufik, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos
This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min), and hypoxia after six days glutamine (20 g/day) and 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min). All procedures were randomized and double-blind. Saliva was collected at rest (basal), before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise (post-exercise), and two hours after exercise...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659501/diet-and-exercise-in-the-management-of-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#19
REVIEW
Devon A Dobrosielski, Christopher Papandreou, Susheel P Patil, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is accepted that OSA and obesity commonly coexist. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends dietary-induced weight loss and exercise as lifestyle treatment options for OSA. However, most clinical trials upon which this recommendation is based have focused on establishing the effectiveness of calorie-restricted, often low-fat diets for improving OSA severity, whereas less attention has been given to the means through which weight loss is achieved (e...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657863/carbohydrate-intake-and-training-efficacy-a-randomized-cross-over-study
#20
Florian Beaudouin, Frederic Joerg, Anette Hilpert, Tim Meyer, Anne Hecksteden
Carbohydrate (CHO) availability during endurance exercise seems to attenuate exercise-induced perturbations of cellular homeostasis and might consequently diminish the stimulus for training adaptation. Therefore, a negative effect of CHO intake on endurance training efficacy seems plausible. This study aimed to test the influence of carbohydrate intake on the efficacy of an endurance training program on previously untrained healthy adults. A randomized cross-over trial (8-week wash-out period) was conducted in 23 men and women with two 8-week training periods (with vs...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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