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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921046/weight-management-in-primary-care
#1
REVIEW
Susanne Maurer
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide. It is not only a medical but also a philosophical, ecological, economic, sociocultural, and psychological problem as well as a severe consequence of our modern value definition to 'receive more and more'. Therefore, physicians are not able to treat obesity broadly and should not be used as tools to achieve certain weight goals. METHODS: This article presents an outline of conservative obesity therapy...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916646/roles-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-in-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#2
REVIEW
Ravikumar Manickam, Walter Wahli
More than two decades of studying peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has led to an understanding of their implications in various physiological processes that are key for health and disease. All three PPAR isotypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are activated by a variety of molecules, including fatty acids, eicosanoids and phospholipids, and regulate a spectrum of genes involved in development, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation and differentiation of many cell types in different tissues...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#3
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#4
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899900/fiber-type-specific-satellite-cell-content-in-cyclists-following-heavy-training-with-carbohydrate-and-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation
#6
Alec I McKenzie, Andrew C D'Lugos, Michael J Saunders, Keith D Gworek, Nicholas D Luden
The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto "control" condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT-120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT-reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897989/periodization-of-carbohydrate-intake-short-term-effect-on-performance
#7
Laurie-Anne Marquet, Christophe Hausswirth, Odeline Molle, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke, Eve Tiollier, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894792/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-e1%C3%AE-deficiency-presenting-as-recurrent-acute-proximal-muscle-weakness-of-upper-and-lower-extremities-in-an-8-year-old-boy
#8
Bülent Kara, Hülya Maraş Genç, Emek Uyur-Yalçın, Ayfer Sakarya-Güneş, Uğur Topçu, Serap Mülayim, Serdar Ceylaner
The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) plays an important role in aerobic energy metabolism and acid-base equilibrium. PDHC contains of 5 enzymes, 3 catalytic (E1, E2, E3) and 2 regulatory, as well as 3 cofactors and an additional protein (E3-binding protein) encoded by nuclear genes. The clinical presentation of PDHC deficiency ranges from fatal neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurologic dysfunction without lactic acidosis. Paroxysmal neurologic problems such as intermittent ataxia, episodic weakness, exercise-induced dystonia and recurrent demyelination may also be seen although they are rare...
November 9, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876096/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-very-low-carbohydrate-and-high-carbohydrate-diets-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Jeannie Tay, Ian T Zajac, Campbell H Thompson, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Vanessa Danthiir, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Gary A Wittert, Grant D Brinkworth
This study compared the longer-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In total, 115 obese adults with T2D (sixty-six males, BMI: 34·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, age: 58 (sd 7) years, HbA1c: 7·3 (sd 1·1) %, diabetes duration: 8 (sd 6) years) were randomised to consume either an energy-restricted, very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat (LC) diet or an energy-matched high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet with supervised aerobic/resistance exercise (60 min, 3 d/week) for 52 weeks...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861911/metabolism-of-ketone-bodies-during-exercise-and-training-physiological-basis-for-exogenous-supplementation
#10
Mark Evans, Karl E Cogan, Brendan Egan
Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focussed on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone, and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858497/high-fat-diet-and-exercise-lead-to-a-disrupted-and-pathogenic-dna-methylome-in-mouse-liver
#11
Dan Zhou, Ryan A Hlady, Marissa J Schafer, Thomas A White, Chen Liu, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Jordan D Miller, Lewis R Roberts, Nathan K LeBrasseur, Keith D Robertson
High-fat diet consumption and sedentary life style elevates risk for obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Exercise training conveys health benefits in populations with or without these chronic conditions. Diet and exercise regulate gene expression by mediating epigenetic mechanisms in many tissues; however, such effects are poorly documented in the liver, a central metabolic organ. To dissect the consequences of diet and exercise on the liver epigenome, we measured DNA methylation, using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and transcription, using RNA-seq, in mice maintained on a fast food diet with sedentary lifestyle or exercise, compared to control diet with and without exercise...
November 18, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855237/insulin-autoimmune-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-postprandial-hypoglycemia
#12
Pooja Sahni, Nitin Trivedi, Abdulkadir Omer
: A 65-year-old obese Caucasian woman presented with symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemic episodes, resolution of symptoms with carbohydrate intake and significantly elevated anti-insulin antibody levels. She did not have any evidence for the use of oral antidiabetic medications, insulin, herbal substances, performing strenuous exercise or history of bariatric surgery. Fingerstick blood glucose readings revealed blood sugar of 35 mg/dL and 48 mg/dL, when she had these symptoms. Her medical history was significant for morbid obesity, hypothyroidism and gastro esophageal reflux disease...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854320/the-effect-of-exercise-on-salivary-viscosity
#13
Antoon J M Ligtenberg, Erwin H S Liem, Henk S Brand, Enno C I Veerman
A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both the salivary viscosity and the secretion of MUC5B in saliva. Twenty healthy dental students performed an aerobic exercise by cycling for 15 min on cycle-ergometers at a heart rate of 130-140 beats per minute. Saliva was collected at three time points: before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery...
November 16, 2016: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843418/effects-of-acute-carbohydrate-ingestion-on-anaerobic-exercise-performance
#14
Ben M Krings, Jaden A Rountree, Matthew J McAllister, Patrick M Cummings, Timothy J Peterson, Brent J Fountain, JohnEric W Smith
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during endurance exercises has been shown to increase performance, but there is limited research with CHO supplementation during strength and conditioning exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of CHO ingestion during acute testing sessions requiring participants to complete a strength and conditioning program designed for collegiate athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 7) performed a series of exercises while ingesting an amino-acid electrolyte control (CON) or CON plus varying levels of CHO...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837349/comparison-of-body-composition-and-nutrients-deficiencies-between-portuguese-rink-hockey-players
#15
Maria-Raquel G Silva, Hugo-Henrique Silva
: We evaluated dietary intake and body composition of child and adolescent rink-hockey players and controls. Seventy-two male rink-hockey players (38 children and 34 adolescents) and 79 male controls (43 children and 36 adolescents) were evaluated in order to collect training data, detailed dietary intake and body composition. Rink-hockey players presented significantly lower body fat (BF) and higher fat-free mass (FFM) than controls. Mean intakes of carbohydrate and protein were considered to be adequate, but mean intakes of fat were above the recommended levels in athletes...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832548/mouth-rinsing-with-a-sweet-solution-increases-energy-expenditure-and-decreases-appetite-during-60-min-of-self-regulated-walking-exercise
#16
Kevin Deighton, Lauren Duckworth, Jamie Matu, Matthew Suter, Charlotte Fletcher, Samuel Stead, Shaho Ali, Neil Gunby, Keelie Korsness
Carbohydrate mouth rinsing can improve endurance exercise performance and is most ergogenic when exercise is completed in the fasted state. This strategy may also be beneficial to increase exercise capacity and the energy deficit achieved during moderate-intensity exercise relevant to weight control when performed after an overnight fast. Eighteen healthy men (mean (SD); age, 23 (4) years; body mass index, 23.1 (2.4) kg·m(-2)) completed a familiarisation trial and 3 experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants performed 60 min of treadmill walking at a speed that equated to a rating of perceived exertion of 13 ("fairly hard")...
December 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832366/whey-protein-consumption-after-resistance-exercise-reduces-energy-intake-at-a-post-exercise-meal
#17
Alistair Monteyne, Alex Martin, Liam Jackson, Nick Corrigan, Ellen Stringer, Jack Newey, Penny L S Rumbold, Emma J Stevenson, Lewis J James
PURPOSE: Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. METHODS: After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827949/carbohydrate-supplementation-influences-serum-cytokines-after-exercise-under-hypoxic-conditions
#18
Aline Venticinque Caris, Edgar Tavares Da Silva, Samile Amorim Dos Santos, Fabio Santos Lira, Lila Missae Oyama, Sergio Tufik, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos
INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at the hypoxia equivalent of an altitude of 4200 m is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators and changes in the Th1/Th2 response. By contrast, supplementation with carbohydrates has an anti-inflammatory effect when exercise is performed under normoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on cytokines and cellular damage markers after exercise under hypoxic conditions at a simulated altitude of 4200 m...
November 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816437/nutritional-compensation-to-exercise-vs-diet-induced-acute-energy-deficit-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#19
Thivel David, Doucet Eric, Julian Valérie, Cardenoux Charlotte, Boirie Yves, Duclos Martine
BACKGROUND: To compare the energy and macronutrient intake responses to equivalent energy deficits induced by diet (food restriction) and exercise in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Fourteen 12-15years old obese adolescents completed three experimental conditions (08:00am to 07:30pm) in a randomized crossover design: i) control session (CON); ii) Diet-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EI), iii) and an exercise-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EX). The sessions order was either CON/Def-EI/Def-EX or CON/Def-EX/Def-EI as the deficit corresponded to 25% of the energy ingested at lunch on the control day (CON) and was imposed either by exercise (Def-EX) or diet (Def-EI)...
November 2, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813677/muscle-carnosine-concentration-with-the-co-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-with-%C3%AE-alanine-in-male-rats
#20
Alireza Naderi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Amir Sarshin, Vahid Imanipour, Seyed Ali Nazeri, Fatemeh Farkhayi, Mark E T Willems
Muscle carnosine is an intracellular buffer. The intake of β-alanine, combined with carbohydrate and protein, enhanced carnosine loading in human muscle. The aim of the present study was to examine if muscle carnosine loading was enhanced by β-alanine intake and co-ingestion of glucose in male rats. Thirty-six male rats were divided into three groups and supplemented for four weeks: β-alanine (βA group, 1.8% β-alanine in drinking water), β-alanine and glucose (βAGL group, 1.8% β-alanine and 5% glucose in drinking water), and control (C group, drinking water)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
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